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Farrell Dobbs

Farrell Dobbs was an American Trotskyist, trade unionist and historian. Dobbs was born in Queen City, where his father was a worker in a coal company garage; the family moved to Minneapolis, he graduated from North High School in 1925. In 1926, he returned the following fall. At this point, young Farrell Dobbs was a conservative Republican, supported Herbert Hoover for president in 1928. However, his political viewpoint was changed during the Great Depression in the 1930s. Seeing the plight of workers in that situation, he became politically radicalized to the left. In 1933, while working for the Pittsburgh Coal Company in Minneapolis, Dobbs joined the Teamsters. After getting to know the three Trotskyist Dunne brothers, Swedish socialist Carl Skoglund, he joined the Communist League of America. Dobbs was one of the initiators of a general strike in Minneapolis, for a while worked full-time as a union organizer, he was influential in the Teamsters' shift from emphasis on local delivery work to over-the-road traffic, which keyed their great expansion towards becoming the largest union in the United States.

Dobbs quit in 1939 to work for the new Socialist Workers Party. Dobbs met the Russian revolutionary leader Leon Trotsky when he visited Mexico shortly before Trotsky's death in 1940. Dobbs served as mentor and advisor to a young Jimmy Hoffa, while Hoffa was making his rise within the Teamsters becoming its president in 1957. Dobbs inspired Hoffa with his view that the capitalist system was a Darwinian struggle, where power, rather than morality, was the primary factor determining the eventual outcome. For opposing World War II, he and other leaders of the SWP and the Minneapolis Teamsters were convicted of violating the Smith Act, which made it illegal to "conspire to advocate the violent overthrow of the United States Government." He served over a year in Federal Correctional Institution, from 1944 to 1945. After his release, he became the editor of The Militant. From 1948 to 1960 he was the SWP's candidate for President of the United States, running in four elections, he succeeded James P. Cannon as national secretary of the party in 1953, serving until 1972.

In 1960, Farrell Dobbs and Joseph Hansen, Trotsky's former secretary in Mexico, went to Cuba to experience the revolutionary movement there. The two American Trotskyists decided to support the Cuban Revolution and the leadership of Fidel Castro and Che Guevara. Farrell Dobbs retired in 1972, but remained in the party until his death in 1983, he devoted the part of his life to historical documentation of the American leftist movement and the Minnesota Teamsters. Dobbs was the author of a four-volume history / memoir of the Minneapolis struggles: Teamster Rebellion, Teamster Power, Teamster Politics and Teamster Bureaucracy, he had completed two volumes of a planned history of the Marxist movement in the United States at the time of his death, titled: Revolutionary Continuity: The Early Years, 1848-1917 and Birth of the Communist Movement, 1918-1922. Trade union problems, New York, Pioneer Publishers, 1941 The Voice of socialism: radio speeches by the Socialist Workers Party candidates in the 1948 election, New York, Pioneer Publishers, 1948 Recent trends in the labor movement, New York, National Education Dept.

Socialist Workers Party, 1967 The structure and organizational principals of the party, New York, National Education Dept. Socialist Workers Party, 1971 Teamster rebellion, New York, Pathfinder Press, 1972 Teamster power, New York, Pathfinder Press, 1973 Teamster politics, New York, Pathfinder Press, 1975 Teamster bureaucracy, New York, Pathfinder Press, 1977 Counter-mobilization: a strategy to fight racist and fascist attacks, New York, National Education Dept. Socialist Workers Party, 1976 Revolutionary continuity: Marxist leadership in the U. S. Vol. 1: The early years, 1848-1917, New York, Monad Press, Distributed by Pathfinder Press, 1980 Revolutionary continuity: Marxist leadership in the U. S. Vol. 2: Birth of the Communist movement, 1918-1922, New York, Monad Press, Distributed by Pathfinder Press, 1983 A political biography of Walter Reuther: the record of an opportunist, by Beatrice Hansen, New York, Pathfinder Press, 1987 2nd ed. Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934 1948 United States presidential election 1952 United States presidential election 1956 United States presidential election 1960 United States presidential election The Militant, the newspaper of the Socialist Workers Party Pathfinder Books, the bookstore of the Socialist Workers Party Trotskyist Work in the Trade Unions, by Chris Knox

2007 Philippine Senate election

A senatorial election was held in the Philippines on May 14, 2007. This is to fill 12 of the 24 seats being contested in the Senate. Together with those elected in 2004, they will comprise the 14th Congress via plurality-at-large voting; the senators elected in 2004 will serve until June 30, 2010, while the senators elected in this election will serve up to June 30, 2013. The elections to the House of Representatives as well as local elections occurred on the same date; the Philippines uses plurality-at-large voting for seats in the Senate. In the election, the opposition-backed alliance called the Genuine Opposition defeated the administration-led alliance TEAM Unity by winning seven of the twelve seats in the Senate. For the first time in Philippine history, Antonio Trillanes was elected as a senator while detained for mutiny and rebellion charges; the incumbents running for reelection won except for Ralph Recto, at fourteenth place. On March 19, 2007 COMELEC released Resolution No.7832 which finalized and approved the official candidates for the senatorial election.

On March 29, 2007 COMELEC certified 37 Senatorial Candidates: On March 11, 2007 the Old COMELEC Building in Intramuros, Manila was burned by a blazing fire ruining several ballot boxes and pending election protests. The Genuine Opposition considered the fire as political act which ended in burning of several election protests and contested ballot boxes. Investigators found out that instead of arson, it was the generator of the building which caused and since the building was built with tar and wood it would razed by fire; the Commission on Elections is facing scrutiny because of the fire that hit its old building on March 11 resulting in speculations of conspiracies to cheat on the May 14 elections. The COMELEC was lambasted for publishing on the internet the names and details of registered voters. Three people with the name Aquino filed their candidacies, there was confusion as to, credited with a vote if someone wrote only "Aquino" on the ballot. Since Theodore Aquino was disqualified because he had dual citizenship and former Sen. Teresa Aquino-Oreta has the last name Oreta, COMELEC ruled that all votes with only the name Aquino would go to Tarlac Rep. Benigno Aquino III.

All three Aquinos are related to each other. The matter was the same as the Aquino issue. Representative Alan Peter Cayetano found out that a certain Joselito Cayetano belonging to the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan filed his candidacy with the nickname "Peter", "Jojo". Alan therefore filed a disqualification case against Jojo. Jojo was declared a nuisance candidate by the COMELEC resolution on March 27, 2007. Jojo filed for a motion for reconsideration, rejected on May 11, 2007 but COMELEC did not remove his name from the Official List of Senatorial Candidates and ruled on May 12, 2007 that all votes with only the name "CAYETANO" will be stray votes and therefore not counted to either the candidates until Supreme Court resolved the matter; the COMELEC said that Jojo could file a motion for reconsideration at the Supreme Court within five days. TEAM Unity is the administration-backed coalition composed of supporters and erstwhile critics of current Philippine president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. TEAM Unity seeks to take several Senate seats in order to ensure the passage of President Arroyo's legislative programs and to protect her from any impeachment attempts by the political opposition after the midterm elections.

Team Unity is composed by different major political parties in the country such as the Lakas – Christian Muslim Democrats, Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino, Nationalist People's Coalition, Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino, the Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas. The campaign team of TEAM Unity is headed by veteran political strategist Reli German, Tourism Secretary Ace Durano and Ike Rodriguez. TEAM Unity had their proclamation rally at the Cebu Coliseum last February 17, 2007. Genuine Opposition is the main opposition-backed coalition of the parties' senatorial line-up for the elections, in opposition to President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, it was called the "United Opposition", created by opposition stalwart and Makati City Mayor Jejomar Binay on June 2005 to unite all politicians who wanted to impeach President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. UNO reorganized itself and changed its name to Grand and Broad Coalition, with the UNO party under that coalition. On February 15, 2007 the group changed its name again to Genuine Opposition after a meeting with Senate President Manny Villar in his office in Las Piñas City.

Candidates made use of different campaign platforms to win. Prospero Pichay Jr. Manuel Villar, Mike Defensor, Loren Legarda had been visible in TV ads. Francis Pangilinan preferred to run as an independent and decided not to participate in sorties and campaign of the Genuine Opposition though he was drafted as a guest candidate. Teresa Aquino-Oreta had raised different reactions in her TV ad campaign asking the people’s forgiveness being the “dancing queen” during the impeachment of deposed President Joseph Estrada; some candidates like Francis Escudero, Vicente Magsaysay, Francis Pangilinan, Joker Arroyo, Antonio Trillanes and Koko Pimentel made use of the internet by joining networks sites like Friendster. At this point in time, two Senators are voluntarily retiring from the Senate at the en

David Williamson, Baron Williamson of Horton

David Francis Williamson, Baron Williamson of Horton was a senior British and European civil servant, as well as a member of the House of Lords. Williamson was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, he served in the Royal Signals 1956-58 as his national service. He married Patricia Smith in 1961, he began his civil service career in 1958 at the Ministry of Agriculture and Food, becoming Principal Private Secretary to the minister in 1967. He was Deputy Director-General for Agriculture in the European Commission from 1977 to 1983 and Secretary-General of the European Commission from 1987 to 1997. From 1983 until 1987, Williamson had returned to the United Kingdom to serve as Deputy Secretary and head the European Secretariat in the Cabinet Office. After leaving Brussels, Williamson was created a Life Peer on 5 February 1999 with the title Baron Williamson of Horton, of Horton in the County of Somerset, sat as a crossbencher in the House of Lords. Lord Williamson of Horton was the convenor of the crossbenchers, a task that involves keeping the other non-aligned members up-to-date with the business of the House.

As well as being appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in 1984 and a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George in 1998, Williamson was awarded the Knight Commander's Cross of the Bundesverdienstkreuz by Germany, the Commander Grand Cross of the Royal Order of the Polar Star by Sweden and made Commander of the Légion d'honneur by France. He was sworn of the Privy Council in April 2007. Basic biography from EU press release on retirement in 1997 Additional information from DOD online Announcement of his introduction at the House of Lords House of Lords Minute of Proceedings, 17 February 1999 Obituary, Politico, 1 September 2015

Typhoon Morakot

Typhoon Morakot, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Kiko, was the deadliest typhoon to impact Taiwan in recorded history. The eighth named storm and fourth typhoon of the 2009 Pacific typhoon season, Morakot wrought catastrophic damage in Taiwan, leaving 673 people dead and 26 missing, causing NT$110 billion in damages; the storm produced copious amounts of rainfall, peaking at 2,777 mm, far surpassing the previous record of 1,736 mm set by Typhoon Herb in 1996. The extreme amount of rain triggered enormous mudflows and severe flooding throughout southern Taiwan. One landslide destroyed the entire town of Siaolin; the slow-moving storm caused widespread damage in China, leaving eight people dead and causing $1.4 billion in damages. Nearly 2,000 homes were destroyed in the country and 136,000 more were reported to have sustained damage. In the wake of the storm, Taiwan's government faced extreme criticism for the slow response to the disaster and having only deployed 2,100 soldiers to the affected regions.

The number of soldiers working to recover trapped residents increased to 46,000. Rescue crews were able to retrieve thousands of trapped residents from buried villages and isolated towns across the island. Days Taiwan's president Ma Ying-jeou apologized for the government's slow response publicly. On August 19, the Taiwan government announced that they would start a NT$100 billion reconstruction plan that would take place over a three-year span in the devastated regions of southern Taiwan. Days after the storm, international aid began to be sent to the island; the storm caused severe flooding in the northern Philippines that killed 26 people due to the enhancement of the southwest monsoon. Early on August 2, 2009, the Japan Meteorological Agency reported that a tropical depression had formed within a monsoon trough located about 1000 km, However the depression remained weak, was downgraded to an area of low pressure before regenerating that day. Both the Joint Typhoon Warning Center and the Philippine Atmospheric and Astronomical Services Administration started to monitor the depression early the next day whilst it was located about 700 km to the southeast of Okinawa, Japan with PAGASA assigning the name Kiko to the depression.

The JTWC was reporting at this time that it was an area of convection with deep convection flaring on the western side of a exposed low level circulation center. On August 3, the JMA reported that the depression had intensified into a Tropical Storm and named it as Morakot; the JTWC further designated it as Tropical Depression 09W as deep convection had increased over the low level circulation center and reported that it was moving around a low level ridge of pressure, located to the east of the low level circulation center. On the morning of August 4, the JTWC reported that the Morakot had intensified into a Tropical storm as wind-speeds were estimated to be near 65 km/h with deep convective banding building toward the low level circulation center under the influence of a subtropical ridge located to the east of the system; that day the JMA reported that Morakot had intensified into a Severe Tropical Storm before it was upgraded to a typhoon by the JMA and the JTWC early the next day. The JTWC anticipated that Morakot would intensify to a powerful typhoon while approaching China, peaking as a Category 4-equivalent typhoon on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

However, due to the size of the typhoon, the barometric pressure decreased. Early on August 7, the storm attained its peak intensity with winds of 140 km/h according to the JMA; the JTWC reported the storm to be stronger, with winds peaking at 150 km/h, the equivalent of a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Morakot weakened before making landfall in central Taiwan that day. 24 hours the storm emerged back over water into the Taiwan Strait and weakened to a severe tropical storm before making landfall in Mainland China on August 9. The storm weakened as it continued to track inland; the remnants of the typhoon dissipated on August 11. At 0000 UTC on August 3, the JMA placed the Moji and Yokohama navtex areas under a gale warning, six hours they placed the Naha navtex area under a gale warning; that day at 1800 UTC, the JMA canceled the gale warnings for the Yokohama navtex area however at 0600 UTC the next morning the gale warning for Yokohama was reissued. The JMA kept these warnings in force before they were upgraded to a typhoon warnings as Morakot intensified into a typhoon on August 5.

Early the next day, US military installations on Okinawa raised their Tropical Cyclone Condition of Readiness from level 4 to level 3 which meant that winds exceeding 50 knots were expected to affect Okinawa within 48 hours. This came. From their first warning, PAGASA warned that the depression was expected to enhance the Southwest Monsoon and bring occasional heavy rain over Luzon and Western Visayas. However, early on August 6, they placed the Batanes in Northern Luzon under Public Storm Warning Signal 1, which meant that winds of up to 35 kn were expected in Batanes within 36 hours, they placed Northern Cagayan, Apayao and Norte under PSWS 1 that day, as it moved toward Taiwan. They kept these warnings in place until early on August 8, when they revised the warnings downgrading the signal for Northern

Gaithersburg, Maryland

Gaithersburg the City of Gaithersburg, is a city in Montgomery County, United States. At the time of the 2010 U. S. Census, Gaithersburg had a population of 59,933, making it the fourth-largest incorporated city in the state, behind Baltimore and Rockville. Gaithersburg is located to the northwest of Washington, is considered a suburb and a primary city within the Washington–Arlington–Alexandria, DC–VA–MD–WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Gaithersburg was incorporated as a town in 1878 and as a city in 1968. Gaithersburg is divided into east and west sections, separated by Interstate 270; the eastern section of the city is older and is the original portion of the town before more recent growth. Landmarks and buildings from that time can still be seen in many places but in the historic central business district of Gaithersburg called "Olde Towne"; the east side includes Lakeforest Mall, City Hall, the Montgomery County Fair grounds, Bohrer Park. The west side of the city has many wealthier neighborhoods that were designed with smart growth techniques and embrace New Urbanism.

These include the award-winning Kentlands community, the Lakelands community, the Washingtonian Center, a popular shopping/business district. Consumers come to this area during Black Friday and other shopping holidays for the deals and variety of huge brand name stores like Target and Dick's Sporting Goods, smaller stores like Francesca's and Blue Mercury. Two New Urbanism communities are under construction, including Watkins Mill Town Center, the massive "Science City"; the state has a bus rapid transit line, Corridor Cities Transitway or "CCT", planned for the western portion of the city starting at Shady Grove Metro Station and connecting all the high density western Gaithersburg neighborhoods with a total of eight stops planned in the city. The National Institute of Standards and Technology is headquartered in Gaithersburg directly west of I-270. Other major employers in the city include IBM, Lockheed Martin Information Systems and Global Services business area headquarters, AstraZeneca, the French multinational corporation, Sodexo.

Gaithersburg is the location of the garrison of the U. S. Army Reserve's 220th Military Police Brigade. Gaithersburg is noted for its economic diversity. S. cities for ethnic diversity and second for social class diversity. Gaithersburg was settled in 1765 as a small agricultural settlement known as Log Town near the present day Summit Hall on Ralph Crabb's 1725 land grant "Deer Park"; the northern portion of the land grant was purchased by Henry Brookes, he built his brick home "Montpelier" there, starting first with a log cabin in 1780/3. This 1,000 acre tract became part of the landmark IBM Headquarters complex built on the then-new I-270 Interstate "Industrial", now "Technology", Corridor in the late 1960s to the 1970s. Benjamin Gaither married Henry's daughter Margaret, Benjamin and Margaret inherited a portion of Henry's land prior to Henry's death in 1807. Gaither built his home on the land in 1802. By the 1850s the area was known to inhabitants as Gaithersburg; the Forest Oak Post Office, named for a large tree in the town, was located in Gaither's store in 1851.

However, when the railroad was built through town the new station was called Gaithersburg, an recognized name for the community for the first time. The town incorporated under its current name in 1878. Gaithersburg boomed during the late 19th century and churches, schools, a mill, grain elevators and hotels were built. Much of this development focused around the railroad station. In 1873 the B&O Railroad constructed a station at Gaithersburg, designed by Ephraim Francis Baldwin as part of his well-known series of Victorian stations in Maryland. Rapid growth occurred shortly thereafter, on April 5, 1878 the town was incorporated as the Town of Gaithersburg. In 1899, Gaithersburg was selected as one of six global locations for the construction of an International Latitude Observatory as part of a project to measure the Earth's wobble on its polar axis; the Gaithersburg Latitude Observatory is the only National Historic Landmark in the City of Gaithersburg. The observatory and five others in Japan, Italy and the United States gathered information, still used by scientists today, along with information from satellites, to determine polar motion.

The Gaithersburg station operated until 1982 when computerization rendered the manual observation obsolete. In 1968, Gaithersburg was upgraded from a town to a city. Gaithersburg remained a predominantly rural farm town until the 1970s; as the population grew, with homes spreading throughout the area, Gaithersburg began taking on a suburban and semi-urban feel, leaving its farming roots behind. During the late 1990s and 2000s, it had become one of the most economically and ethnically diverse areas in the Washington, D. C. Metropolitan Area as well as the State of Maryland, with people from all walks of life calling Gaithersburg home; this can be seen in the local schools, with Gaithersburg High School and Watkins Mill High School having two of the most diverse student bodies in the region. During a 1997 rainstorm, the 295-year-old forest oak tree that gave its name to the Forest Oak Post Office crashed down; the tree served as the inspiration for the city's logo, featu