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Vancouver Centre

Vancouver Centre is a federal electoral district in British Columbia, represented in the House of Commons of Canada since 1917. The riding includes the neighbourhoods of Yaletown, the West End, Coal Harbour, Downtown Vancouver, western Strathcona and eastern Kitsilano; the riding has a multi-generational demographic. Retirees, young people and families as well as middle-aged working professional share its sidewalks, cafes and community centres amid a backdrop of gorgeous mountain and ocean views. According to the Canada 2016 CensusLanguages: 60.3% English, 4.5% Farsi, 4.4% Mandarin, 3.4% Cantonese, 3.1% Spanish, 2.8% Korean, 2.6% French, 1.9% Japanese, 1.8% Russian, 1.4% German, 1.4% Portuguese, 1.0% Arabic, 1.0% Serbian, 0.9% Tagalog, 0.8% Polish, 0.5% Italian, 0.4% Romanian, 0.4% Panjabi, 0.4% Turkish, 0.4% Czech, 0.4% Dutch, 0.4% Hindi The electoral district was created in 1914 from parts of Vancouver City riding. Its most high-profile Member of Parliament has been Kim Campbell, Prime Minister in 1993.

The 2012 federal electoral boundaries redistribution concluded that the electoral boundaries of Vancouver Centre should be adjusted, a modified electoral district of the same name will be contested in future elections. The redefined Vancouver Centre loses a portion of its current territory from its southern end to the new district of Vancouver Granville; these new boundaries were defined in the 2013 representation order, which came into effect upon the call of the 42nd Canadian federal election, scheduled for October 2015. This riding has elected the following Members of Parliament: Its current Member of Parliament is Hedy Fry, a former physician, she was first elected in 1993, is a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. List of Canadian federal electoral districts Past Canadian electoral districts " Census Profile". 2011 census. Statistics Canada. 2012. Retrieved 2011-03-06. Expenditures – 2004 Expenditures – 2000 Expenditures – 1997 Vancouver Centre electoral information at the Library of Parliament Website of the Parliament of Canada Map of Vancouver Center from Elections Canada.

Vancouver Centre electoral District Profile, Elections Canada Conservative Party of Canada - Vancouver Centre Electoral District Association Green Party of Canada - Vancouver Centre Electoral District Association

Gaspar da Cruz

Gaspar da Cruz was a Portuguese Dominican friar born in Évora, who traveled to Asia and wrote one of the first detailed European accounts about China. Gaspar da Cruz was admitted to the Order of Preachers convent of Azeitão. In 1548, along with 10 other friars. Gaspar da Cruz embarked for Portuguese India under the orders of Friar Diogo Bermudes, with the purpose of founding a Dominican mission in the East. For six years, Cruz remained in Hindustan in Goa and Kochi, as his Order had established a settlement there. During this time he visited Portuguese Ceylon. In 1554, Cruz was in Malacca, where he founded a house under his Order, living there until September 1555, he was shipped to Cambodia. Given the failure of the Cambodian mission, in late 1556 Cruz went to Lampacao, a small island in the Guangzhou bay, six leagues north of Shangchuan Island. At that time, Lamapacao island was a port for trade with the Chinese. At Lampacao, he was able to obtain a permission to go to Guangzhou, spent a month preaching there.

In 1557, Cruz returned to Malacca. In 1560, Cruz headed to Hormuz, he returned to India about 3 years although there are no definite records for this period. It is that Cruz returned to Portugal in 1565, returning to Lisbon in 1569, where he was documented helping victims of the plague, he returned to his convent in Setúbal where he died of the plague on February 5, 1570. Cruz's book, Tratado das cousas da China was published by André de Burgos, of Évora, in 1569; the full title, in the original orthography, was Tractado em que se cõtam muito por estẽso as cousas da China. It is described as the first European book whose main topic was China; the book contains accounts of Cambodia and Hormuz. In Donald F. Lach's assessment, Cruz' book itself did not become distributed in Europe either because it was published in Portuguese, or because it appeared in the year of the plague. Nonetheless, Cruz' book, at least indirectly, played a key role in forming the European view of China in the sixteenth century, alongside the earlier and shorter account by Galeote Pereira.

Cruz' Treatise was the main source of information for Bernardino de Escalante's Discourso... de las grandezas del Reino de la China, one of the main sources for the much more famous and translated History of the great and mighty kingdom of China compiled by Juan González de Mendoza in 1585. While Escalante's and Mendoza's works were translated into many European languages within a few years after the appearance of the Spanish original, Cruz' text only appeared in English in 1625, in Samuel Purchas' Purchas his Pilgrimes, then only in an abridged form, as A Treatise of China and the adjoining regions, written by Gaspar da Cruz a Dominican Friar, dedicated to Sebastian, King of Portugal: here abbreviated. By this time his report had been superseded not only by Mendoza's celebrated treatise, but by the much more informed work of Matteo Ricci and Nicolas Trigault, De Christiana expeditione apud Sinas. Reading Gaspar da Cruz' Treatise, one has an impression that, as of 1555, communication between the Portuguese and the Chinese was accomplished thanks to the existence of some Chinese people able to speak Portuguese, rather than the other way around.

His book several times mentions Chinese interpreters working with Portuguese, but never a Portuguese person speaking or reading Chinese.. The Portuguese, of course, did know some Chinese words and common expressions: da Cruz' book contains, for example, titles of various officials, or the word cha. Da Cruz was, curious about the Chinese writing system, gave a brief report of it, which John DeFrancis has described as "the first Western account of the fascinatingly different Chinese writing." One of the major irritants in the early Sino-Portuguese relations was the Portuguese' proclivity to enslave Chinese children and take them to various Portuguese colonies, or to Portugal itself. While this traffic was on a much smaller scale than the Atlantic slave trade, supplying millions of African slaves for Portuguese Brazil, it was a contributing factor to the failure of the Tomé Pires' 1521 embassy, when, in a words of a researcher, many residents of Canton discovered that "many of their children, whom they had given in pledge to their creditors, had been kidnapped by" Simão de Andrade "and carried away to become slaves".

Gaspar da Cruz was aware of this trade, and, as his book implies, he had heard of the Portuguese slavers' attempts to justify their actions by claiming that they had been buying children that were slaves while in China. Da Cruz described the situation with slavery in China. According to him, the laws of China allowed impoverished widows to sell her children. Reselling of such slaves was regulated too, there being "great penalties

HMS Spartan (95)

HMS Spartan was a Dido-class light cruiser of the Bellona subgroup of the Royal Navy. She was a modified Dido design with only four turrets but improved anti-aircraft armament - known as Dido Group 2, she was built by Vickers-Armstrongs, with the keel being laid down on 21 December 1939. She was launched on 27 August 1942, commissioned on 12 July 1943 and completed on 10 August 1943. Commissioned with a Devonport crew under the command of Captain P. V. McLaughlin, Royal Navy, Spartan was intended for service with the Eastern Fleet, but after a couple of months with the Home Fleet, spent working-up at Scapa Flow, on 17 October 1943 she left Plymouth Sound for the Mediterranean, sailing by way of Gibraltar and Algiers, she arrived at Malta on 28 October 1943 to be temporarily attached to the Mediterranean Fleet, she went on to Taranto to join the 15th Cruiser Squadron on 8 November. On the night of 18–19 January 1944 Spartan carried out a diversionary bombardment in the Terracina area, and—with the cruiser Orion and four destroyers—provided useful supporting fire during the Garigliano River Operations.

There was only minor opposition from shore batteries, during the bombardment Spartan alone fired 900 rounds. Operation Shingle—the landing of troops at Anzio—began on 22 January 1944, Orion and Spartan were detailed to provide gun support. There was little opposition, Spartan returned to Naples to remain available at short notice. On 27 January she was ordered to report to CTF 81 for anti-aircraft protection duties off Anzio. At sunset on 29 January the Luftwaffe began a glide bomb attack on the ships in Anzio Bay. At the time of the attack Spartan was anchored. Smoke had been ordered in the anchorage but was not effective owing to the short time it was in operation and the strong breeze. Spartan was not herself covered. About 18 aircraft approached from the north and circling over land, delivered a beam attack against the ships that were silhouetted against the afterglow. Due to the timing of the attack the aircraft were seen only by few, radar was ineffective owing to land echoes. By the time the warning had been received and the ships had opened fire in the general direction of the attack, six bombs were approaching the anchorage, most of them falling into the water.

But at about 18:00 a radio-controlled Henschel Hs 293 glide bomb hit Spartan just aft of the after funnel and detonated high up in the compartments abreast the port side of the after boiler room, blowing a large hole in the upper deck. The main mast collapsed and boiler rooms were flooded. Steam and electrical power failed, a serious fire developed and the ship heeled over to port. About an hour after being hit, Spartan had to be abandoned, 10 minutes she settled on her beam ends in about 25–30 ft of water. Five officers and 41 enlisted men were posted killed or missing presumed killed, 42 enlisted men were wounded. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. HMS Spartan at A history of HMS Spartan

Fort Madison Community School District

Fort Madison Community School District is a school district headquartered in Fort Madison, Iowa. In Lee County, with a small portion in Henry County, it serves Fort Madison, Houghton, St. Paul, West Point, it serves the unincorporated area of Denmark. In 2007 the district had a $16 million bond proposal for building a new K-8 campus that would replace Fort Madison Middle School and Denmark Elementary School, but voters rejected it. There was a bond proposal $30 million, rejected three times, with the third having 59.9% voting in favor when 60% was required for a pass. Fort Madison High School Fort Madison Middle School The current school, serving grades 4 through 8, is in western Fort Madison; the previous Fort Madison Middle School building once serves as Fort Madison High School. The district closed this building in 2012. Superintendent Ken Marang stated that the school was too small and crowded for its purpose, citing "small rooms, narrow hallways and convoluted stairways." As of 2015 developer Todd Schneider was creating a 39-unit apartment complex from the former Fort Madison Middle building, within a development which Schneider spent $4.5 million to renovate.

As of 2012 the school had about 500 students. Lincoln Elementary School Richardson Elementary SchoolFormer schools: Denmark Elementary School In 1998 the school had about 305 students, it originated from the establishment of Denmark Academy in 1845. The original building was destroyed in a fire circa 1924; the district decided to Denmark Elementary in 2012. Marang stated that the "outdated" building had problems with mold and water leakage and that the fact that "doors open out into the hallways" made it "unsafe". Circa 2013 some residents were calling for the school to be dismantled and the land given to the community. Jefferson Elementary School Creative Learning Center Fort Madison Community School District Fort Madison Community School District at the Wayback Machine

Catherine Courtney, Baroness Courtney of Penwith

Catherine "Kate" Courtney, Baroness Courtney of Penwith was a British social worker and internationalist. Active in charitable organisations in her early life, she campaigned with her husband Leonard Courtney to end the Second Boer War and the First World War, she sought to bring attention to the plight of citizens of the enemy nations and was denounced as being overly sympathetic to the enemy during both wars. Catherine Potter was born at Herefordshire, she was the second daughter of the businessman Richard Potter and his wife Lawrencina, daughter of a Liverpool merchant. Her seven younger sisters included the social reformer Beatrice Webb, Baroness Passfield, while Charles Cripps, 1st Baron Parmoor, Henry Hobhouse were among her brothers-in-law. Educated at home by tutors, she attended a London boarding school for girls in the 1860s, she was not regarded as clever or beautiful, disliked seasons and socialising with the upper class. After her coming out party in 1865, she strived for independence and resisted her parents' attempts to marry her off.

In 1875, after a difficult year, the 28-year-old Kate Potter left her family home and went to London to enlist in the activities of Octavia Hill and started training for the Charity Organization Society in Whitechapel, as well as working as an organiser of an East End boys' clubs, before joining Samuel Augustus and Henrietta Barnett in their philanthropic work. Her parents frowned upon her decision, as did her elder sister Lawrencina, but granted her a small allowance which enabled her to settle in Great College Street in Westminster, she stayed in touch with her family and they complained about her forcing them to attend "poor people's parties", which they escaped as soon as they could. For the next eight years, she worked at Whitechapel; as Hill's full-time aide from 1876 until 1883, Kate Potter's duties included running youth clubs and collecting rents. The tight work schedule that she maintained, helped her to avoid dealing with her family's expectations, her friendliness made her popular as a rent collector, she managed to persuade her sisters Theresa and Beatrice to join her.

In 1884, model dwellings in Aldgate in which she worked, were named after her – Katharine Buildings. Catherine Potter met the 48-year-old Leonard Courtney Liberal cabinet minister, in 1880, became friends with him at Charles Booth's dinner parties. Potter and Courtney married on 15 March 1883. Both were Quakers and they were married for 35 years. Despite their hopes to have children and Catherine's fertility operation in 1888, the couple remained childless. Under her husband's influence, she became Liberal Unionist. Marriage, required her to relinquish her earlier activities for the sake of homemaking and supporting her husband's career, they founded the South Africa Conciliation Committee in 1899. In the 1890s, she became leader of the Women's Liberal Unionist Association but was disappointed by its conservatism and imperialism and resigned from the association's committee on 24 October 1900. Meanwhile, the Courtneys were significant supporters of the Zulu welfare activist Harriette Colenso, daughter of Bishop John Colenso.

The Courtneys campaigned for world peace. They were accused of being "pro-Boers" during the Second Boer War, receiving anonymous threatening letters, Catherine was called "pro-Hun" after the First World War by the Daily Sketch, she supported negotiating the end of both wars, joining the 1899 armistice campaign of Emily Hobhouse, aligning herself with Jane Addams' attempts to negotiate peace during the First World War, with the help of neutral nations. Throughout 1901, she informed the British public of conditions inside the British concentration camps built for Boer women and children. In 1906, her husband was elevated to peerage and she became Baroness Courtney of Penwith. Lady Courtney championed the "innocent enemies" of the First World War and participated in the founding of an emergency committee aimed at helping German civilians living in Britain, she publicised the work of her German counterparts in Berlin. She unsuccessfully pleaded with the Home Office to enable German civilians to remain in Britain.

Lady Courtney was widowed in May 1918. In January the next year, she hosted the first meeting of the Fight the Famine Committee at her home in Cheyne Walk. Along with her former brother-in-law, Lord Parmoor, Lady Courtney campaigned for ending the blockade of Germany, she wrote to The Daily News in 1920, saying that "somebody must begin to be good if the better world we were promised is to come". She died in Cheyne Walk in 1929 and was buried at Chelsea Old Church

Guardian (Baháʼí Faith)

The Guardian is a hereditary office of the Baháʼí Faith, first mentioned in the Will and Testament of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá. Shoghi Effendi was named as the first Guardian of the Baháʼí Faith, future Guardians were to be appointed from among the male descendants of Baháʼu'lláh. However, since Shoghi Effendi died without having named a successor Guardian, no person could be named to fulfill the position after his death on November 4, 1957, he remains the only individual acknowledged as Guardian of the Baháʼí Faith, but his guidance remains in the written record of his many writings. Being ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's eldest grandson, the first son of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's eldest daughter Ḍíyáʼíyyih Khánum, Shoghi Effendi had a special relationship with his grandfather. Zia Baghdadi, a contemporary Baháʼí, relates that when Shoghi Effendi was only five years of age, he pestered his grandfather to write a Tablet for him, which ʻAbdu'l-Bahá obliged.ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's family physician, a German doctor who became a Baháʼí, would relate that in 1910, when Shoghi Effendi was thirteen years old, ʻAbdu'l-Bahá named him his successor, referring to him as his "future Elisha."

Shoghi Effendi remained close to his grandfather during his years as a student, first at the LaSallian Collège des Frères in Haifa and as a boarder in Beirut, first at a Catholic school and at the Syrian Protestant College. Shoghi Effendi was to accompany his grandfather on his journeys to the West but was unable to proceed after port authorities in Naples prevented Shoghi Effendi from continuing due to illness. At the end of World War I, after he had received his Bachelor of Arts degree in Beirut, Shoghi Effendi spent nearly two years of constant companionship with ʻAbdu'l-Bahá before proceeding to Oxford to further his studies and improve his English. At the time of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's death in Acre on November 28, 1921, Shoghi Effendi was a twenty-four-year-old student enrolled at Balliol College, Oxford. Upon reading the telegram announcing ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's death, in the home of Wellesley Tudor Pole, Secretary of the London Local Spiritual Assembly, Shoghi Effendi passed out. After spending a few days with John Esslemont, Shoghi Effendi left England on December 16, 1921, accompanied by Lady Blomfield and his sister Ruhangiz, arrived in Haifa on December 29.

ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's Will and Testament, addressed to Shoghi Effendi, was read a few days after Shoghi Effendi's arrival in Haifa. The Will and Testament of ʻAbdu'l-Bahá was written by ʻAbdu'l-Bahá on three different occasions, the text remains in three parts. In his Will ʻAbdu'l-Bahá addresses the Baháʼí Covenant and the role of Mírzá Muhammad ʻAlí as a Covenant-breaker. Shoghi Effendi describes the Will, along with the Kitáb-i-Aqdas, the Tablets of the Divine Plan, the Tablet of Carmel, as one of the charters of the Baháʼí Administrative Order.ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's will provided a framework for the Guardian within the Baháʼí administration including: A requirement that the Guardian appoint his successor "in his own life-time... that differences may not arise after his passing." The appointee was required to be either one of the Aghsán. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá left a responsibility to nine Hands of the Cause, elected from all of the Hands, who "whether unanimously or by a majority vote, must give their assent to the choice of the one whom the Guardian of the Cause of God hath chosen as his successor."

ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's will stated that the Hands of the Cause were to be nominated and appointed by the Guardian and are to be under his direction and obey his command. The Guardian is to be the head of the Universal House of Justice and either attend its deliberations in person or appoint a representative to do so. ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's will stipulates that Huqúqu'lláh, made directly to Baháʼu'lláh and ʻAbdu'l-Bahá during their lifetimes, would henceforth be made to the Guardian. Although in the Kitáb-i-ʻAhd Baháʼu'lláh designates Mírzá Muhammad ʻAlí as ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's successor, in his Will, ʻAbdu'l-Bahá reprimands his brother as "The Center of Sedition, the Prime Mover of mischief" and establishes the institution of the Guardianship, appointing Shoghi Effendi to this newly created office: As Guardian, Shoghi Effendi held a new and distinct role. Building on the foundation, established in ʻAbdu'l-Bahá's will, Shoghi Effendi elaborated on the role of the Guardian in the developing Baháʼí Administrative Order in several works, including Baháʼí Administration and the World Order of Baháʼu'lláh, in the chapter entitled The Administrative Order.

In those works, Shoghi Effendi goes to great lengths to emphasize that the Guardianship is a distinct station from that of Manifestation or Center of the Covenant: Shoghi Effendi was critical of Baháʼís referring to him as a holy personage, asking them not to celebrate his birthday or have his picture on display. Furthermore, he did not refer to his own personal role as an individual, but instead to the institution of the Guardianship. In his correspondences, Shoghi Effendi signed his letters to Baháʼís as "brother" and "co-worker," to the extent that when addressing youth, he referred to himself as "Your True Brother." Instead, Shoghi Effendi goes to great lengths to emphasize the significance of the "Institution of Guardianship," which he calls the "head cornerstone of the Administrative Order of the Cause of Baháʼu'lláh,"In his writings, Shoghi Effendi delineates a distinct separation of powers between the "twin pilla