Locomobile Company of America
The Locomobile Company of America was a pioneering American automobile manufacturer founded in 1899, known for its dedication to precision in the pre-assembly-line era. It was one of the earliest car manufacturers in the advent of the automobile age. For the first two years after its founding, the company was located in Massachusetts. Production was transferred to Bridgeport, Connecticut, in 1900, where it remained until the company's demise in 1929; the company manufactured affordable, small steam cars until 1903, when production switched to internal combustion-powered luxury automobiles. Locomobile was taken over in 1922 by Durant Motors and went out of business in 1929. All cars produced by the original company were always sold under the brand name Locomobile; the Locomobile Company of America was founded in 1899, the name coined from locomotive and automobile. John B. Walker and publisher of the Cosmopolitan magazine bought the plans for an early steam-powered vehicle produced by Francis and Freelan Stanley for a price they could not resist: US$250,000, promptly selling half to paving contractor Amzi L. Barber.
Their partnership lasted just a fortnight. The Stanley twins founded the Stanley Motor Carriage Company in 1902, becoming the sharpest rival to Locomobile. Locomobile began by producing steam cars; the steam Locomobiles were unreliable, finicky to operate, prone to kerosene fires, had small water tanks, took time to raise steam. They were offered with a single body style only, an inexpensive runabout at $600 Nevertheless, they were a curiosity and middle-class Americans clamoured for the latest technology. Salesmen and people needing quick mobility found them useful. More than 4000 were built between 1902 alone. In 1901, Locomobile offered seven body styles at prices between $600 and $1,400. Most Locomobiles had simple twin-cylinder engines and a wire-wrapped 300-psi boiler, burned the liquid fuel naphtha to create steam. Typical of the product was the 1904 Runabout, which seated two passengers and sold for $750 The two-cylinder steam engine was situated amidships of the wood-framed car. By now, the car had improved boilers and a new water pump, manufactured by the Overman Wheel Company in Chicopee Falls, Massachusetts.
This company itself built the Victor Steamer. During the Boer War, Locomobile did establish a new mark of sorts, becoming the first automobile to be used in war; this was not a sure way to guarantee commercial success in Britain, Locomobile started experimenting with gasoline internal combustion engines in 1902, starting with a four-cylinder steel-chassis model designed by Andrew L. Riker; this encouraged the firm to drop steam vehicles the following year, selling the Stanley brothers back their rights for $20,000. The 1904 internal combustion Locomobile Touring Car had a tonneau, space for five passengers, sold for $4500, quite a change from the low-priced steam buggies; the front-mounted, water-cooled straight-4 engine produced 16 hp. A three-speed sliding transmission was fitted, as on the Système Panhard cars with which it competed; the angle steel-framed car weighed 2200 lb. Like other early marques, Locomobile entered motor racing, contesting the 1905 Gordon Bennett Cup with a 17.7-liter racer.
Tracy did better for the company at the Vanderbilt Cup. A 90-hp 16.2-liter F-head was sabotaged by tire trouble, so Tracy failed again in the 1906 Vanderbilt, but in 1908, George Robertson took the win in this car, ahead of fellow Locomobile pilot Joe Florida in third, becoming the first United States-built car to win in international competition. This would be the high-water mark for Locomobile racing, they soon faded from the scene, though Orin Davis did score a win in the Los Angeles–Phoenix rally in 1913. On the strength of this, Locomobile soon became known for well-built and speedy luxury cars; the 1908 Locomobile 40 Runabout was a 60-hp two-seater and sold for $4750. The most important model for the marque became the impressive Model 48. Introduced in 1919, it had a conservative dated, concept, it had a huge chassis with a wheelbase of 142 in. Its engine was a straight-six with side valves. Displacement was 525 in3. Quality of materials and workmanship were impeccable and among the best in the world.
Such was its pricing: A typical open-body cost about $10,000 when the average Model T Ford Phaeton cost about $300. In July 1922, Locomobile was acquired by Durant Motors, which not only continued using the Locomobile brand name for their top-of-the-line autos until 1929, but still produced the Model 48 until its demise in 1929; until the mid-1920s, this car was Locomobile's only offering. In 1925, the marque brought out their first new model, the 8-66 Junior Eight, with a more contemporary str
Victor Hémery was a champion French racecar driver of the early Grand Prix motor racing era. He was born in Sillé-le-Guillaume, France. In 1904 he joined Automobiles Darracq France as their chief tester and helped prepare cars to compete in that year's Gordon Bennett Cup, he drove a German Opel-Darracq to victory at Hamburg-Bahrenfeld. 1905 was his most successful year in his racing career. In August 1905, he drove a Darracq to victory in Circuit des Ardennes at Bastogne, in October 1905 he won the Vanderbilt Cup at Long Island, New York, beating Felice Nazzaro, Louis Chevrolet, Ferenc Szisz. On 30 December 1905 he set a land speed record of 109.65 mph in Arles, driving a Darracq. In 1951 Hémery was retroactively awarded the United States Driving Championship for 1905, he left Darracq to join Benz & Cie. in 1907 and in 1908 he won the St. Petersburg to Moscow race and finished second in the French Grand Prix, he scored another second-place finish behind Louis Wagner at the United States Grand Prix in Savannah, Georgia.
On 8 November 1909 he set another new speed record at Brooklands of 202.691 km/h driving the famous "Blitzen Benz". In 1910 his Benz team finished 1-2 at the United States Grand Prix, just 1.42 seconds behind winner David Bruce-Brown, the closest Grand Prix to date at the time. In 1911, Hémery won the Grand Prix de France at Circuit de la Sarthe in a FIAT S61. Victor Hémery died at Le Mans, France, on 9 September 1950, aged 73 years
Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States. The seat of the eponymous county, it is on Lake Michigan's western shore. Ranked by its estimated 2014 population, Milwaukee was the 31st largest city in the United States; the city's estimated population in 2017 was 595,351. Milwaukee is the main cultural and economic center of the Milwaukee metropolitan area which had a population of 2,043,904 in the 2014 census estimate, it is the second-most densely populated metropolitan area in the Midwest, surpassed only by Chicago. Milwaukee is considered a Gamma global city as categorized by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network with a regional GDP of over $105 billion; the first Europeans to pass through the area were French Catholic Jesuit missionaries, who were ministering to Native Americans, fur traders. In 1818, the French Canadian explorer Solomon Juneau settled in the area, in 1846, Juneau's town combined with two neighboring towns to incorporate as the city of Milwaukee.
Large numbers of German immigrants arrived during the late 1840s, after the German revolutions, with Poles and other eastern European immigrants arriving in the following decades. Milwaukee is known for its brewing traditions, begun with the German immigrants. Beginning in the early 21st century, the city has been undergoing its largest construction boom since the 1960s. Major new additions to the city in the past two decades include the Milwaukee Riverwalk, the Wisconsin Center, Miller Park, the Milwaukee Streetcar, an expansion to the Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee Repertory Theater, Pier Wisconsin, as well as major renovations to the UW–Milwaukee Panther Arena; the Fiserv Forum opened in late 2018. The name "Milwaukee" comes from an Algonquian word millioke, meaning "good", "beautiful" and "pleasant land" or "gathering place "; the name has a less pleasant connotation in the Menominee language, where it is called Māēnāēwah, "some misfortune happens". Indigenous cultures lived along the waterways for thousands of years.
The first recorded inhabitants of the Milwaukee area are the historic Menominee, Mascouten, Sauk and Ojibwe. Many of these people had lived around Green Bay before migrating to the Milwaukee area around the time of European contact. In the second half of the 18th century, the Native Americans living near Milwaukee played a role in all the major European wars on the American continent. During the French and Indian War, a group of "Ojibwas and Pottawattamies from the far Michigan" joined the French-Canadian Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu at the Battle of the Monongahela. In the American Revolutionary War, the Native Americans around Milwaukee were some of the few groups to ally with the rebel Continentals. After the Revolutionary War, the Native Americans fought the United States in the Northwest Indian War as part of the Council of Three Fires. During the War of 1812, they held a council in Milwaukee in June 1812, which resulted in their decision to attack Chicago in retaliation against American expansion.
This resulted in the Battle of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, the only known armed conflict in the Chicago area. This battle convinced the American government that the Native Americans had to be removed from their land. After being attacked in the Black Hawk War in 1832, the Native Americans in Milwaukee signed the Treaty of Chicago with the United States in 1833. In exchange for their ceding their lands in the area, they were to receive monetary payments and lands west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Europeans had arrived in the Milwaukee area prior to the 1833 Treaty of Chicago. French missionaries and traders first passed through the area in the late 18th centuries. Alexis Laframboise, in 1785, coming from Michilimackinac settled a trading post. Early explorers called the Milwaukee River and surrounding lands various names: Melleorki, Mahn-a-waukie and Milwaucki, in efforts to transliterate the native terms. For many years, printed records gave the name as "Milwaukie". One story of Milwaukee's name says, ne day during the thirties of the last century a newspaper calmly changed the name to Milwaukee, Milwaukee it has remained until this day.
The spelling "Milwaukie" lives on in Milwaukie, named after the Wisconsin city in 1847, before the current spelling was universally accepted. Milwaukee has three "founding fathers": Solomon Juneau, Byron Kilbourn, George H. Walker. Solomon Juneau was the first of the three to come to the area, in 1818, he founded. In competition with Juneau, Byron Kilbourn established Kilbourntown west of the Milwaukee River, he ensured. This accounts for the large number of angled bridges. Further, Kilbourn distributed maps of the area which only showed Kilbourntown, implying Juneautown did not exist or the river's east side was uninhabited and thus undesirable; the third prominent developer was George H. Walker, he claimed land to the south of the Milwaukee River, along with Juneautown, where he built a log house in 1834. This area became known as Walker's Point; the first large wave of settlement to the areas that would become Milwaukee County and the City of Milwaukee began in 1835, following removal of the tribes in the Co
Gordon Bennett Cup (auto racing)
As one of three Gordon Bennett Cups established by James Gordon Bennett, Jr. millionaire owner of the New York Herald, the automobile racing award was first given in 1900 in France. In 1899 Gordon Bennett offered the Automobile Club de France a trophy to be raced for annually by the automobile clubs of the various countries; the trophy was awarded annually until 1905, after which the ACF held the first Grand Prix motor racing event at the Circuit de la Sarthe, in Le Mans. The 1903 event in Ireland gave rise to the birth of British Racing Green; the trophy given the winner was a Panhard, driven by the Genius of Progress, with Nike as his co-driver. Competition was intended to be between national automobile clubs, or nations, not individuals; the first contestants were France, Great Britain, the United States, Austria, Switzerland and Italy. Each club was required to pay a Fr3000 entry fee; each could send up to three cars. A race, once scheduled, had to be held between 15 May and 15 August, with a total distance of between 550 and 650 km.
Participating clubs shared the cost of running the event. The cars themselves had to have side by side, with driver and riding mechanic. Cars were to weigh at least 400 kg empty, had to be built in the country under whose colors they ran; the Gordon Bennett Cup auto races drew entrants from across Europe, including future aviator Henry Farman, competitors from the United States such as Alexander Winton driving his Winton automobile. Under the rules, the races were hosted in the country of the previous year's winner; as the races were between national teams, it led to the reorganisation and standardisation of national racing colours. Count Eliot Zborowski, father of inter-war racing legend Louis Zborowski, suggested that each national entrant be allotted a different colour. Britain had to choose a different colour from its usual national colours of red and blue, as these had been taken by USA, France respectively.. Reputedly as a concession to Ireland where the 1903 Gordon Bennett Cup race was run, the British adopted shamrock green which became known as British racing green, although the winning Napier of 1902 had been painted olive green, green was well-established as an appropriate colour for locomotives and machinery, in which Britain had led the world during the previous century.
The international motor car race from Paris to Lyons for the Gordon Bennett Cup took place on June 14, 1900. The start from Paris was made at 3 o'clock in the morning and Charron was the first to reach Lyons, arriving at 12:23 p.m. M. Girardot finished second at 2 o'clock. In 1901 the Gordon Bennett Cup race was run in conjunction with the Paris-Bordeaux race on 29 May over a distance of 527.1 km. The race was won by Henri Fournier driving a Mors with a time of 6h 10m 44s; the first of the Gordon Bennett Cup contestants was Leonce Girardot, driving a Panhard with a time of 8h 50m 59s. The 1902 Gordon Bennett Cup was run over a distance of 565 km from Paris to Innsbruck in conjunction with the Paris-Vienna motor car race; the race started in Paris on June 26. Competing were 30 heavy cars, 48 light cars, six voiturettes, three motorcycles, three motorcyclettes; each nation was allowed to nominate up to three cars to compete for the Gordon Bennett Cup, but only six entries were received, three French and three British.
The Automobile Club of Great Britain announced that car No. 160 driven by Mr White, car No. 45, made by Napier & Son of London with Dunlop tyres, driven by Mr Edge. The Times announced on June 30, it was announced in Vienna on July 1 that M. Marcel Renault had won the Paris-Vienna race, with M. Henri Farman second. On Thursday, 2 July 1903 the Gordon Bennett Cup was the first international motor race to be held in Ireland, an honorific to Selwyn Edge who had won the 1902 event in the Paris-Vienna race driving a Napier; the Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland wanted the race to be hosted in the British Isles, their secretary, Claude Johnson, suggested Ireland as the venue because racing was illegal on British public roads. The editor of the Dublin Motor News, Richard J. Mecredy, suggested an area in County Kildare, letters were sent to 102 Irish MPs, 90 Irish peers, 300 newspapers, 34 chairmen of county and local councils, 34 County secretaries, 26 mayors, 41 railway companies, 460 hoteliers, 13 PPs, plus the Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin, Patrick Foley, who pronounced himself in favour.
Local laws had to be adjusted, ergo the'Light Locomotives Bill' was passed on 27 March 1903. Kildare and other local councils drew attention to their areas, whilst Queen’s County declared That every facility will be given and the roads placed at the disposal of motorists during the proposed race. Kildare was chosen on the grounds that the straightness of the roads would be a safety benefit; as a compliment to Ireland the British team chose to race in Shamrock green which thus became known as British racing green although the winning Napier of 1902 had been painted Olive green. There was considerable public concern about safety after the 1901 Paris-Bordeaux Rally, in which at least eight people had been killed, severe crashes during the May 24th 1903 Paris-Madrid race where more than 200 cars competed over a distance of 800 miles but which had to be halted at Bordeaux because there had been so many fatalities. To allay these fears, the 1903 race was held over a closed course which had
Verona is a city on the Adige river in Veneto, with 258,108 inhabitants. It is one of the seven provincial capitals of the region, it is the third largest in northeast Italy. The metropolitan area of Verona covers an area of 1,426 km2 and has a population of 714,274 inhabitants, it is one of the main tourist destinations in northern Italy, because of its artistic heritage and several annual fairs and operas, such as the lyrical season in the Arena, the ancient amphitheater built by the Romans. Two of William Shakespeare's plays are set in Verona: Romeo and Juliet and The Two Gentlemen of Verona, it is unknown if Shakespeare visited Verona or Italy, but his plays have lured many visitors to Verona and surrounding cities. The city has been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO because of its urban structure and architecture; the precise details of Verona's early history remain a mystery. One theory is. With the conquest of the Valley of the Po, the Veronese territory became Roman. Verona became a Roman colonia in 89 BC.
It was classified as a municipium in 49 BC, when its citizens were ascribed to the Roman tribe Poblilia or Publicia. The city became important. Stilicho defeated Alaric and his Visigoths here in 403. But, after Verona was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 489, the Gothic domination of Italy began. Theoderic the Great was said to have built a palace there, it remained under the power of the Goths throughout the Gothic War, except for a single day in 541, when the Byzantine officer Artabazes made an entrance. The defections that took place among the Byzantine generals with regard to the booty made it possible for the Goths to regain possession of the city. In 552 Valerian vainly endeavored to enter the city, but it was only when the Goths were overthrown that they surrendered it. In 569, it was taken by Alboin, King of the Lombards, in whose kingdom it was, in a sense, the second most important city. There, Alboin was killed by his wife in 572; the dukes of Treviso resided there. Adalgisus, son of Desiderius, in 774 made his last desperate resistance in Verona to Charlemagne, who had destroyed the Lombard kingdom.
Verona became the ordinary residence of the kings of Italy, the government of the city becoming hereditary in the family of Count Milo, progenitor of the counts of San Bonifacio. From 880 to 951 the two Berengarii resided there. Otto I ceded to Verona the marquisate dependent on the Duchy of Bavaria; when Ezzelino III da Romano was elected podestà in 1226, he converted the office into a permanent lordship. In 1257 he caused the slaughter of 11,000 Paduans on the plain of Verona. Upon his death, the Great Council elected Mastino I della Scala as podestà, he converted the "signoria" into a family possession, though leaving the burghers a share in the government. Failing to be re-elected podestà in 1262, he effected a coup d'état, was acclaimed capitano del popolo, with the command of the communal troops. Long internal discord took place before he succeeded in establishing this new office, to, attached the function of confirming the podestà. In 1277, Mastino della Scala was killed by the faction of the nobles.
The reign of his son Alberto as capitano was a time of incessant war against the counts of San Bonifacio, who were aided by the House of Este. Of his sons, Bartolomeo and Cangrande I, only the last shared the government. By war or treaty, he brought under his control the cities of Padua and Vicenza. At this time before the Black death the city was home to more than 40,000 people. Cangrande was succeeded by sons of Alboino. Mastino continued his uncle's policy, conquering Brescia in 1332 and carrying his power beyond the Po, he purchased Lucca. After the King of France, he was the richest prince of his time, but a powerful league was formed against him in 1337 – Florence, the Visconti, the Este, the Gonzaga. After a three years war, the Scaliger dominions were reduced to Vicenza. Mastino's son Cangrande II was a cruel and suspicious tyrant, he was killed by his brother Cansignorio, who beautified the city with palaces, provided it with aqueducts and bridges, founded the state treasury. He killed his other brother, Paolo Alboino.
Fratricide seems to have become a family custom, for Antonio, Cansignorio's natural brother, slew his brother Bartolomeo, thereby arousing the indignation of the people, who deserted him when Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan made war on him. Having exhausted all his resources, he fled from Verona at midnight, thus putting an end to the Scaliger domination, however, survived in its monuments; the year 1387 is the year of the famous Battle of Castagnaro, between Giovanni Ordelaffi, for Verona, John Hawkwood, for Padua, the winner. Antonio's son Canfrancesco attempted in vain to recover Verona. Guglielmo, natural son of Cangrande II, was more fortunate; the last representatives of the Scaligeri live
Auto racing is a motorsport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Auto racing has existed since the invention of the automobile. Races of various sorts were organised, with the first recorded as early as 1867. Many of the earliest events were reliability trials, aimed at proving these new machines were a practical mode of transport, but soon became an important way for competing makers to demonstrate their machines. By the 1930s, specialist racing cars had developed. There are now each with different rules and regulations; the first prearranged match race of two self-powered road vehicles over a prescribed route occurred at 4:30 A. M. on August 30, 1867, between Ashton-under-Lyne and Old Trafford, a distance of eight miles. It was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles; the first organized contest was on April 28, 1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier.
It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne. On July 22, 1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the world's first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee; the first American automobile race is held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28, 1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile. With auto construction and racing dominated by France, the French automobile club ACF staged a number of major international races from or to Paris, connecting with another major city, in France or elsewhere in Europe. Brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907, it featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners. One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2.5-mile-long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana.
It is the largest capacity sports venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257,000+ seated spectators. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21, 1948, with the help of several other drivers of the time. The first NASCAR "Strictly Stock" race was held on June 19, 1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a back seat to GT cars, with the FIA replacing the World Championship for Sports Cars with the International Championship for GT Manufacturers. From 1972 through 2003, NASCAR's premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, sponsored by R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company cigarette brand Winston; the changes that resulted from RJR's involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCAR's "modern era". The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, which ran its first season in 1999; the European races became the related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs.
Turismo Carretera is a popular touring car racing series in Argentina, the oldest car racing series still active in the world. The first TC competition took place in 1937 with 12 races, each in a different province. Future Formula One star Juan Manuel Fangio won the 1940 and 1941 editions of the TC, it was during this time that the series' Chevrolet-Ford rivalry began, with Ford acquiring most of its historical victories. The two most popular varieties of open wheel road racing are the IndyCar Series. Formula One is a European-based series that runs only street race tracks; these cars are based around technology and their aerodynamics. With the highest speed record set in 2005 by Juan Pablo Montoya hitting 373 kph; some of the most prominent races are the Monaco Grand Prix, the Italian Grand Prix, the British Grand Prix. The season ends with the crowning of the World Championship for constructors. In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, the cars have aerofoil wings front and rear to produce downforce and enhance adhesion to the track.
In Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is referred to as'Formula', with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the'Formula' terminology is not followed; the sport is arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In the United States, the most popular series is the National Championship, more known as the IndyCar Series and known as CART; the cars have traditionally been similar though less technologically sophisticated than F1 cars, with more restrictions on technology aimed at controlling costs. While these cars are not as technologically advanced, they are faster because they compete on oval race tracks, being able to average a lap at 388 kph; the series' biggest race is the Indianapolis 500, referred to as "The Greatest Spectacle in Racing" due to being the longest continuously run race and having the largest crowd for a single-day sporting event. The other major international single-seater racing series is Formula 2.
Regional series include Formula Nippon and Formula V6 Asia, Formula Renault 3.5, Formula Three, For
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti