Bradbury is a city in the San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States. It is located in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains below Angeles National Forest. Bradbury is bordered by the city of Monrovia to the west and south, Duarte to the south and east; the population was 1,048 at the 2010 census, up from 855 at the 2000 census. The city has three distinct areas—the Bradbury Estates, a gated community consisting of 5-acre minimum estates. A significant portion of the properties in Bradbury Estates and Woodlyn Lane are zoned for horses, several horse ranches still exist within these communities today. Bradbury was founded by Lewis Leonard Bradbury on the homestead of Rancho Azusa de Duarte in 1881. In 1912 the Bradburys' daughter, married Isaac Polk and built a grand mansion on the property which they named Chateau Bradbury. After years of annexation attempts by the city of Monrovia, Bradbury incorporated in 1957. In September 2010, Forbes magazine placed the ZIP code of 91008 at #1 on its annual list of America's most expensive ZIP codes.
Since 2010, Bradbury has fallen from the list but continues to be one of the most expensive ZIP codes in America with home sales decreasing and market listing prices increasing. Bradbury is located at 34°8′58″N 117°58′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.0 square miles, over 99% of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Bradbury had a population of 1,048; the population density was 535.0 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Bradbury was 652 White, 22 African American, 4 Native American, 276 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 59 from other races, 35 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 218 persons; the Census reported that 1,048 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 354 households, out of which 92 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 231 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 27 had a female householder with no husband present, 15 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 18 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 2 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 61 households were made up of individuals and 24 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96. There were 273 families; the population was spread out with 173 people under the age of 18, 84 people aged 18 to 24, 196 people aged 25 to 44, 386 people aged 45 to 64, 209 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males. There were 400 housing units at an average density of 204.2 per square mile, of which 307 were owner-occupied, 47 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 934 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 114 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 855 people, 284 households, 239 families residing in the city; the population density was 447.3 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 311 housing units at an average density of 162.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 70.53% White, 1.75% Black or African American, 0.23% Native American, 19.53% Asian, 5.61% from other races, 2.34% from two or more races. 13.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 284 households out of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.4% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.5% were non-families. 12.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.01 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.7% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 28.8% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $100,454, the median income for a family was $106,736. Males had a median income of $56,250 versus $40,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $57,717. None of the families and 2.0% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. Bradbury and Duarte are both served by the Duarte Unified School District. In the California State Legislature, Bradbury is in the 25th Senate District, represented by Democrat Anthony Portantino, in the 48th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Blanca Rubio. In the United States House of Representatives, Bradbury is in California's 27th congressional district, represented by Democrat Judy Chu; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department serves Bradbury through the operation of the Duarte satellite substation as well as the Temple Station in Temple City. The Los Angeles County Fire Department provides
Commerce is a city located in southeast Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 12,823 at the 2010 census, up from 12,568 at the 2000 census, it is bordered by Vernon on the west, Los Angeles on the northwest, East Los Angeles on the north, Montebello on the east and Bell Gardens on the south, Maywood on the southwest. The Los Angeles River forms part of its southwestern boundary, the Rio Hondo separates it from Downey. Commerce is served by the Long Beach and Santa Ana freeways, as well as the Metrolink commuter rail service at the Commerce station, it is referred to as the "City of Commerce" to distinguish it from the common noun. In the 19th century, the area was part of Antonio Maria Lugo's Rancho San Antonio, its conversion to an industrial area began in 1887, when the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built its main line through the area. The ranch remained intact until Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker, reputedly once the wealthiest woman in Los Angeles, sold some of it around the turn of the 20th century.
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad both were built through what would become the community, as was the Pacific Electric Railway's Whittier Line. By the 1920s, factories had arrived. In the late 1940s, industrial leaders banded together with residents in the communities of Bandini and Laguna to encourage commerce, they changed the name to match that goal. The city was incorporated in 1960 to prevent neighboring cities such as Vernon and Los Angeles from annexing industrial land for tax revenue and elected its first city mayor, Maurice Quigley. In the 1970s and 1980s, Commerce negotiated the turbulent period of deindustrialization that hammered nearby cities such as South Gate and Norwalk, maintaining much of its manufacturing and goods-distribution base and converting former industrial land to lucrative commercial uses; the most notable example of this phenomenon is the Citadel outlet mall, which occupies the site of a former tire factory. The owner of the Citadel, Steve Craig, hosts an annual Clean Up Commerce Day and enlists other businesses to work with the city and volunteers in beautifying a specific area of the city.
With a major rail yard within its borders, Commerce has benefited from the huge expansion in international trade traffic through the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, albeit at the expense of severe air pollution caused by truck congestion on the Long Beach Freeway. Chrysler had an assembly plant in Commerce from 1930 through July 1971 located at 5800 S. Eastern Avenue and Slauson Avenue, called Los Angeles Assembly, it was closed at the end of the 1971 model year, as Chrysler decided to triple-stack its transport trains for the 1972 model year. Commerce boasts a large aquatic center, Commerce Aquatics that has trained a number of successful water polo players, including four-time Olympic medallist Brenda Villa. Commerce is the site of Williams Ranch, on, the swimming hole that the Sleepy Lagoon Murder of Jose Diaz took place in 1942; the Sleepy Lagoon swimming hole was located near Slauson and Eastern Ave. Commerce is located at 34°0′2″N 118°9′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.5 square miles, over 99% of it land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Commerce had a population of 12,823. The population density was 1,961.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Commerce was 6,930 White, 96 African American, 161 Native American, 140 Asian, 9 Pacific Islander, 4,886 from other races, 601 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12,114 persons; the Census reported that 12,753 people lived in households, 2 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 68 were institutionalized. There were 3,382 households, out of which 1,751 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,693 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 708 had a female householder with no husband present, 308 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 248 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 559 households were made up of individuals and 326 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 2,709 families.
The population was spread out with 3,824 people under the age of 18, 1,458 people aged 18 to 24, 3,581 people aged 25 to 44, 2,590 people aged 45 to 64, 1,370 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.7 males. There were 3,470 housing units at an average density of 530.8 per square mile, of which 1,619 were owner-occupied, 1,763 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.0%. 6,631 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 6,122 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Commerce had a median household income of $48,729, with 16.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,568 people, 3,284 households, 2,686 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,913.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,377 housing units a
Alhambra is a city located in the western San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States eight miles from the Downtown Los Angeles civic center. It was incorporated on July 11, 1903; as of the 2010 census, the population was 83,089. The city's ZIP Codes are 91801 and 91803; the original inhabitants of the land where Alhambra now sits are the Tongva. The San Gabriel Mission was founded nearby on September 8, 1771 as part of the Spanish conquest and occupation of Alta California; the land that would become Alhambra was part of a 300,000 acre land grant given to Manuel Nieto, a soldier from the Los Angeles Presidio. In 1820 Mexico won its independence from the Spanish crown and lands once ruled by them became part of the Mexican Republic; these lands transferred into the hands of the United States following the defeat in the Mexican–American War. A wealthy developer, Benjamin Davis Wilson, married Ramona Yorba, daughter of Bernardo Yorba, who owned the land which would become Alhambra.
With the persuasion of his daughter, Yorba named the land after a book she was reading, Washington Irving's Tales of the Alhambra, which he was inspired to write by his extended visit to the Alhambra palace in Granada, Spain. Alhambra was founded as a suburb of Los Angeles that remained an unincorporated area during the mid-19th century; the first school in Alhambra was Ramona Convent Secondary School, built on hillside property donated by the prominent James de Barth Shorb family. Thirteen years before the city was incorporated, several prominent San Gabriel Valley families interested in the Catholic education of their daughters established the school in 1890; the city's first public high school, Alhambra High School, was established in 1898, five years before the city's incorporation. On July 11, 1903, the City of Alhambra was incorporated; the Alhambra Fire Department was established in 1906. Alhambra was promoted as a "city of homes", many of its homes have historical significance, they include styles such as craftsman, Spanish Mediterranean, Spanish colonial, Italian beaux-arts, arts and crafts.
Twenty-six single-family residential areas have been designated historic neighborhoods by the city, including the Bean Tract, the Midwick Tract, the Airport Tract, the Emery Park area. There are a large number of condominiums, rental apartments, mixed-use residential/commercial buildings in the downtown area. Alhambra's main business district, at the intersection of Main and Garfield, has been a center of commerce since 1895. By the 1950s, it was "the" place to go in the San Gabriel Valley. While many of the classic historical buildings have been torn down over the years, the rebuilding of Main Street has led to numerous dining and entertainment establishments. Alhambra has experienced waves of new immigrants, beginning with Italians in the 1950s, Mexicans in the 1960s, Chinese in the 1980s; as a result, a active Chinese business district has developed on Valley Boulevard, including Chinese supermarkets, shops, banks and medical offices. The Valley Boulevard corridor has become a national hub for many Asian-owned bank headquarters, there are other nationally recognised retailers in the city.
The historic Garfield Theatre, located at Valley Boulevard and Garfield Avenue from 1925 until 2001, was a vaudeville venue and is rumored to have hosted the Gumm Sisters, featuring a young Judy Garland. Faded from its original glory, for its last few years it was purchased and ran Chinese-language films, in 2001 went out of business. Subsequently, developers have remodeled the dilapidated building, turning it into a vibrant commercial center with many Chinese stores and eateries. In 2003, actress Lana Clarkson was shot to death in the Alhambra home of record producer Phil Spector. Spector lived in Alhambra's largest and most notable residence, the Pyrenees Castle, built in 1926. In 2009, Spector was convicted of second-degree murder in connection with Clarkson's death. Alhambra is bordered by South Pasadena on the northwest, San Marino on the north, San Gabriel on the east, Monterey Park on the south, the Los Angeles districts of Monterey Hills and El Sereno on the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.6 square miles, over 99% of, land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Alhambra had a population of 83,089. Its population density was 10,887.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alhambra was 43,957 Asian, 23,521 White, 1,281 African American, 538 Native American, 81 Pacific Islander, 10,805 from other races, 2,906 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28,582 persons; the census reported that 82,475 people lived in households, 132 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 482 were institutionalized. There were 29,217 households, of which 9,357 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,679 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,818 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,097 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,370 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 183 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,479 households were made up of individuals, 2,301 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82.
There were 2
Antelope Valley is located in northern Los Angeles County and the southeast portion of Kern County and constitutes the western tip of the Mojave Desert. It is situated between the San Gabriel Mountains; the valley was named for the pronghorns that roamed there until they were all but eliminated in the 1880s by hunting, or resettled in other areas. The principal cities in the Antelope Valley are Lancaster; the Antelope Valley comprises the western tip of the Mojave Desert, opening up to the Victor Valley and the Great Basin to the east. Lying north of the San Gabriel Mountains and southeast of the Tehachapis, this desert ecosystem spans 2,200 square miles. Precipitation in the surrounding mountain ranges contributes to groundwater recharge; the Antelope Valley is home to a wide range of animals. This includes hundreds of plants such as the California Juniper, Joshua tree, California Scrub Oak and wildflowers, notably the California poppy. Winter brings much-needed rain which penetrates the area's dry ground, bringing up native grasses and wildflowers.
Poppy season depends on the precipitation, but a good bloom can be killed off by the unusual weather in the late winter and early spring months. The Antelope Valley gets its name from its history of pronghorn grazing in large numbers. In 1882-85, the valley lost 30,000 head of antelope half of the species for which it was named. Unusually heavy snows in both the mountains and the valley floor drove the antelope toward their normal feeding grounds in the eastern part of the valley. Since they would not cross the railroad tracks, many of them starved to death; the remainder of these pronghorn were hunted for their fur by settlers. Once abundant, they migrated into the Central Valley. A drought in the early 1900s caused a scarcity in their main food source. Now the sighting of a pronghorn is rare, although there are still a small number in the western portion of the valley. Human water use in the Antelope Valley depends on pumping of groundwater from the valley's aquifers and on importing additional water from the California Aqueduct.
Long-term groundwater pumping has lowered the water table, thereby increasing pumping lifts, reducing well efficiency, causing land subsidence. While aqueducts supply additional water that meets increasing human demand for agricultural and domestic uses, diversion of water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta in northern California has caused and causes adverse environmental and social effects in the delta: "Over decades, competing uses for water supply and habitat have jeopardized the Delta’s ability to meet either need. All stakeholders agree the estuary is in trouble and requires long-term solutions to ensure reliable, quality water supplies and a healthy ecosystem." The Antelope Valley's population growth and development place considerable stress on the local and regional water systems. According to David Leighton of the United States Geological Survey: "A deliberate management effort will be required to meet future water demand in the Antelope Valley without incurring significant economic and environmental costs associated with overuse of the ground-water resource."
The first peoples of the Antelope Valley include the Kawaiisu, Kitanemuk and Tataviam. Europeans first entered during the colonization of North America. Father Francisco Garces, a Spanish Franciscan friar, is believed to have traveled the west end of the valley in 1776; the Spanish established El Camino Viejo through the western part of the valley between Los Angeles and the missions of the San Francisco Bay in the 1780s. By 1808, the Spanish had moved the native people out into missions. Jedediah Smith came through in 1827, John C. Fremont made a scientific observation of the valley in 1844. After Fremont's visit the 49ers crossed the valley via the Old Tejon Pass into the San Joaquin Valley on their way to the gold fields. A better wagon road, the Stockton – Los Angeles Road route to Tejon Pass, followed in 1854. Stagecoach lines across the southern foothills came through the valley along this wagon road, were the preferred method for travelers before the coming of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876.
The rail service linking the valley to the Central Valley and Los Angeles started its first large influx of white settlers, farms and towns soon sprouted on the valley floor. The aircraft industry took hold in the valley at Plant 42 in 1952. Edwards AFB called Muroc Army Air Field, was established in 1933. In recent decades the valley has become a bedroom community to the Greater Los Angeles area. Major housing tract development and population growth took off beginning in 1983, which has increased the population of Palmdale around 12 times its former size as of 2006. Neighboring Lancaster has increased its population since the early 1980s to around three times its former level. Major retail has followed the population influx, centered on Palmdale's Antelope Valley Mall; the Antelope Valley is home to over 475,000 people. Non-Hispanic whites make up 48% of the population of the Antelope Valley and form a majority or plurality in most of its cities and towns. Hispanics are the next largest group, followed by Asian Americans.
Some long-term residents living far out in the desert have been cited by Los Angeles County's nuisance abatement teams for code violations, forcing residents to either make improvements or move. One of the properties is a church building, used as a filming location for Kill Bill; the code enforcers have arrived on some of their visits in SWAT team formats. Edwards Air Force Base lie
Glendale is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Its estimated 2014 population was 200,167, making it the third-largest city in Los Angeles County and the 23rd-largest city in California, it is located about 8 mi north of downtown Los Angeles. Glendale lies in the southeastern end of the San Fernando Valley, bisected by the Verdugo Mountains, is a suburb in the Los Angeles metropolitan area; the city is bordered to the northwest by the Sun Tujunga neighborhoods of Los Angeles. The Golden State, Ventura and Foothill freeways run through the city. Glendale is known to have one of the largest communities of Armenian descent in the United States. In 2013, Glendale was named LA's Neighborhood of the Year by the editors of Curbed.com. Forest Lawn Memorial Park Cemetery contains the remains of many noted celebrities and local residents. Grand Central Airport was the departure point for the first commercial west-to-east transcontinental flight flown by Charles Lindbergh; the area was long inhabited by the Tongva people, who were renamed the Gabrieleños by the Spanish missionaries, after the nearby Mission San Gabriel Arcángel.
In 1798, José María Verdugo, a corporal in the Spanish army from Baja California, received the Rancho San Rafael from Governor Diego de Borica, formalizing his possession and use of land on which he had been grazing livestock and farming since 1784. Rancho San Rafael was a Spanish concession. Unlike the Mexican land grants, the concessions were similar to grazing permits, with the title remaining with the Spanish crown. In 1860, his grandson Teodoro Verdugo built the Verdugo Adobe, the oldest building in Glendale; the property is the location of the Oak of Peace, where early Californio leaders including Pio Pico met in 1847 and decided to surrender to Lieutenant Colonel John C. Frémont. Verdugo's descendants sold the ranch in various parcels, some of which are included in present-day Atwater Village, Eagle Rock, Highland Park neighborhoods of Los Angeles. In 1884, residents gathered to form a townsite and chose the name "Glendale" (it was bounded by First Street on the north, Fifth Street on the south, Central Avenue on the west, the Childs Tract on the east.
Residents to the southwest formed "Tropico" in 1887. The Pacific Electric Railway brought streetcar service in 1904. Glendale incorporated in 1906, annexed Tropico 12 years later. An important civic booster of the era was Leslie Coombs Brand, who built an estate in 1904 called El Miradero, featuring an eye-catching mansion, the architecture of which combined characteristics of Spanish and Indian styles, copied from the East Indian Pavilion at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago, which he visited. Brand loved to fly, built a private airstrip in 1919 and hosted "fly-in" parties, providing a direct link to the soon-to-be-built nearby Grand Central Airport; the grounds of El Miradero are now city-owned Brand Park and the mansion is the Brand Library, according to the terms of his will. Brand partnered with Henry E. Huntington to bring the Pacific Electric Railway, or the "Red Cars", to the area. Today, he is memorialized by one of Brand Boulevard; the city's population rose from 13,756 in 1920 to 62,736 in 1930.
The Forest Lawn Cemetery opened in 1906 and was renamed Forest Lawn Memorial-Park in 1917. Pioneering endocrinologist and entrepreneur Henry R. Harrower opened his clinic in Glendale in 1920, which for many years was the largest business in the city; the American Green Cross, an early conservation and tree preservation society, was formed in 1926. Until as late as the 1960s, Glendale was a sundown town. Nonwhites were required to leave city limits by a certain time each day or risk arrest and possible violence. In the 1930s, Glendale and Burbank prevented the Civilian Conservation Corps from stationing African American workers in a local park, citing sundown town ordinances that both cities had adopted. In 1964, Glendale was selected by George Lincoln Rockwell to be the West Coast headquarters of the American Nazi Party, its offices, on Colorado Street in the downtown section of the city, remained open until the early 1980s. In 1977 and 1978, 10 murdered women were found in and around Glendale in what became known as the case of the Hillside Strangler.
The murders were the work of Kenneth Bianchi and Angelo Buono, the latter of whom resided at 703 East Colorado Street, where most of the murders took place. Glendale is located at the junction of the San Fernando and the San Gabriel. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 79.212 km2. It is bordered to the north by the foothill communities of La Cañada Flintridge, La Crescenta, Tujunga. Glendale is located 10 miles north of downtown Los Angeles. Several known earthquake faults criss-cross the Glendale area and adjacent mountains, as in much of Southern California. Among the more recognized faults are the
Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, United States, situated south of downtown Los Angeles. Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and on May 11, 1888, was the eighth city to incorporate; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a total population of 96,456. It is known as the "Hub City" due to its geographic centrality in Los Angeles County. Neighborhoods in Compton include Sunny Cove, Downtown Compton, Richland Farms; the city is a working class city with some middle-class neighborhoods, is home to a young population, at an average 25 years of age, compared to the American median age of 38. In 1784, the Spanish Crown deeded a tract of over 75,000 acres to Juan Jose Dominguez in this area; the tract was named Rancho San Pedro. Dominguez's name was applied to the Dominguez Hills area south of Compton; the tree that marked the original northern boundary of the rancho still stands at the corner of Poppy and Short streets. The rancho was subdivided and parcels were sold within the Californios of Alta California until the lands were ceded after the Mexican-American war in 1848.
American immigrants acquired most of the rancho lands after 1848. In 1867, Griffith Dickenson Compton led a group of 30 pioneers to the area; these families had traveled by wagon train south from Stockton, California, in search of ways to earn a living other than the rapid exhaustion of gold fields. Named Gibsonville, after one of the tract owners, it was called Comptonville. However, to avoid confusion with the Comptonville located in Yuba County, the name was shortened to Compton. Compton's earliest settlers were faced with terrible hardships as they farmed the land in bleak weather to get by with just the barest subsistence; the weather continued to be harsh and cold, fuel was difficult to find. To gather firewood it was necessary to travel to mountains close to Pasadena; the round trip took a week. Many in the Compton party wanted to relocate to a friendlier climate and settle down, but as there were two general stores within traveling distance—one in the pueblo of Los Angeles, the other in Wilmington—they decided to stay put.
By 1887, the settlers realized. A series of town meetings were held to discuss incorporation of their little town. Griffith D. Compton donated his land to incorporate and create the city of Compton in 1889, but he did stipulate that a certain acreage be zoned for agriculture and named Richland Farms. In January 1888, a petition supporting the incorporation of Compton was forwarded to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, who in turn forwarded the petition to the State Legislature. On May 11, 1888 the city of Compton was incorporated with a population of 500 people; the first City Council meeting was held on May 14, 1888. The ample residential lots of Richland Farms gave residents enough space to raise a family, food to feed them, along with building a barn, caring for livestock; the farms attracted the black families who had begun migrating from the rural South in the 1950s, there they found their'home away from home'. Compton couldn't support large-scale agricultural business, but it did give the residents the opportunity to work the land for their families.
The 1920s saw the opening of the Compton Airport. Compton Junior College was founded and city officials moved to a new City Hall on Alameda Street. On March 10, 1933, a destructive earthquake caused many casualties: schools were destroyed and there was major damage to the central business district. While it would be home to a large black population, in 1930 there was only one black resident. From the 1920s through the early 1940s, the Compton area was home to a sizable Japanese American population, a large proportion of whom were farmers. Shortly after President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066 in February 1942, Compton residents of Japanese descent were forcibly removed from their homes and incarcerated for the duration of World War II. Most were detained at the Santa Anita Assembly Center. In the late 1940s, middle class blacks began moving into the area on the west side. Compton grew in the 1950s. One reason for this was Compton; the eastern side of the city was predominately white until the 1970s.
Despite being located in the middle of a major metropolitan area, thanks to the legacy of Griffith D. Compton, there still remains one small pocket of agriculture from its earliest years. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the Supreme Court declared all racially exclusive housing covenants unconstitutional in the case Shelley v. Kraemer, the first black families moved to the area. Compton's growing black population was still ignored and neglected by the city's elected officials. Centennial High School was built to accommodate a burgeoning student population. At one time, the City Council discussed dismantling the Compton Police Department in favor of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department in an attempt to exclude blacks from law enforcement jobs. A black man first ran for City Council in 1958, the first black councilman was elected in 1961. In 1969, Douglas Dollarhide became the mayor, the first black man elected mayor of any metropolitan city in California. Two blacks and one Mexican-American were elected to the local school board.
Four years in 1973, Doris A. Davis defeated Dollarhide's bid for re-election to become the first female black mayor of a metropolitan American city. By the early 1970s, the city had one of the largest conce
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However