George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle, he was a patron of new forms of leisure and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle, his charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He forbade Caroline to attend his coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful attempt to divorce her. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister.
George's ministers found his behaviour selfish and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars, he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it, his only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; as the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Archbishop of Canterbury, his godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.
George was a talented student, learned to speak French and Italian, in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades, he was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783, obtained a grant of £60,000 from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 from his father, it was far too little for his needs – the stables alone cost £31,000 a year. He established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life. Animosity developed between the prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir apparent; the King, a political conservative, was alienated by the prince's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians.
Soon after he reached the age of 21, the prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, a Roman Catholic; the prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent; the couple went through a marriage ceremony on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. The union was void, as the King's consent was not granted. However, Fitzherbert believed that she was the prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it; the prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant.
The prince's relationship with Fitzherbert was suspected, revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince, he appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, granted the prince £161,000 to pay his debts and £60,000 for improvements to Carlton House. In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria, he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver th
Colony of Tasmania
The Colony of Tasmania was a British colony that existed on the island of Tasmania from 1856 until 1901, when it federated together with the five other Australian colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia. The possibility of the colony was established when the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Australian Constitutions Act in 1850, granting the right of legislative power to each of the six Australian colonies; the Legislative Council of Van Diemen's Land drafted a new constitution which they passed in 1854, it was given Royal Assent by Queen Victoria in 1855. In that year the Privy Council approved the colony changing its name from "Van Diemen's Land" to "Tasmania", in 1856, the newly elected bicameral parliament of Tasmania sat for the first time, establishing Tasmania as a self-governing colony of the British Empire. Tasmania was referred to as one of the "most British" colonies of the Empire; the Colony suffered from economic fluctuations, but for the most part was prosperous, experiencing steady growth.
With few external threats and strong trade links with the Empire, the Colony of Tasmania enjoyed many fruitful periods in the late nineteenth century, becoming a world-centre of shipbuilding. It raised a local defence force which played a significant role in the Second Boer War in South Africa, Tasmanian soldiers in that conflict won the first two Victoria Crosses won by Australians. Tasmanians voted in favour of federation with the largest majority of all the Australian colonies, on 1 January 1901, the Colony of Tasmania, became the Australian state of Tasmania. A campaign for self-government in Van Diemen's Land had first begun in 1842. A growing resentment against penal transportation to the colony, a lack of effective legislation led to agitators lobbying for better representation. On 31 October 1845 the'Patriotic six' walked out of the Legislative Council, leaving it without a quorum, but by 23 March 1847 they had been restored. In 1849 the Australasian Anti-Transportation League was established in Launceston, had soon established branches in the other Australian colonies.
The Australian Republican Association failed to gain much support. On 5 August 1850, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Australian Constitutions Act, granting the right of legislative power to the Australian colonies, called for a'Blended' Council, to be part nominated and part elected; the appointed Tasmanian Legislative Council held its first popular elections 21 October 1851, the newly elected members joined their appointed colleagues for the first time on 30 December 1851. On 19 August 1853 the Legislative Council appointed a select committee to draft a constitution, passed by the Council on 31 October 1855. By January 1855, the first Governor of Tasmania, Sir Henry Fox Young had been appointed; the constitution, calling for a new bicameral parliament received Royal Assent from Queen Victoria on 1 May 1855. On 21 July 1855, the Privy Council granted the application to change the colony's name from "Van Diemen's Land" to "Tasmania", on 24 October 1855, a tumultuous crowd gathered in Hobart to hear that the Tasmanian Constitution Act had been granted Royal Assent.
On 8 February 1856, the old Legislative Council met for the last time, between September and October, elections were held across the state for the new Tasmanian Legislative Council, Tasmanian House of Assembly. On 1 November 1856, Governor Sir Henry Fox Young proclaimed former British Army officer, William Champ as the first Premier of Tasmania, the new bicameral parliament met for the first time on 2 December 1856, marking the beginning of self-government for the Colony of Tasmania. In 1849 the Reverend John West formed the Anti-Transportation League of Van Diemen's Land to politically oppose the penal transportation of British convicts to Van Diemen's Land, occurring since 1804. By 1851 it had expanded to other colonies including New South Wales and Victoria and soon expanded to become the Australasian Anti-Transportation League. In the first partial-election of the Legislative Council of Van Diemen's Land on 21 October 1851, members of the Australasian Anti-Transportation League won all 16 of the elected seats, showing how popular the movement had become, how opposed to transportation the free population of Van Diemen's Land was.
One of the first actions taken by the new Council was to vote 16 to 4 in favour of sending a letter of request to Queen Victoria asking for her to revoke the Order in Council permitting transportation to Van Diemen's Land and Norfolk Island, despite the opposition of Lieutenant Governor William Denison. The beginning of the Victorian gold rush provided further argument, as it was felt that the opportunity of free passage aboard convict transports and the change of escaping to the gold fields would provide an incentive to would-be offenders; the last convict ship to be sent from England, the St. Vincent, arrived in 1853, on 10 August 1853 Jubilee festivals in Hobart and Launceston celebrated 50 years of European settlement with the official end of transportation. Celebratory medallions were distributed to school children; the era following the granting of responsible self-government brought a new confidence to the colony. Whilst Tasmania suffered a setback with a large loss of working-age males to the Victorian gold-fields, many social and cultural improvements soon developed.
Horse-drawn buses between Hobart and New Town to the immediate north provide the colony's first public transport in 1856. The following year the first telegraph line between Hobart and Launceston was laid, coal gas became available for private use, illuminating Hobart's street lamps. Ta
The Tasman Peninsula is a peninsula located in south-east Tasmania, Australia 75 km by the Arthur Highway, south-east of Hobart. The Tasman Peninsula lies south and west of Forestier Peninsula, to which it connects via an isthmus called Eaglehawk Neck; this in turn is joined to the rest of Tasmania by an isthmus called East Bay Neck, near the town of Dunalley 60 kilometres by road from Hobart. The peninsula is surrounded by water. Many smaller towns are located on the Tasman Peninsula, the largest of which are Nubeena and Koonya. Smaller centres include Premaydena and Stormlea; the Conservation Park, located on the main highway at Taranna, is a popular local visitor attraction along with the World Heritage Port Arthur Historic Site and a number of beaches. The local government area is the Tasman Council; the area of the peninsula and of the local government area is 660 square kilometres. The area is named after Dutch explorer Abel Tasman; the aboriginal inhabitants of this area preceding European arrival were the Pydairrerme people.
Their territory was what is now known as the Forestier peninsulas. The Pydairrerme people were a part of the larger Paredarerme language group, whose territory covered a large area of the east coast of Tasmania; the first European settlement of the peninsula was Port Arthur in the early 1830s. It was selected as a penal settlement because it was geographically isolated from the rest of the colony but more reachable by sea than the other place of secondary banishment, Macquarie Harbour on the west coast, which could be closed down, it had excellent supplies of timber for shipbuilding and general construction work, a deep sheltered harbour where visiting British warships could be repaired. Its inaccessibility was enhanced by having Eaglehawk Neck lined with guards and guard dogs, to prevent the escape of any convicts. A small number did escape, including the bushranger Martin Cash; the Saltwater River historic site, located near the north tip west of the peninsula, was the site of a convict-operated coal mine.
The penal settlement of Port Arthur is now a tourist attraction. As in most of the rest of the state, tourism is a major industry. Bushwalking is popular in the rugged terrain picturesque spots being Cape Raoul and Cape Pillar at the extreme south-west and south-east ends of the peninsula, separated by the entrance to Port Arthur. In the era between convict settlement and the rise of the modern tourist industry the area was engaged in the timber industry and fishing; the terrain and soil types impeded large-scale agriculture although orcharding and general farming was and is conducted in suitable locations. The region remained isolated until the introduction of regular river steamer services between it and Hobart in the 1880s - these were further encouraged by the tourist industry to Port Arthur that began when overseas steamships began to call into Hobart during the 1880s. During the period 1900-1930s the main operator servicing the area was the Huon, Channel & Peninsula Steamship Company, owners of several vessels including the extant M.
V. Cartela; the rare Cape Pillar sheoak is a shrub or small tree found only in the Tasman National Park where it is restricted to the Cape Pillar area of the Tasman Peninsula and to Tasman Island. The peninsula forms part of the South-east Tasmania Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance in the conservation of a range of woodland birds the endangered swift parrot and forty-spotted pardalote. While the region is best known for its convict history it is now the key area in the battle to save the Tasmanian devil from extinction from a new type of contagious cancer called devil facial tumour disease; the isolation from the Tasmanian mainland, where DFTD is running unchecked and has killed more than half of all devils, is ideal for maintaining a healthy wild Tasmanian devil population in a project that involves the local Tasmanian Devil Conservation Park at Taranna and government and university scientists. The rugged coastline has been the scene of a number of shipwrecks.
Two large seagoing steamers have sunk after hitting the Hyppolyte Rock off its east coast - the Tasman in 1883 and the Nord in 1915. Munroe Bight to the north of Cape Pillar is named after the former American barque James Munroe wrecked there in 1850; the Tasman Peninsula is well known for its rugged eastern coastline, much of it is now the Tasman National Park. At Eaglehawk Neck are many strange rock formations, including The Devils Kitchen, Tasman's Arch, Blow Hole and the Tessellated Pavement. Further south are the highest sea cliffs in the Southern Hemisphere, rising 300 metres above the Tasman Sea at Cape Pillar; the peninsula has notable surf spots at Roaring Beach and Shipstern Bluff. A historical survey map is available which outlines the geology and vegetation of Tasman Peninsula, Forestier Peninsula and south east from Coal River Geography of Tasmania Storey, Shirley. Tasman tracks: 25 walks on the Tasman and Forestier Peninsulas. Koonya Press. ISBN 0-6460-1870-1
Convicts on the West Coast of Tasmania
The West Coast of Tasmania has a significant convict heritage. The use of the West Coast as an outpost to house convicts in isolated penal settlements occurred in the era 1822–33, 1846–47; the main locations were Sarah Grummet Island in Macquarie Harbour. The entrance to Macquarie Harbour was known as Hells Gates and the play on this name has travelled from its naming in the 1830s to Paul Collin's book published in 2002. Convict parties used the land around the harbour as a work area as far as Gordon River; the prison's existence was for only 15 years, but its hold on the imagination have spawned a significant literature. While most physical traces of the convict era were abandoned or lost, many foundations and outlines of the buildings of the settlement can still be seen. Sarah Island was vandalised for building materials in the 1890s by mining communities. However, enough remains that guided tours of the island can still give a vivid and moving glimpse into the lives of the convicts and their keepers, the huge amount of building and land reclamation that took place during the short life of the prison.
Piners have periodically discovered convict era items during their work along the rivers and shore of Macquarie Harbour. The Frederick was a merchant ship stolen in 1834 by escaping convicts from Sarah Island, it has inspired a play. The Ship that Never Was, by the Round Earth Theatre Company, at the Strahan Visitor Centre, in Strahan, is a long running play about a successful escape, it was written by Richard Davey, a descendant of Governor Davey who worked on Sarah Island as a guide and researcher. He has written The Sarah Island Conspiracies — an account of twelve voyages to Macquarie Harbour and Sarah Island and two pamphlets — a narrative of the event the play was based on and Sarah Island - The People and shipwrights — a guided tour. Collins refers to Davey in his Hells Gates book; the Ship Thieves by Sian Rees focuses upon James Porter one of the group of convicts on The Frederick, manuscripts found in the Dixson Library in Sydney. Rees had written about a different ship of convicts — the Lady Juliana.
No mention of Davey or his work on the Sarah Island convicts is noted at all in Rees's book about James Porter, yet dealing with the same subject. For the Term of his Natural Life, Marcus Clarke Gould's Book of Fish, Richard Flanagan The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce Convictism in Australia Convict era of Western Australia Port Arthur, Tasmania William Buelow Gould Butler, Richard; the Men That God Forgot. London, 1977 ISBN 0-552-10469-8 Brand, Ian. Sarah Island Penal Settlements 1822-1833 and 1846-1847. Launceston, 1984. ISBN 0-949457-31-0 Collins, Paul. Hell's Gates / The terrible journey of Van Diemen's Land cannibal. South Yarra, 2002. ISBN 1-74064-083-7 Davey, Richard Innes; the Sarah Island Conspiracies. Hobart, 2002. ISBN 0-9750051-0-3 Flanagan, Richard. Gould's Book of Fish Sydney, 2001. ISBN 0-330-36378-6 Julen, Hans; the Penal Settlement of Macquarie Harbour Launceston, 1976. ISBN 0-9599207-3-0 Pearn, John. "Sarah Island/The infamous prison island in Macquarie Harbour", Van Dieman's Land.
Chapter 1 of: Pearn and Carter, Peggy. Editors. Islands of Incarceration/ Convict and Quarantine Islands of the Australian Coast by Seven Authors. Brisbane, 1995. ISBN 0-86776-599-2 Pink, Kerry. G. Through Hells Gates/ A History of Strahan and Macquarie Harbour. Strahan, 1984. ISBN 0-646-36665-3 Chapter 3: Macquarie Harbour: Convicts' Hell Porter, James; the capture of the Frederick, Macquarie Harbour Van Diemen’s Land 1834 Adelaide: Sullivan’s Cove. ISBN 0-909442-19-3 Rees, Siân; the Ship Thieves. London: Aurum Press. 2006. ISBN 1-84513-140-1 Whitham, Charles. Western Tasmania - A land of riches and beauty. Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown.2003 edition — Queenstown: Municipality of Queenstown. 1949 edition — Hobart: Davies Brothers. OCLC 48825404. OCLC 35070001. G. Lempriere from the Tasmanian Journal of natural Science of 1842–6 on pages 39–46 of Charles Whitham Alexander, Alison, ed.. The Companion to Tasmanian History. Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania.
ISBN 1-86295-223-X. OCLC 61888464. Alexander, Alison. Tasmania's convicts:. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin, ISBN 9781742372051 Robson, L. L.. A History of Tasmania. Volume I. Van Diemen's Land From the Earliest Times to 1855. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554364-5. Robson, L. L.. A History of Tasmania. Volume II. Colony and State From 1856 to the 1980s. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553031-4
David Collins (lieutenant governor)
Colonel David Collins was a British administrator of Britain's first Australian colonies. In the first European settlement of Australia in 1788, Collins was the founding Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of New South Wales. In 1803 he led the expedition to found the first, short-lived, British settlement in what was to become the Colony of Victoria. In 1804, Collins became the founding Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Van Diemens Land, which in 1901 became the state of Tasmania. Collins was born in London, the third child of Major-General Arthur Tooker Collins, of the Royal Marines – the son of Arthur Collins – by his wife Henrietta Caroline Fraser, daughter of George Fraser of Park and Cuba Court, the High Sheriff of King's County. A Compendium of Irish Biography, states that he was born at the home of his maternal grandparents in County Offaly known as King's County. Collins went to Exeter Grammar School before joining the Royal Marines as an ensign at the age of 14, he was promoted second lieutenant on 20 February 1771.
He was serving aboard HMS Southampton when Queen Matilda of Denmark was rescued. Collins went to North America early in 1775, fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, where the British suffered heavy casualties, but held the heights of Charlestown, he was promoted to first lieutenant the following week. By November 1776, he was stationed at Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he met and married Mary Proctor, the daughter of Captain Charles Proctor, on 13 June 1777, he was promoted captain-lieutenant in August 1779, outright captain by July 1780. In February 1781, he did not enjoy being at sea. In October 1786, after three years on half-pay stationed at Chatham, Collins volunteered for service in the proposed penal colony of New South Wales. On 29 November, despite a lack of legal training, he was named Judge Advocate for the new colony and chief judge for a military court administering the New South Wales Marine Corps. In May 1787 he sailed aboard the First Fleet, reaching Sydney Cove in January 1788. In June or July 1788, Governor Phillip appointed Collins as the Secretary to the Governor, or Secretary to the Colony as the position was sometimes called.
Collins filled the three roles of Secretary, Judge Advocate and Lieutenant Governor until he left the colony for England in 1796. Collins established the first, short-lived settlement in what is now the state of Victoria at Sullivan Bay on Port Phillip in 1803, he sailed from England in April aboard HMS Calcutta, arriving at Port Phillip in October to found a penal colony. After landing at Sullivan Bay near present-day Sorrento, he sent First Lieutenant James Hingston Tuckey of the Calcutta to explore Port Phillip. Tuckey's report, Collins' own dissatisfaction with the site chosen, prompted him to write to Governor King, seeking permission to remove the settlement; when King agreed, Collins decided to move the colony to the Derwent River, on the island of Van Diemen's Land. He arrived there in February 1804 on Ocean, established what would become the town of Hobart. Collins left no published account of his work as Lieutenant-Governor at Port Phillip, nor as the founder of Hobart. Collins has given his name to Collinsvale in Tasmania, Collins Street, Collins Parade and Collins Street, Hobart.
At Exeter Grammar School, now known as Exeter School, where he was educated, there is a house named after him. Collins was portrayed by David Dawson in the 2015 TV series Banished. First Fleet Journals of the First Fleet Chapman, Don. 1788:The People of the First Fleet. Doubleday. ISBN 0868242659. Moore, John; the First Fleet Marines. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0702220655. Alexander, Alison, ed.. The Companion to Tasmanian History. Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania. ISBN 1-86295-223-X. OCLC 61888464. Nagle, John Flood. Collins, the Courts and the Colony. University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 9780868401270. Richards, D. Manning. Destiny in Sydney: An epic novel of convicts and Chinese embroiled in the birth of Sydney, Australia. First book in Sydney series. Washington DC: Aries Books. ISBN 978-0-9845410-0-3 Robson, L. L.. A History of Tasmania. Volume I. Van Diemen's Land From the Earliest Times to 1855. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554364-5.
Works by David Collins at Project Gutenberg Works by or about David Collins at Internet Archive Serle, Percival. "Collins, David". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. "Colonel David Collins". Libraryireland.com. Retrieved 2014-02-20
Dutch East India Company
The Dutch East India Company was an early megacorporation founded by a government-directed amalgamation of several rival Dutch trading companies in the early 17th century. It was established on March 20, 1602 as a chartered company to trade with India and Indianised Southeast Asian countries when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade, it has been labelled a trading company or sometimes a shipping company. However, VOC was in fact a proto-conglomerate company, diversifying into multiple commercial and industrial activities such as international trade and both production and trade of East Indian spices, Formosan sugarcane, South African wine.. The Company was a transcontinental employer and an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment; the Company's investment projects helped raise the commercial and industrial potential of many underdeveloped or undeveloped regions of the world in the early modern period. In the early 1600s, by issuing bonds and shares of stock to the general public, VOC became the world's first formally-listed public company.
In other words, it was the first corporation to be listed on an official stock exchange. It was influential in the rise of corporate-led globalisation in the early modern period. With its pioneering institutional innovations and powerful roles in global business history, the Company is considered by many to be the forerunner of modern corporations. In many respects, modern-day corporations are all the'direct descendants' of the VOC model, it was their 17th century institutional innovations and business practices that laid the foundations for the rise of giant global corporations in subsequent centuries — as a significant and formidable socio-politico-economic force of the modern-day world – to become the dominant factor in all economic systems today. They served as the direct model for the organisational reconstruction of the English/British East India Company in 1657; the Company, for nearly 200 years of its existence, had transformed itself from a corporate entity into a state or an empire in its own right.
One of the most influential and best expertly researched business enterprises in history, the VOC's world has been the subject of a vast amount of literature that includes both fiction and nonfiction works. The company was an exemplary company-state rather than a pure for-profit corporation. A government-backed military-commercial enterprise, the VOC was the wartime brainchild of leading Dutch republican statesman Johan van Oldenbarnevelt and the States-General. From its inception in 1602, the Company was not only a commercial enterprise but effectively an instrument of war in the young Dutch Republic's revolutionary global war against the powerful Spanish Empire and Iberian Union. In 1619, the Company forcibly established a central position in the Indonesian city of Jayakarta, changing the name to Batavia. Over the next two centuries the Company acquired additional ports as trading bases and safeguarded their interests by taking over surrounding territory. To guarantee its supply, the Company established positions in many countries and became an early pioneer of outward foreign direct investment.
In its foreign colonies, the VOC possessed quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins, establish colonies. With increasing importance of foreign posts, the Company is considered the world's first true transnational corporation. Along with the Dutch West India Company, the VOC was seen as the international arm of the Dutch Republic and the symbolic power of the Dutch Empire. To further its trade routes, the VOC-funded exploratory voyages, such as those led by Willem Janszoon, Henry Hudson, Abel Tasman, revealed unknown landmasses to the western world. In the Golden Age of Netherlandish cartography, VOC navigators and cartographers helped shape geographical knowledge of the world as we know it today. Socio-economic changes in Europe, the shift in power balance, less successful financial management resulted in a slow decline of the VOC between 1720 and 1799. After the financially disastrous Fourth Anglo-Dutch War, the company was nationalised in 1796, dissolved in 1799.
All assets were taken over by the government with VOC territories becoming Dutch government colonies. The company has been criticised for its monopolistic policy, colonialism, uses of violence, slavery. In Dutch, the name of the company is Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, abbreviated to VOC; the company's monogram logo was the first globally recognised corporate logo. The logo of the VOC consisted of a large capital ` V' with a C on the right leg, it appeared on various corporate items, such as coins. The first letter of the hometown of the chamber conducting the operation was placed on top; the monogram, flexibility, simplicity, symmetry and symbolism are considered notable characteristics of the VOC's professionally designed logo. Those elements ensured its success at a time when the concept of the corporate identity was unknown. An Australian vintner has used the VOC logo since the late 20th century, having re-registered the company's name for the purpose.
The flag of the company was red and blue, with the company logo embroidered on it. Around the world, in Engl
River Derwent (Tasmania)
The Derwent River is a river located in Tasmania, Australia. It is known by the palawa kani name timtumili minanya; the river rises in the state's Central Highlands at Lake St Clair, descends more than 700 metres over a distance of more than 200 kilometres, flowing through Hobart, the state's capital city, before emptying into Storm Bay and flowing into the Tasman Sea. The banks of the Derwent occupied by Tasmanian Aborigines. European settlers farmed the area and during the 20th century many dams were built on its tributaries for the generation of hydro-electricity. Agriculture, hydropower generation and fish hatcheries dominate catchment land use; the Derwent is an important source of water for irrigation and water supply. Most of Hobart's water supply is taken from the lower Derwent River. Nearly 40% of Tasmania's population lives around the estuary's margins and the Derwent is used for recreation, recreational fishing, marine transportation and industry, it was named after the River Derwent, Cumbria, by British Commodore John Hayes who explored it in 1793.
The name is Brythonic Celtic for "valley thick with oaks". John Hayes placed the name "River Derwent" only in the upper part of the river. Matthew Flinders placed the name "Derwent River" on all of the river; the Derwent River valley was inhabited by the Mouheneener people for at least 8,000 years before British settlement. Evidence of their occupation is found in many middens along the banks of the river. In 1793, John Hayes named it after the River Derwent, which runs past his birthplace of Bridekirk, Cumberland; when first explored by Europeans, the lower parts of the valley were clad in thick she-oak forests, remnants of which remain in various parts of the lower foreshore. There was a thriving whaling industry until the 1840s when the industry declined due to over-exploitation. Formed by the confluence of the Narcissus and Cuvier rivers within Lake St Clair, the Derwent flows southeast over a distance of 187 kilometres to New Norfolk and the estuary portion extends a further 52 kilometres out to the Tasman Sea.
Flows average in range from 50 to 140 cubic metres per second and the mean annual flow is 90 cubic metres per second. The large estuary forms the Port of the City of Hobart – claimed to be the deepest sheltered harbour in the Southern Hemisphere; the largest vessel to travel the Derwent is the 113,000-tonne, 61-metre high, ocean liner Diamond Princess, which made her first visit in January 2006. At points in its lower reaches the river is nearly 3 kilometres wide, as such is the widest river in Tasmania; until the construction of several hydro-electric dams between 1934 and 1968, the river was prone to flooding. Now there are more than twenty dams and reservoirs used for the generation of hydro-electricity on the Derwent and its tributaries, including the Clyde, Jordan, Ouse and Styx rivers. Seven lakes have been formed by damming the Derwent and the Nive rivers for hydroelectric purposes and include the Meadowbank, Repulse, Wayatinah and King William lakes or lagoons; the Upper Derwent is affected by agricultural run-off from land clearing and forestry.
The Lower Derwent suffers from high levels of heavy metal contamination in sediments. The Tasmanian Government-backed Derwent Estuary Program has commented that the levels of mercury, lead and cadmium in the river exceed national guidelines. In 2015 the program recommended against consuming shellfish and cautioned against consuming fish in general. Nutrient levels in the Derwent between 2010 and 2015 increased in the upper estuary where there had been algal blooms. A large proportion of the heavy metal contamination has come from major industries that discharge into the river including the former Electrolytic Zinc and now Nyrstar smelter at Lutana established in 1916, a paper mill at Boyer which opened in 1941; the Derwent adjoins or flows through the Pittwater–Orielton Lagoon, Interlaken Lakeside Reserve and Goulds Lagoon, all wetlands of significance protected under the Ramsar Convention. In recent years, southern right whales started making appearance in the river during months in winter and spring when their migration takes place.
Some females started using calm waters of the river as a safe ground for giving birth to their calves and would stay over following weeks after disappearance of 200 years due to being wiped out by intense whaling activities. In the winter months of 2014, humpback whales and a minke whale have been recorded feeding in the Derwent River for the first time since the whaling days of the 1800s. Several bridges connect the western shore to the eastern shore of Hobart – in the greater Hobart area, these include the five lane Tasman Bridge, near the CBD, just north of the port; until 1964 the Derwent was crossed by the unique Hobart Bridge, a floating concrete structure just upstream from where the Tasman Bridge now stands. Travelling further north from the Bridgewater crossing, the next crossing point is New Norfolk Bridge north of the point where the Derwent reverts from seawater to fresh water, Bushy Park, Upper Meadowbank Lake, Lake Repulse Road and the most northerly crossing is at Derwent Bridge, before the river reaches its source of Lake St Clair.
At the Derwent Brid