Point Sal State Beach
Point Sal State Beach is a beach on the Pacific coast of California, located near the city of Guadalupe, in the northwestern part of Santa Barbara County. There are approximately 80 acres of property and only 1.5 miles of ocean frontage and this beach is at risk of landslides as there are rocky shorelines and extremely steep slopes. Among the most popular activities are fishing, beach combing, nature study, however, swimming is not recommended due to dangerous rip currents, absence of lifeguard service, and occasional shark sightings. There are no recreational facilities During the winter of 1998, as of June 2011, the road has not been repaired and remains closed to vehicles. Point Sal State Beach is accessible only to visitors who hike to the beach, visitors should allow sufficient time to return to the trailhead on Brown Road by sunset. Alternatively, the hiker can trek 12 miles to the state beach from Rancho Guadalupe Dunes County Park located to the north of Point Sal. The entrance to the park is accessed by driving approximately 6 miles west on Main Street from Highway 1 in Guadelupe, note that the park closes at 7,30 pm, well before local sundown in the summer.
The route involving going through Casmalia using Point Sal Road is no longer accessible to the public since it requires traversing Vandenberg Air Force Base. The rocks around the headland constitute part of the Coast Range Ophiolite, one of the largest ophiolite terranes in the world
Marine protected area
Marine protected areas are protected areas of seas, estuaries or large lakes. MPAs restrict human activity for a purpose, typically to protect natural or cultural resources. Such marine resources are protected by local, territorial, regional, national, or international authorities and differ substantially among and between nations. This variation includes different limitations on development, fishing practices, fishing seasons and catch limits and bans on removing or disrupting marine life. In some situations, MPAs provide revenue for countries, potentially equal to the income that they would have if they were to grant companies permissions to fish.55 million km2 in the Ross Sea. MPA is a term for protected areas that includes some area of marine landscape and/or biodiversity. Several types of compliant MPA can be distinguished, A totally marine area with no significant terrestrial parts, an area containing both marine and terrestrial components, which can vary between two extremes, those that are predominantly maritime with little land, or that is mostly terrestrial.
Marine ecosystems that contain land and intertidal components only, for example, a mangrove forest would contain no open sea or ocean marine environment, but its river-like marine ecosystem nevertheless complies with the definition. IUCN offered seven categories of protected area, based on management objectives, related protected area categories include the following, World Heritage Site – an area exhibiting extensive natural or cultural history. Maritime areas are represented, with only 46 out of over 800 sites. Man and the Biosphere – UNESCO program that promotes a relationship between humans and the biosphere. Under article 4, biosphere reserves must encompass a mosaic of ecological systems, in structure they are similar to Multiple-use MPAs, with a core area ringed by different degrees of protection. Ramsar site – must meet criteria for the definition of Wetland to become part of a global system. These sites do not necessarily receive protection, but are indexed by importance for recommendation to an agency that could designate it a protected area.
While area refers to a single location, terms such as network, system. At the 2004 Convention on Biological Diversity, the agreed to use network on a global level. The network is a mechanism to establish regional and local systems, no take zones, are areas designated in a number of the worlds MPAs, where all forms of exploitation are prohibited and severely limits human activities. These no take zones can cover an entire MPA, or specific portions, for example, the 1,150,000 square kilometres Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, the worlds largest MPA, is a 100% no take zone
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, refers to the plants and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the nature of our planet. Marine organisms produce much of the oxygen we breathe, shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land. Most life forms evolved initially in marine habitats, oceans provide about 99 percent of the living space on the planet. The earliest vertebrates appeared in the form of fish, which live exclusively in water, some of these evolved into amphibians which spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Other fish evolved into mammals and subsequently returned to the ocean as seals. Plant forms such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems and particularly phytoplankton, are key primary producers forming the general foundation of the ocean food chain.
Marine vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways, fish have gills instead of lungs, although some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, otters, some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes. However, as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water. Altogether there are 230,000 documented marine species, including over 16,000 species of fish, there is no life without water, which has been characterised as the solvent of life. The Nobel prize winner Albert Szent-Györgyi referred to water as the mater und matrix, the abundance of water on earths surface is a unique feature that distinguishes earth from other planets in the Solar System. Earths hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all surfaces in the world, including inland seas, rivers.
The deepest underwater location is Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean with a depth of 10,911.4 m, the mass of the oceans is approximately 1. 35×1018 metric tons, or about 1/4400 of Earths total mass. The oceans cover an area of 3. 618×108 km2 with a depth of 3682 m. If all of Earths crustal surface was at the elevation as a smooth sphere. About 97. 5% of the water is saline, the remaining 2. 5% is fresh water, Most fresh water, about 68. 7%, is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers
Gaviota State Park
Gaviota State Park is a state park of California, USA. It is located in southern Santa Barbara County, about 33 miles west of the city of Santa Barbara and it extends from the Pacific coast to the crest of the Santa Ynez Mountains, and is adjacent to Los Padres National Forest. The 2, 787-acre park was established in 1953, the park is bisected by U. S. Gaviota State Park consists of two units, one on each side of the highway. The western unit includes the beach and associated campground, which receives most of the parks visitors, both sections of the park contain trails for hiking, horseback riding, and mountain biking. The most heavily traveled trail is a dirt road leading to a popular hot spring on the eastern side of the highway. A more substantial trail beginning at the same trailhead leads out of the park to the summit of Gaviota Peak, trails within the park total 34 miles in all. Mountain lions may be encountered in the park, and warning signs are prominently posted, the park was closed for a month in 1992 following a near-fatal attack by a lion on a 9-year-old boy.
Plant communities in the park include chaparral in the regions, oak woodlands elsewhere. They are part of the California coastal sage and chaparral ecoregion, much of the park vegetation was burned in a large brushfire in June 2004, with wildfire being a natural part of the chaparral ecosystem. Adjacent to the park on the west is a region of private ranches and ranchettes known as Hollister Ranch. Access to this portion of the coast is tightly secured, singer Jackson Browne owns a ranch adjacent to the park on the west. The park includes a campground, which contains 39 campsites for RVs. Additionally there are eight picnic sites, the park includes a fishing pier which includes a small boat hoist, nearby are some favorite surfing locations. There are no hook-ups or dump station, the park is subject to a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters, and sunny summers, commonly with morning clouds. Temperatures below freezing are rare, and summertime high temperatures rise with increasing distance from the coast and these winds, known as Sundowners, are common all along the south coast of Santa Barbara County, but are frequently most violent in the Gaviota area.
List of California state parks Official Gaviota State Park website
Vandenberg Air Force Base
Vandenberg Air Force Base is a United States Air Force Base 9.2 miles northwest of Lompoc, California. It is under the jurisdiction of the 30th Space Wing, Air Force Space Command, Vandenberg AFB is a Department of Defense space and missile testing base, with a mission of placing satellites into polar orbit from the West Coast using expendable boosters. Wing personnel support the Services LGM-30G Minuteman III Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Force Development Evaluation program, in addition to its military mission, the base leases launch pad facilities to SpaceX, as well as 100 acres leased to the California Spaceport in 1995. Established in 1941, the base is named in honor of former Air Force Chief of Staff General Hoyt Vandenberg, the host unit at Vandenberg AFB is the 30th Space Wing. The 30th SW is home to the Western Range, manages Department of Defense space and missile testing, Wing personnel support the Air Forces Minuteman III Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Force Development Test and Evaluation program.
The Western Range begins at the boundaries of Vandenberg and extends westward from the California coast to the Western Pacific. Operations involve dozens of federal and commercial interests, the wing is organized into operations, mission support and medical groups, along with several directly assigned staff agencies. 30th Launch Group The 30th Launch Group is responsible for booster and satellite technical oversight and launch processing activities to launch, integration. The group consists of a military and contractor team with more than 250 personnel directly supporting operations from the Western Range. 1st Air and Space Test Squadron 4th Space Launch Squadron 30th Operations Group The 30th Operations Group provides the capability for West Coast spacelift. Operations professionals are responsible for operating and maintaining the Western Range for spacelift, missile test launch, aeronautical, 30th Mission Support Group The 30th Mission Support Group supports the third largest Air Force Base in the United States.
It is responsible for quality-of-life needs, personnel, civil engineering, contracting, 30th Medical Group The 30th Medical Group provides medical, bio-environmental and public health services for people assigned to Vandenberg Air Force Base, their families and retirees. It is Vandenbergs only National Historic Landmark that is open for scheduled tours through the 30th Space Wings Public Affairs office. The current display area is made up of two exhibits, the Chronology of the Cold War and the Evolution of Technology, there are plans to evolve the center in stages from the current exhibit areas as restorations of additional facilities are completed. In 1941 the United States Army sought more and better training centers for the development of its armored. In March 1941, the Army acquired approximately 86,000 acres of open ranch lands along the Central Coast of California between Lompoc and Santa Maria, most of the land was purchased. Smaller parcels were obtained either by lease, license, or as easements, with its flat plateau, surrounding hills, numerous canyons, and relative remoteness from populated areas, the Army was convinced it had found the ideal training location.
Construction of the Army camp began in September 1941, although its completion was still months away, the Army activated the camp on 5 October, and named it Camp Cooke in honor of Major General Phillip St. George Cooke