A marching band is a group in which instrumental musicians perform while marching for entertainment or competition. Instrumentation includes brass and percussion instruments. Most marching bands wear a uniform of a military style, that includes an associated organization's colors, name or symbol. Most high school marching bands, some college marching bands, are accompanied by a color guard, a group of performers who add a visual interpretation to the music through the use of props, most flags and sabres. Marching bands are categorized by function, age, marching style, type of show they perform. In addition to traditional parade performances, many marching bands perform field shows at sporting events and at marching band competitions. Marching bands perform indoor concerts that implement many songs and flair from outside performances. Percussion and wind instruments were used on the battlefield since ancient times. An Iron Age example would be the carnyx; the development of the military band from such predecessors was a gradual development of the medieval and early modern period.
A prototype of the Ottoman military band may be mentioned in the 11th-century Divânu Lügati't-Türk. The European tradition of military bands formed in the Baroque period influenced by the Ottoman tradition. 17th-century traveler Evliya Çelebi noted the existence of 40 guilds of musicians in Istanbul. In the 18th century, each regiment in the British Army maintained its own military band; until 1749 bandsmen were civilians hired at the expense of the colonel commanding a regiment. Subsequently, they became regular enlisted men who accompanied the unit on active service to provide morale enhancing music on the battlefield or, from the late nineteenth century on, to act as stretcher bearers. Instruments during the 18th century included fifes, the oboe, French horn and bassoon. Drummers summoned men from their ranches to muster for duty. In the chaotic environment of the battlefield, musical instruments were the only means of commanding the men to advance, stand or retire. In the mid 19th century each smaller unit had their own fifer and drummer, who sounded the daily routine.
When units massed for battle a band of musicians was formed for the whole. In the United States, modern marching bands are most associated with performing during American football games; the oldest American college marching band, the University of Notre Dame Band of the Fighting Irish, was founded in 1845 and first performed at a football game in 1887. Many American universities had marching bands prior to the twentieth century, which were associated with military ROTC programs. In 1907, breaking from traditional rank and file marching, the first pictorial formation on a football field was the "Block P" created by Paul Spotts Emrick, director of the Purdue All-American Marching Band. Spotts had seen a flock of birds fly in a "V" formation and decided that a band could replicate the action in the form of show formations on a field; the first halftime show at an American football game was performed by the University of Illinois Marching Illini in 1907, at a game against the University of Chicago.
Appearing at the same time as the field show and pictorial marching formations at universities was the fight song, which today are closely associated with a university's band. The first university fight song, For Boston, was created at Boston College. Many more recognizable and popular university fight songs are borrowed and played by high schools across the United States. Four such fight songs used by high schools are the University of Michigan's The Victors, the University of Illinois' Illinois Loyalty, the University of Notre Dame's Victory March, the United States Naval Academy's Anchors Aweigh. During the 20th century, many marching bands added further pageantry elements, including baton twirlers, dance lines, color guard. After World War I, the presence and quality of marching bands in the American public school system expanded as military veterans with service band experience began to accept music teaching positions within schools across the country bringing wind music and marching band into both educational curriculum and school culture.
With high school programs on the rise, marching bands started to become competitive organizations, with the first national contest being held in 1923 in Chicago, Illinois. State and national contests became common featuring parades and mass-band concerts featuring all participating groups. By 1938, competitive band programs had become numerous and widespread, making a national contest too large to manage and leading to multiple state and regional contests in its place. Today, state contests continue to be the primary form of marching band competition in the United States. Since the inception of Drum Corps International in the 1970s, many marching bands that perform field shows have adopted changes to the activity that parallel developments with modern drum and bugle corps; these bands are said to be corps-style bands. Areas where changes have been adopted from drum corps include: Marching: instead of a traditional high step, drum corps tend to march with a fluid glide step known as a roll step, to keep musicians' torsos still.
Auxiliaries: adaptation of the flag, rifle and sabre units into auxiliaries, who march with the band and provide visual flair by spinning and tossing flags or mock weapons and using dance in the performance. Percussion: moving marching timpani and keyboard percussion into a stationary sideline percussion section, or "pit", which has since incorporated many different types of percussion instruments such
A comprehensive school is a school type, principally in the United Kingdom. The term is used in relation to England and Wales, where comprehensive schools were introduced as state schools on an experimental basis in the 1940s and became more widespread from 1965. With the Blair educational reforms from 2003, they may be part of a local education authority or be a self governing academy or part of a multi-academy trust. About 90% of British secondary school pupils now attend comprehensive schools or the small number of grammar schools), they correspond broadly to the public high school in the United States and Canada and to the Gesamtschule in Germany. Comprehensive schools provide an entitlement curriculum to all children, without selection whether due to financial considerations or attainment. A consequence of, a wider ranging curriculum, including practical subjects such as design and technology and vocational learning, which were less common or non-existent in grammar schools. Providing post-16 education cost-effectively becomes more challenging for smaller comprehensive schools, because of the number of courses needed to cover a broader curriculum with comparatively fewer students.
This is why schools have tended to get larger and why many local authorities have organised secondary education into 11–16 schools, with the post-16 provision provided by sixth form colleges and further education colleges. Comprehensive schools do not select their intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude, but there are demographic reasons why the attainment profiles of different schools vary considerably. In addition, government initiatives such as the City Technology Colleges and Specialist schools programmes have made the comprehensive ideal less certain. In these schools children could be selected on the basis of curriculum aptitude related to the school's specialism though the schools do take quotas from each quartile of the attainment range to ensure they were not selective by attainment. A problem with this is whether the quotas should be taken from a normal distribution or from the specific distribution of attainment in the immediate catchment area. In the selective school system, which survives in several parts of the United Kingdom, admission is dependent on selection criteria, most a cognitive test or tests.
Although comprehensive schools were introduced to England and Wales in 1965, there are 164 selective grammar schools that are still in operation.. Most comprehensives are secondary schools for children between the ages of 11 to 16, but in a few areas there are comprehensive middle schools, in some places the secondary level is divided into two, for students aged 11 to 14 and those aged 14 to 18 corresponding to the US middle school and high school, respectively. With the advent of key stages in the National Curriculum some local authorities reverted from the Middle School system to 11–16 and 11–18 schools so that the transition between schools corresponds to the end of one key stage and the start of another. In principle, comprehensive schools were conceived as "neighbourhood" schools for all students in a specified catchment area; the first comprehensives were set up after the Second World War. In 1946, for example, Walworth School was one of five'experimental' comprehensive schools set up by the London County Council Another early comprehensive school was Holyhead County School in Anglesey in 1949.
Coventry opened two Comprehensive School in 1954 by combining Grammar Schools and Secondary Modern Schools. These were Woodlands. Another early example was Tividale Comprehensive School in Tipton; the first, purpose-built comprehensive in the North of England was Colne Valley High School near Huddersfield in 1956. The largest expansion of comprehensive schools resulted from a policy decision taken in 1965 by Anthony Crosland, Secretary of State for Education in the 1964–1970 Labour government; the policy decision was implemented by Circular 10/65, an instruction to local education authorities to plan for conversion. Students sat the 11+ examination in their last year of primary education and were sent to one of a secondary modern, secondary technical or grammar school depending on their perceived ability. Secondary technical schools were never implemented and for 20 years there was a virtual bipartite system which saw fierce competition for the available grammar school places, which varied between 15% and 25% of total secondary places, depending on location.
In 1970 Margaret Thatcher, the Secretary of State for Education in the new Conservative government, ended the compulsion on local authorities to convert, many local authorities were so far down the path that it would have been prohibitively expensive to attempt to reverse the process, more comprehensive schools were established under Thatcher than any other education secretary. By 1975 the majority of local authorities in England and Wales had abandoned the 11-Plus examination and moved to a comprehensive system. Over that 10-year period many secondary modern schools and grammar schools were amalgamated to form large neighbourhood comprehensives, whilst a number of new schools were built to accommodate a growing school population. By the mid-1970s the system had been fully implemented, with no secondary modern schools remaining. Many grammar schools were either changed to comprehensive status; some local authorities, including S
Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance, although these two categories are not always separate. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, many other forms of athletics. Theatrical dance called performance or concert dance, is intended as a spectacle a performance upon a stage by virtuoso dancers, it tells a story using mime and scenery, or else it may interpret the musical accompaniment, specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas.
Most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers; such dance has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. A solo dance may be undertaken for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men and children may or must participate. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC.
It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next. The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in early recorded history; the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones. Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with shamanic rituals. During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts, it deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture.
It categorizes dance into four types – secular, abstract, interpretive – and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional and ethnic dance. Dance is though not performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music; some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the jig, tango and salsa; some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque dance. Rhythm and dance are linked in history and practice; the American dancer Ted Shawn wrote.
A musical rhythm requires two main elements. The basic pulse is equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern; the tango, for example, is danced in 24 time at 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one 24 measure; the basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so coun
Cross country running
Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. Sometimes the runners are referred to as harriers; the course 4–12 kilometres long, may include surfaces of grass, earth, pass through woodlands and open country, include hills, flat ground and sometimes gravel road. It is both a team sport. Both men and women of all ages compete in cross country, which takes place during autumn and winter, can include weather conditions of rain, snow or hail, a wide range of temperatures. Cross country running is one of the disciplines under the umbrella sport of athletics, is a natural terrain version of long-distance track and road running. Although open-air running competitions are pre-historic, the rules and traditions of cross country racing emerged in Britain; the English championship became the first national competition in 1876 and the International Cross Country Championships was held for the first time in 1903. Since 1973 the foremost elite competition has been the IAAF World Cross Country Championships.
Cross country courses are laid out on an woodland area. The IAAF recommends that courses be grass-covered, have rolling terrain with frequent but smooth turns. Courses consist of one or more loops, with a long straight at the start and another leading to the finish line. Terrain can vary from open fields to forest hills and across rivers, it includes running down and up hills. Because of variations in conditions, international standardization of cross country courses is impossible, not desirable. Part of cross country running's appeal is the distinct characteristics of each venue's terrain and weather, as in other outdoor sports like motor racing and golf. According to the IAAF, an ideal cross country course has a loop of 1,750 to 2,000 metres laid out on an open or wooded land, it should be covered by grass, as much as possible, include rolling hills "with smooth curves and short straights". While it is acceptable for local conditions to make dirt or snow the primary surface, courses should minimize running on roads or other macadamized paths.
Parks and golf courses provide suitable locations. While a course may include natural or artificial obstacles, cross country courses support continuous running, do not require climbing over high barriers, through deep ditches, or fighting through the underbrush, as do military-style assault courses. A course at least 5 metres full allows competitors to pass others during the race. Clear markings keep competitors from making wrong turns, spectators from interfering with the competition. Markings may include tape or ribbon on both sides of the course, chalk or paint on the ground, or cones; some classes use colored flags to indicate directions: red flags for left turns, yellow flags for right turns, blue flags to continue straight or stay within ten feet of the flag. Courses commonly include distance markings at each kilometer or each mile; the course should have 400 to 1,200 m of level terrain before the first turn, to reduce contact and congestion at the start. However, many courses at smaller competitions have their first turn after a much shorter distance.
Courses for international competitions consist of a loop between 2000 meters. Athletes complete three to six loops, depending on the race. Senior men compete on a 12-kilometre course. Senior women and junior men compete on an 8-kilometre course. Junior women compete on a 6-kilometre course. In the United States, college men compete on 8 km or 10 km courses, while college women race for 5 km or 6 km. High school courses are 5 km. Middle school courses are 1.5 mi or 2 mi long. All runners start at the same time, from a starting arc marked with lines or boxes for each team or individual. An official, 50 meters or more in front of the starting line, fires a pistol to indicate the start. If runners collide and fall within the first 100 meters, officials can call the runners back and restart the race, however this is done only once. Crossing the line or starting before the starting pistol is fired is considered a false start and most results in disqualification of the runner; the course ends at a finish line located at the beginning of a funnel or chute that keeps athletes single-file in order of finish and facilitates accurate scoring.
Depending on the timing and scoring system, finish officials may collect a small slip from each runner's bib, to keep track of finishing positions. An alternative method is to have four officials in two pairs. In the first pair, one official reads out numbers of finishers and the other records them. In the second pair, one official reads out times for the other to record. At the end of the race, the two lists are joined along with information from the entry information; the primary disadvantage of this system is that distractions can upset the results when scores of runners finish close together. Chip timing has grown in popularity to increase accuracy and decrease the number of officials required at the finish line; each runner attaches a transponder with RFID to her shoe. When the runner crosses the finish line, an electronic pad records the chip number and matches the runner to a database. Chip timing allows officials to use checkpoint mats throughout the race to calculate split times, to ensure runners cover the entire course.
This is by far the most efficient method, although it is t
A yearbook known as an annual, is a type of a book published annually to record and commemorate the past year of a school. The term refers to a book of statistics or facts published annually. A yearbook has an overarching theme, present throughout the entire book. Many high schools and elementary and middle schools publish yearbooks. From 1995 to 2013, the number of U. S. college yearbooks dropped from 2,400 to 1,000. Elementary and middle schools may have a designated staff member, in charge of putting together that school's yearbook, with or without the help of the students; these books are considerably smaller than a high school or college yearbook. High school yearbooks cover a wide variety of topics from academics, student life, sports and other major school events; each student is pictured with their class, while seniors might get a page-width picture or a larger photo than the underclassmen to reflect their status in the school. Each school organization, such as a sports team or academic/social club, is pictured.
A high school yearbook staff consists of students with one or more faculty advisors. The yearbook staff can be chosen in a variety of ways, including volunteer extracurricular organization, academic class, or assigned to the entire senior class. High school yearbooks are considered a form of journalism by scholastic journalism such as the Columbia Scholastic Press Association, the National Scholastic Press Association, the Journalism Education Association and state and regional scholastic press associations. Numerous awards are given for journalistic excellence annually. Colleges that publish yearbooks follow a similar format to high schools; some include detailed recaps of basketball games. College yearbooks are considered by the Associated Collegiate Press to be a form of journalism. ACP holds the annual Pacemaker competition for college yearbooks as well as other collegiate media outlets. Many colleges have phased out yearbooks due to high prices and low demand, while some, like Auburn University, opt to support annual publications with small portions of student fees to continue this over 120 year old tradition.
The Glomerata continues to be one of the most circulated yearbooks in the country, distributing 8,000 copies to Auburn University's student body in April 2018. Yearbooks published by Australian schools follow a consistent structure to their North American counterparts. Australian yearbooks function as an annual magazine for the school body, with a significant focus on objectively reporting the events that occurred during the schooling year, they cover various topics including academic, extra-curricular, student life and other activities. Yearbook staff predominantly consist of only one or two school teachers who serve as editors in chief. Australian school yearbooks are predominantly created on A4 paper size, featuring a softcover style front-and-back cover 250 or 300 g/m² density. Hardcover style yearbooks are not as common. In recent years, companies have been servicing Australian schools with online yearbook systems that allow schools to create their yearbooks collaboratively online; this is sold as allowing a higher level of student involvement whilst making the workflow simpler and easier for all involved.
Additionally, some schools feature a separate yearbook for students in Year 12. Australian school yearbooks are published with offset printing technology, with a mix of colour, spot colour, black and white pages, depending on the school's budget. In the past, Year 12 yearbooks were printed using a photocopier, but Australian yearbook publishers have improved the quality of these publications by providing low cost digital printing solutions. India does not have a long history of publishing school yearbooks. However, top Business schools and Engineering colleges publish custom yearbooks; this is created by the final year students of the batch. A yearbook or a memory book would consist of testimonials and common pages such as Directors address and events, festivals picture collages. Most top schools do create schools magazines; some of the early adopters among school students are starting to create custom yearbooks in the same line as created by students from US or Europe. This trend is to pick up with the advent of technology platforms that make it easy for students to create them.
In South Africa it is not as common to find yearbooks in schools as it is in countries such as the US and Canada, though there are a number of schools that allocate annual funding and publish yearbooks at the end of the school year. These yearbooks resemble those found in the US, with columns about certain themes, in-depth coverage of major events and large collections of photos, as well as drawings reflecting daily life at these schools. Major events covered include Matric Farewell Dances, annual sporting events, grade group events organized for a specific grade. In Nigeria, it is common to find yearbooks in schools as it is in countries such as the US and Canada, though there are a number of schools that allocate annual funding and publish yearbooks at the end of the school year; these yearbooks resemble those found in the US, with columns about certain themes, in-depth coverage of majo
High School Democrats of America
The High School Democrats of America, is a student-led organization committed to mobilizing young people and electing Democrats. In HSDA, student activists across the country engage in political activity, working hard to ensure that youth have a voice in government. Part of the Young Democrats of America the members of the High School Democrats of America represents high school students at all levels of the Democratic Party. Although State Chapters for the organization and idea existed long beforehand, the High School Democrats of America itself was founded in December 2005, by Ahmed Kokon and Jonathan Padilla. In June 2014, the High School Democrats of America formally ended its affiliation with the Young Democrats of America, ceased function as the Young Democrats of America's High School Caucus. With the change, the position of National Parliamentarian became Development Director that served as Parliamentarian both dissolving disputes and presiding over elections, they held their first national conference, the HSDA Strategic Summit, in Washington D.
C. during July 2015. The national organization presides over HSDA as a whole. It’s led by the National Executive Board, which consists of the Chair, Vice Chairwoman, Vice Chairman, Communications Director, Programs Director, Development Director; the National E-Board is responsible for overseeing the organization, expanding HSDA, working with states to promote HSDA and Democratic causes. The National E-Board is elected every year during the annual convention of the HSDA Summit. Leadership includes a National Committee consisting of two representatives from individual states and the District of Columbia; the Executive Board employs a group of volunteer staff, ranging from Financial Directors to Political Advisors. The 2018-2019 Executive Board is as follows: ·Chairman: Jason Lam ·Vice Chairwoman: Ariana Smartt ·Vice Chairman: Talat Aman ·Communications Director: Brennan Leach ·Programs Director: Haritha Kumar ·Development Director: Anne Austin Each state organization works with all the local chapters in their state, is responsible for connecting chapters, expanding HSDA, promoting Democratic causes at a state level.
State chapters have an extensive list of accolades, from hosting the first regional Summit in HSDA’s history to hosting a “Unity Day” with the Teenage Republicans to promote bipartisanship. Each state holds its own elections to determine. Local chapters are the base of HSDA. Chapters at high schools and in their communities work at a grassroots level by rallying young people behind causes. Local HSDA chapters have organized marches, registered voters, helped to elect Democrats in their own communities. HSDA consists of local chapters, state organizations, the national organization; the organization is involved in a number of projects, including a Huffington Post blogging project and a separate publishing opportunity through The Progressive Teen. Both projects are aimed at inspiring political discourse and offering members the opportunity to voice their opinions important civic issues in a highly-visible setting; the organization has proved instrumental and necessary in several campaigns across the country, including the election of Joseph Donnelly and Elizabeth Warren to the US Senate, as well as the notable election of President Barack H. Obama in 2008.
The organization has taken stances on important issues throughout the political spectrum, but has been focused on student loan reform, immigration reform, gun control. After a school shooting in February 2018, the HSDA began to more advocate for stronger gun control. Since 2015, HSDA has hosted an annual summit to train student activists and teach them to organize in their communities. HSDA has garnered the attention of several notable politicians, including Sen. Cory Booker, Sen. Elizabeth Warren, Former Vice President Joe Biden. High School Democrats of America Website
Mount St. Mary Academy (Little Rock, Arkansas)
Mount St. Mary Academy is a private, Roman Catholic, all-girls high school, serving grades 9 through 12, in the Hillcrest neighborhood of Little Rock, United States, it is an all-female institution, has an all-male brother school, Catholic High School for Boys. It is located within the Diocese of Little Rock. Having been founded in 1851, it is the oldest high school in Arkansas. Mount St. Mary Academy was founded by the Sisters of Mercy in 1851 at Seventh and Louisiana Streets in downtown Little Rock; the school moved to the present Hillcrest location in 1908 after outgrowing her Louisiana Street location. The 10-acre site was purchased with funds from the sale of the downtown property and contributions from local residents and landowners. In 2012, Karen Flake succeeded Sr. Deborah Troillett, RSM'73, who served as president of Mount St. Mary Academy from 1997–2011. Mount St. Mary Academy students complete a curriculum, aligned with the Smart Core curriculum developed by the Arkansas Department of Education, which requires 22 units to graduate.
Additionally since January 2000, Mount St. Mary's has offered the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme. Mount St. Mary maintains affiliations with the National Catholic Educational Association and the Mercy Secondary Education Association. Academic Departments hold membership in educational professional organizations such as the National Council of Teachers of English, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, the American Counseling Association, the National Association of Secondary School Principals, the College Board. Mount St. Mary is accredited by the Arkansas Non-public Accreditation Association and has been accredited by AdvancED since 1930. Student publications for journalism students include The Mount; the Mount Saint Mary Academy mascot is The Belles with purple and white as its school colors. The Mount St. Mary Belles compete in the 7A Classification, the state's largest classification, administered by the Arkansas Activities Association; the Belles compete in the 7A/6A Central Conference.
Interscholastic activities include: basketball, competitive cheer, cross country running, soccer, softball and diving, track and field, volleyball. The Belles swimming and diving team has won eleven state championships between 1953 and 2008, including back-to-back titles four different occasions in 1958–59, 1967–68, 1977–78, 1984–85; the golf team has won four state championships. The tennis team has won nine state championships including a string of three consecutive titles; the soccer team won the 7A classification state soccer championship. Hayes, Jan. History of Mount St. Mary’s Academy, Little Rock, Arkansas, 1851–1987. St. Louis, MO: Sisters of Mercy, 1987. Lester and Judy Lester. Greater Little Rock: A Pictorial History. Norfolk, VA: The Donning Company, 1986. Woods, James M. Mission and Memory: A History of the Catholic Church in Arkansas. Little Rock: August House, 1992. Official website