The Vancouver Expedition was a four-and-a-half-year voyage of exploration and diplomacy, commanded by Captain George Vancouver of the Royal Navy. The British expedition made contact with five continents; the expedition at various times included between two and four vessels, up to 153 men, all but six of whom returned home safely. Several previous voyages of exploration including those of Ferdinand Magellan and James Cook, the Spanish Manila-Acapulco galleons trade route active since 1565, had established the strategic and commercial value of exploring and claiming the Pacific Ocean access, both for its wealth in whales and furs and as a trade route to'the Orient' – Asia. Britain was interested in improving its knowledge of the Southern Pacific whale fisheries, in particular the location of the strategically positioned Australia, New Zealand, the legendary Isla Grande, the Northwest Passage. A new ship was purchased, fitted out, named HMS Discovery after one of Cook's ships, her captain was Vancouver his 1st Lieutenant.
Plans changed when the adventurer John Meares reported that the Spanish had impounded his ship and hundreds of thousands of pounds' worth of goods at Nootka Sound. Although it is now known that his claims of loss were somewhat exaggerated, Britain had beaten Spain at war and seemed ready to resume hostilities. Roberts and Vancouver left Discovery to serve in the Channel Fleet while Discovery became a depot ship for processing victims of the press gang; the Spanish capitulated in the Nootka Sound Convention, whose terms resulted in inconsistent instructions for the British and Spanish officers sent to implement them. Vancouver returned to Discovery as the expedition's commander. Vancouver understood from the discussions he had with ministers and officials in London prior to his departure that his task was to receive back from the Spanish commander at Nootka Sound land and property, confiscated from the English fur traders in July 1789 and of establishing a formal British presence there to support and promote the fur trade.
Proposals to establish a British colony on the North West Coast had been discussed in commercial and official circles in the 1780s, encouraged by the success of the project to colonize Botany Bay and Norfolk Island. During the war crisis with Spain that resulted from the arrest of the English fur traders at Nootka Sound, plans were made for a small party of convicts and marines to be sent from New South Wales to make a subsidiary settlement on the North West Coast: one of the ships to be used for this task was to have been the Discovery, which Vancouver afterwards commanded during his expedition, he believed that once he had accepted restitution of Nootka Sound its and associated territory he was to make preparations for founding a British colony there that, at least would have had a close connection with the New South Wales colony. Supplies and materials for establishing the colony were sent on the Daedalus storeship, he was instructed "to receive back in form a restitution of the territories on which the Spaniards had seized, to make an accurate survey of the coast, from the 30th degree of north latitude northwestward toward Cook's River.
These explorations were in part to discover water communication into the North American interior and to facilitate the researches of the expedition's politically well-connected botanist, Archibald Menzies. A change to a more conciliatory British policy toward Spain after he left England in April 1791, a result of challenges arising from the French Revolution, not communicated to him, left him in an embarrassing situation in his negotiations with the Spanish commander at Nootka. Although Vancouver and Bodega y Quadra were friendly with one another, their negotiations did not go smoothly. Spain desired to set the Spanish-British boundary at the Strait of Juan de Fuca, but Vancouver insisted on British rights to the Columbia River. Vancouver objected to the new Spanish post at Neah Bay. Bodega y Quadra insisted on Spain retaining Nootka Sound. In the end the two agreed to refer the matter to their respective governments. Following the mutiny on the Bounty, the Admiralty had ordered the precaution that ships not make such long voyages alone.
The chartered merchant ship, would rendezvous at Nootka Sound a year with supplies. The expedition was supposed to take three years; the Muster of the expedition lists 153 men. Most were naval officers or sailors, many of whom would distinguish themselves in future service, including Peter Puget, Joseph Baker, Joseph Whidbey, William Broughton, Zachary Mudge, Thomas Manby, Robert Barrie. There was a large detachment of Marines. Two 16-year-old aristocrats, the Honorable Thomas Pitt and the Honorable Charles Stuart, were brought aboard as able seamen. Among the supernumeraries were Menzies and his servant John Ewin. A Hawaiian man named Towereroo, whom Captain Charles Duncan had brought to England, was put on Discovery that he might return home; the Muster includes a Widow's Man, rated able seaman, but in fact an accounting fiction. On 1 April 1791 Discovery and Chatham set sail, they reached Santa Cruz in
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci
Downtown Vancouver is the southeastern portion of the peninsula in the north-central part of the City of Vancouver. It is the main city centre and central business district of the city, Metro Vancouver, the Lower Mainland regions; the downtown area is considered to be bounded by Burrard Inlet to the north, Stanley Park and the West End to the west, False Creek to the south, the Downtown Eastside to the east. Most sources include the full downtown peninsula as downtown Vancouver, but the City of Vancouver defines them as separate neighbourhoods. Besides the identifiable office towers of the financial and central business districts, Downtown Vancouver includes residential neighbourhoods in the form of high-rise apartment and condominiums, in Yaletown and Coal Harbour. Other downtown neighbourhoods include the Granville Mall and Entertainment District, Downtown's South, Gastown and Chinatown; the downtown area includes most of the remaining historic buildings and many of the larger notable buildings in the region.
There are two major sporting facilities in Rogers Arena and BC Place Stadium. The NHL's Vancouver Canucks play at Rogers Arena, while the CFL's BC Lions and the MLS's Vancouver Whitecaps FC use the neighbouring BC Place Stadium. SkyTrain Stadium-Chinatown station provides easy rapid transit access to the district; the presence of water on three sides limits access to downtown Vancouver. There are four major bridges: the Lions Gate Bridge, connecting to the North Shore municipalities and the Trans Canada Highway, the Burrard Street Bridge, Cambie Street Bridge, Granville Street Bridge provides access to the commercial and residential areas south of False Creek; the historic Waterfront station is the principal transit hub for the downtown core. There are six subway stations located in downtown Vancouver running on two SkyTrain lines: the Expo Line and Canada Line; the Expo Line travels from Waterfront station at the foot of the central harbor and through Dunsmuir Tunnel to the east. The Canada Line travels from Waterfront station and tunnels south under Granville Street and Davie Street, linking downtown to central Richmond and Vancouver International Airport.
SeaBus is a passenger-only ferry that connects from Waterfront station to the North Shore in 10–12 minutes. The West Coast Express commuter rail system travels from Waterfront station to the eastern suburbs and exurbs. Terminals are available near Waterfront station for float planes and helicopters. Most north-south Vancouver bus routes serve Downtown Vancouver, in addition to suburban routes from the North Shore and Burnaby; the bus rapid transit line 98 B-Line had eight stops in the downtown core along Seymour Street and Burrard Street. This service was replaced on August 2009 by SkyTrain's Canada Line; the 95 B-Line started service in December 2016 in conjunction with the opening of the Evergreen Extension, connecting downtown to Simon Fraser University along Hastings Street. There are two private passenger water taxi operators, providing service between several downtown neighbourhoods, False Creek, Granville Island; the city is planning to extend the downtown streetcar from its current route of Granville Island to the Main Street SkyTrain station, with future plans extending it to Chinatown and to Stanley Park.
City of Vancouver Community Profiles: Downtown Downtown page, Vancouver Then and Now website, comparisons of old photos with modern locations
1918 Vancouver general strike
The 1918 Vancouver General Strike was the first general strike in Canadian history and was held 2 August 1918. It was organized as a one-day political protest against the killing of draft evader and labour activist Albert "Ginger" Goodwin, who had called for a general strike in the event that any worker was drafted against their will; the strike was met with violence from returned soldiers, mobilized and supplied with vehicles to storm the Labour Temple at 411 Dunsmuir Street. Three hundred men ransacked the offices of the Vancouver Trades and Labour Council, twice attempted to defenestrate VTLC secretary Victor Midgely and forced him and a longshoreman to kiss the Union Jack. A woman working in the office was badly bruised when she prevented Midgely from being thrown out the window. Labour activist and suffragette Helena Gutteridge was at the scene, but was unscathed. In response to virulent opposition from business and the middle class, strike leaders could point to the vote by VTLC delegates that supported the strike 117 to 1.
After the strike, all the strike leaders resigned and nearly all were re-elected, demonstrating widespread support for the action amongst organized workers and that it was not the product of a Bolshevik conspiracy. Although the strike call was province-wide, it was only in the city that it took general strike proportions. Numerous other strikes took place in the city that year, the general strike was as much a show of labour strength as much as it was a political protest over Goodwin's death. War-time inflation reduced real income profoundly. Other factors such as the Bolshevik Revolution the previous year and the realization that capital profited immensely from the First World War while workers were cannon fodder fuelled the belief that labour deserved more than what employers were voluntarily willing to give. Although only one day in duration, the 1918 strike was thus an important marker in the Canadian labour revolt that peaked with the Winnipeg General Strike the following year. A 1919 Vancouver strike in sympathy with Winnipeg would be the longest general strike in Canadian history.
Allen Seager and David Roth, "British Columbia and the Mining West: A Ghost of a Chance," in Craig Heron, ed. The Workers' Revolt in Canada, 1917-1925, 250
Komagata Maru incident
The Komagata Maru incident involved the Japanese steamship Komagata Maru on which a group of citizens of the British Raj attempted to emigrate to Canada in 1914 but were denied entry and forced return to Calcutta, India. There they were fired upon by Indian Imperial Police resulting in the deaths of 20 Sikhs. Komagata Maru sailed from British Hong Kong, via Shanghai and Yokohama, Japan, to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, in 1914, carrying 376 passengers from Punjab, British India. Of them, 24 were admitted to Canada, but the other 352 passengers were not allowed to disembark in Canada, the ship was forced to return to India; the passengers comprised 340 Sikhs, 24 Muslims, 12 Hindus, all British subjects. This was one of several incidents in the early 20th century in which exclusion laws in Canada and the United States were used to exclude immigrants of Asian origin; the Canadian government's first attempt to restrict immigration from British India was an Order in Council passed on January 8, 1908, that prohibited immigration of persons who "in the opinion of the Minister of the Interior" did not "come from the country of their birth or citizenship by a continuous journey and or through tickets purchased before leaving their country of their birth or nationality".
In practice this continuous journey regulation applied only to ships that began their voyage in India, as the great distance necessitated a stopover in Japan or Hawaii. These regulations came at a time when Canada was accepting huge numbers of immigrants all of whom came from Europe. More than 400,000 arrived in an annual figure that has not been equaled since. Gurdit Singh Sandhu, from Sarhali, was a Singaporean businessman, aware that Canadian exclusion laws were preventing Punjabis from immigrating there, he wanted to circumvent these laws by hiring a boat to sail from Calcutta to Vancouver. His aim was to help his compatriots. Though Gurdit Singh was aware of regulations when he chartered the ship Komagata Maru in January 1914, he continued with his enterprise to challenge the continuous journey regulation in the hopes of opening the door for immigration from India to Canada. At the same time, in January 1914, he publicly espoused the Ghadarite cause while in Hong Kong; the Ghadar Party was an organization founded by Indian residents of the United States and Canada in June 1913 with the aim of liberating India from British rule.
It was known as the Hindi Association of the Pacific Coast. The passengers consisted of 340 Sikhs, 24 Muslims, 12 Hindus, all British subjects. One of the Sikh passengers, Jagat Singh Thind, was the youngest brother of Bhagat Singh Thind, an Indian-American Sikh writer and lecturer on "spiritual science", involved in an important legal battle over the rights of Indians to obtain U. S. citizenship. The Canadian Government made claims that amongst the passengers were a number of Indian nationalists intent on creating disorder However this was a public relations cover for its real motive for turning back the ship – a dislike of and discrimination against Indian nationals due to their ethnicity. Hong Kong became the point of departure; the ship was scheduled to leave in March, but Singh was arrested for selling tickets for an illegal voyage. After several months he was released on bail and given permission by Francis Henry May, the Governor of Hong Kong, to set sail; the ship departed on April 4 with 165 passengers.
More passengers joined at Shanghai on April 8, the ship arrived at Yokohama on April 14. It left Yokohama on May 3 with its complement of 376 passengers and sailed into Burrard Inlet, near Vancouver, on May 23; the Indian Nationalist revolutionaries Barkatullah and Bhagwaan Singh Giani met with the ship en route. Bhagwaan Singh Giani was head priest of the Gurdwara in Vancouver and had been one of three delegates sent to London and India to represent the case of Indians in Canada. Ghadarite literature was disseminated on board and political meetings took place on board. A passenger told a British officer:"This ship belongs to the whole of India, this is a symbol of the honour of India and if this was detained, there would be mutiny in the armies"; when Maru arrived in Canadian waters, first at Coal Harbour in Burrard Inlet some 200 meters off CPR Pier A, it was not allowed to dock. The first immigration officer to meet the ship in Vancouver was Fred "Cyclone" Taylor. While Prime Minister of Canada Robert Borden decided what to do with the ship, the Conservative Premier of British Columbia, Richard McBride, gave a categorical statement that the passengers would not be allowed to disembark.
Conservative MP H. H. Stevens organized a public meeting against allowing the ship's passengers to disembark and urged the government to refuse to allow the ship to remain. Stevens worked with immigration official Malcolm R. J. Reid to keep the passengers off shore. Reid's intransigence, supported by Stevens, led to mistreatment of the passengers on the ship and prolonged its departure date, not resolved until the intervention of the federal Minister of Agriculture, Martin Burrell, MP for Yale—Cariboo. Meanwhile, a "shore committee" had been formed with Sohan Lal Pathak. Protest meetings were held in the United States. At one, held in Dominion Hall, the assembly resolved that if the passengers were not allowed off, Indo-Canadians should follow them back to India to start a rebellion or Ghadar. A British government agent who infiltrated the meeting wired government officials in London and Ottawa
A golden jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 50th anniversary. It variously is applied to people and nations. Emperor Wu of Han dynasty Kangxi Emperor of Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor of Qing dynasty Yeongjo of Joseon In Japan, golden jubilee refers to a 50th anniversary and is called Go-Zai-i gojūnen kinen. Emperor Hirohito, celebrated his golden jubilee on 10 November 1976. Showa Memorial Park was established as part of a project to commemorate his golden jubilee. For the year 2015, the "Singapore50" initiative launched in Singapore to celebrate 50 years of independence from Malaysia, with a logo that spells "SG50"; the term SG50 has since been used to refer to the celebrations as a whole. National Day Parade ceremonies; the golden jubilee is a royal ceremony to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the accession of the king. The Thai word is kanchanaphisek; the first Golden Jubilee of Thailand was the celebration of King Bhumibol Adulyadej. King Rama IX celebrated his golden jubilee on 9 June 1996, having acceded to the throne in 1946.
He was Thailand's longest-reigning monarch. The 545.65 carat Golden Jubilee Diamond was purchased by Thai businessmen as a gift for the king on the 50th anniversary of his coronation. The diamond is held in the Royal Palace as part of Thailand's crown jewels. In 1996, Prime Minister Banharn Silpa-archa and the Thai people celebrated the king with a multi-day celebration; the symbol of the golden jubilee of King Bhumibol Adulyadej was designed by Wiyada Charoensuk, winner of a design contest. There are three elements to the design: The king's throne is a sign of the Jakkree dynasty White tiered umbrellas of kingship, representing the constitution of Thailand Two elephants, representing the Thai peopleThe Fine Arts Department wanted this design to: Celebrate the king Help Thai people remember Thailand's traditions Show that Thais are proud to be subjects of the king Show that Thais have a long history as a nation In the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms, a golden jubilee celebration is held in the 50th year of a monarch's reign.
The golden jubilee of George III of the United Kingdom was celebrated on 25 October 1809, prior to the actual 50th anniversary in 1810. Queen Elizabeth II celebrated her golden jubilee in 2002, having ascended the throne in 1952. In 1887 the United Kingdom and the British Empire celebrated Queen Victoria's golden jubilee. Victoria marked 20 June 1887—the fiftieth anniversary of her accession—with a banquet, to which fifty European kings and princes were invited. Although she could not have been aware of it, there was a plan by Irish Republicans to blow up Westminster Abbey while the Queen attended a service of thanksgiving; this assassination attempt, when it was discovered, became known as the Jubilee Plot. At the time, Victoria was an popular monarch. Brunei, Abdul Jalilul Akbar celebrated his golden jubilee in 1648. Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddin I celebrated his golden jubilee in 1790. Bavaria, Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria celebrated his golden jubilee as Elector Palatine in 1792. Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach, Grand Duke Karl August celebrated his golden jubilee in 1826, dating from when he reached his majority.
Austria-Hungary, Emperor Franz Josef celebrated his golden jubilee in 1898. Baden, Grand Duke Frederick I celebrated his golden jubilee in 1906, dated from when he became regent to his brother before succeeding to the throne. Liechtenstein, Prince Johann II celebrated his golden jubilee in 1908. Greece, King George I was assassinated mere weeks before his golden jubilee was due to be celebrated in 1913. Montenegro, Nikola I Petrović-Njegoš celebrated his golden jubilee in 1914. Norway, King Haakon VII celebrated his golden jubilee in 1955. Burundi, King Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng celebrated his golden jubilee in 1965. Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie celebrated his golden jubilee, dating from when he became regent, in 1966. Iran, Naser al-Din Shah Qajar was assassinated and killed while visiting a holy place around Tehran as a religious ceremony and preparing to celebrate the 50th anniversary of his monarchy. Iran, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi celebrated the 50th anniversary of Pahlavi Dynasty in 1976.
Japan, Emperor Showa celebrated his golden jubilee in 1976. Monaco, Prince Rainier III celebrated his golden jubilee in 1999, his Highness the Aga Khan IV celebrated his Golden Jubilee from July 11, 2007 to December 13, 2008. Malaysia, Sultan Tuanku Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah celebrated his golden jubilee on 15 July 2008 after 50 years reigning the state of Kedah. Egypt, the Egyptian Television celebrated its golden jubilee on 22 July 2010 after 50 years from airing for the first time. Kenya, the Nation Media Group's Daily Nation and Sunday Nation celebrated their golden jubilee in the year 2010 after 50 years from being published for the first time. In New Zealand, Kingseat Hospital celebrated 50 years of operation in 1982. and Maeroa Intermediate in 2004. Detroit, Michigan in the United States, the 1946 Automotive Golden Jubilee was a citywide celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the American automotive industry. Alhaji Ado Bayero The Emir of Kano, Nigeria celebrated his Golden Jubilee on June 2013.
Brunei, Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah celebrated his Golden Jubilee on 5 October 2017 after 50 years of his accession to the throne. Silver jubilee Ruby jubilee Diamond jubilee Sapphire jubilee Platinum jubilee Buckingham Palace Gardens Wedding anniversary#Celebration and gifts Hierarchy of precious substances
Metro Vancouver Regional District
Metro Vancouver is a political body and corporate entity designated by provincial legislation as one of the regional districts in British Columbia, Canada. The official legal name is the Metro Vancouver Regional District, the organization was known as the Greater Vancouver Regional District from 1968 to 2017. Further, it was known as the Regional District of Fraser–Burrard for nearly one year upon incorporating in 1967; the MVRD is under the direction of 23 local authorities. The regional district's most populous city is Vancouver, Metro Vancouver's administrative offices are located in the City of Burnaby; the MVRD's boundaries match those of the Vancouver census metropolitan area as identified by Statistics Canada. The Greater Vancouver Water District and the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District were established in 1924 and 1956 respectively; the Government of British Columbia incorporated a regional district for this western portion of the Lower Mainland named the Regional District of Fraser-Burrard on June 29, 1967.
Just under a year the regional district was renamed as the Greater Vancouver Regional District on June 13, 1968. In 2007, the GVRD applied to change its official legal name a second time to "Metro Vancouver", deemed more recognizable at the time. British Columbia's Minister of Community Services denied the application due to the absence of the term "regional district" within the proposed new name, though it was suggested that the GVRD could brand itself under the unofficial name of Metro Vancouver. After nine years, with growing public recognition of Metro Vancouver, the overall success of the brand, confusion between the brand and the official legal name of the regional district, the GVRD motioned in 2016 to change its name to the Metro Vancouver Regional District; the regional district was therefore formally renamed a second time by the Government of British Columbia on January 30, 2017 to the Metro Vancouver Regional District. The Metro Vancouver Regional District is located east of the Strait of Georgia and north of the State of Washington and is bisected by the Fraser River.
The boundaries of the MVRD match those of the Vancouver CMA. In the 2016 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada, the Metro Vancouver Regional District recorded a population of 2,463,431 living in 960,894 of its 1,027,613 total private dwellings, a change of 6.5% from its revised 2011 population of 2,313,328. With a land area of 2,882.68 km2, it had a population density of 854.6/km2 in 2016, making it the regional district in British Columbia with the greatest population and population density in British Columbia. This regional district comprises 23 local authorities as members: 21 municipalities, one electoral area and one treaty First Nation. Electoral Area A comprises all unincorporated land within the regional district boundaries, which totals about 818 square kilometres. Most of the area is in the northernmost part of the district, including residential areas and isolated dwellings on Howe Sound between Lions Bay and Horseshoe Bay, on Indian Arm to the north of Deep Cove and Belcarra/Anmore and on the west side of Pitt Lake to the north of Port Coquitlam.
Other areas included are Barnston Island on the Fraser River, Passage Island between Bowen Island and West Vancouver, the urban communities of the University of British Columbia and the University Endowment Lands, in which 98% of the population of Electoral Area A lives. There are seventeen Indian reserves within the geographical area that are not subject to governance by local authorities or the regional district; the cities of Abbotsford and Chilliwack and the district of Mission, located to the east, although linked to Vancouver in promotions and tourism, are part of a separate regional district, the Fraser Valley Regional District. Metro Vancouver technically comprises four separate corporate entities: the Metro Vancouver Regional District, the Greater Vancouver Sewerage and Drainage District, the Greater Vancouver Water District and the Metro Vancouver Housing Corporation; each of these is governed by a board of directors. The board of the MVRD has 40 directors coming from the 23 local authorities.
The number of directors coming from each local authority is determined by population, the number of votes allocated to each director further helps proportionally represent the population distribution of the region. Each board director is an elected official of one of the local authorities, with the exception of the representative for Electoral Area A, which has no elected council; as of 2017, the organization had about 1,500 employees. The current organizational structure shows ten departments reporting to the Chief Administrative Officer: Human Resources & Corporate Services; the principal function of Metro Vancouver is to administer resources and services which are common across the metropolitan area. The Metro Vancouver Board has defined its strategic priorities for 2015 through 2018 in its Board Strategic Plan; the organization categorizes its work into eight action areas, as described in the following subsections. However, 84% of the organization's budget is spent in three of those areas - the three utilities.
Metro Vancouver's commitments and its members' commitments to each action area are outlined in eight board-approved management plans as referenced bel