A gelding is a castrated horse or other equine, such as a donkey or a mule. Castration, as well as the elimination of hormonally-driven behavior associated with a stallion, allows a male horse to be calmer and better-behaved, making the animal quieter and more suitable as an everyday working animal; the gerund and participle "gelding" and the infinitive "to geld" refer to the castration procedure itself. The verb "to geld" comes from the adjective geldr; the noun "gelding" is from the Old Norse geldingr. The Scythians are thought to have been the first people to geld their horses, they valued geldings as war horses because they were quiet, lacked mating urges, were less prone to call out to other horses, were easier to keep in groups, were less to fight with one another. A male horse is gelded to make him better-behaved and easier to control. Gelding can remove lower-quality animals from the gene pool. To allow only the finest animals to breed on, while preserving adequate genetic diversity, only a small percentage of all male horses should remain stallions.
Mainstream sources place the percentage of stallions that should be kept as breeding stock at about 10%, while an extreme view states that only 0.5% of all males should be bred. In wild herds, the 10% ratio is maintained as a single stallion protects and breeds with a herd, larger than 10 or 12 mares, though may permit a less dominant junior stallion to live at the fringes of the herd. There are more males than just herd stallions, but unattached male horses group together for protection in small all-male "bachelor herds", where, in the absence of mares, they tend to behave much like geldings. Geldings are preferred over stallions for working purposes because they are calmer, easier to handle, more tractable. Geldings are therefore a favorite for many equestrians. In some horse shows, due to the dangers inherent in handling stallions, which require experienced handlers, youth exhibitors are not permitted to show stallions in classes limited to just those riders. Geldings are preferred over mares, because some mares become temperamental when in heat.
The use of mares may be limited during the months of pregnancy and while caring for a young foal. In horse racing, castrating a stallion may be considered worthwhile if the animal is distracted by other horses, difficult to handle, or otherwise not running to his full potential due to behavioral issues. While this means the horse loses any breeding value, a successful track career can be a boost to the value of the stallion that sired the gelding. Sometimes a stallion used for breeding is castrated in life due to sterility, or because the offspring of the stallion are not up to expectations, or because the horse is not used much for breeding, due to shifting fashion in pedigree or phenotype. Castration may allow a stallion to live peacefully with other horses, allowing a more social and comfortable existence. Under British National Hunt racing rules, to minimize the health and safety risk for horses and spectators, nearly all participating horses are geldings. On the other hand, in other parts of Europe, geldings are excluded from many of the most prestigious flat races including the Classics and the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe.
In North American Thoroughbred racing, geldings, if otherwise qualified by age, winnings, or experience, are allowed in races open to intact males. The same applies in Australia. To perpetuate any given breed, some male horses must remain capable of reproduction. Thus, animals considered to be the finest representatives are used for mating. Though the criteria used can be, in some places, rather subjective, a stallion should have a superior appearance, or phenotype; some cultures did not and still geld male horses, most notably the Arabs. These people used mares for everyday work and for war. In these cultures, most stallions are still not used for breeding, only those of the best quality; when used as ordinary riding animals, they are kept only with or near other male horses in a "bachelor" setting, which tends to produce calmer, less stallion-like behavior. Sometimes cultural reasons for these practices exist. Gelding horses is approved of as a way to allow more horses to live comfortably and safely in proximity to humans and other horses, as an ethical means of population control within the animal rights community.
However, a small number of horse owners are concerned that the process may cause pain for the animal or somehow lessen their vitality or spirit. While modern surgical procedures cause far less discomfort to the animal than more primitive methods, there is minor postoperative discomfort when the animal is in recovery. Although castrations have few complications, there are risks. Castration can have complication such as swelling, hemorrhage or post-operative bleeding and eventration, it can take up to six weeks for residual testosterone to clear from the new gelding's system and he may continue to exhibit stallion-like behaviors in that period. For reasons not always clear, about 30% of all geldings may still display a stallion-like manner, some because of a cryptorchid testicle retained in the horse, some due to learned behavior, but some for no clear reason. Training to eliminate these behaviors
Aintree Racecourse is a racecourse in Aintree, Metropolitan Borough of Sefton, England. The racecourse is best known for annually holding the world-famous Grand National steeplechase; the course is home of one of the most famous races in the world. Steeplechasing at Aintree was introduced in 1836, though flat racing had taken place there for many years prior to this, it is regarded as the most difficult of all courses to complete with 16 steeplechase fences including renowned obstacles the Chair, Valentine's, Canal Turn and Becher's Brook. These are so infamous that their names strike fear into the most professional of jockeys. All fences bar the water jump are covered with spruce, unlike at any other course in British National Hunt racing. Four other races take place over the National fences; these are the Topham Chase and the Fox Hunters' Chase at the Grand National meeting, the Grand Sefton Handicap Chase and Becher Chase in the December meeting. Within the large National course there is the smaller Mildmay course containing hurdles and fences.
These fences are made of traditional National Hunt material. The National and Mildmay courses used to share the water jump, but the water jump is no longer used on the Mildmay course; the Grand National race is run over 4 miles 514 yards after being re-measured by the BHA in 2015. The race is considered among the most demanding steeplechases in the world; the lead has changed hands during the 494-yard run-in after the final fence. There are 40 horses taking part in the race but fewer than ten may complete the course: for example, 42 horses started in 1928, only two reached the finishing post; the record for the most victories in the Grand National is held by Red Rum, who won three times in the 1970s, in addition to coming second twice. Aintree has been used as a venue for motor racing; the British Grand Prix was staged there on five occasions, in 1955, 1957, 1959, 1961 and 1962. In addition to the Grand Prix, the circuit held 11 non-championship Formula 1 races, known as the Aintree 200, first won by Stirling Moss in 1954 with the last winner being Jack Brabham, in April 1964.
The only driver to have competed in both horse and motor race is Alfonso de Portago, who competed at the Grand National in his early days as well as in a sportscar race. He was to compete at the 1957 British Grand Prix at Aintree. Michael Jackson concluded the European leg of his 1987–1989 Bad World Tour at the venue on 11 September 1988, to more than 125,000 people, it was the biggest concert of the tour. P!nk performed at the venue during her I'm Not Dead Tour on 16 July 2007. Kaiser Chiefs and The Chemical Brothers performed in concert at Aintree Pavilion as part of Liverpool Music Week 2007; the racecourse contains a 9-hole golf driving range within its boundaries. Golfers have the chance to see the famous track from a different perspective and famous features such as Becher's Brook are incorporated into the course, it is accessed from Melling Road. Because of this, the golf facilities are closed when the course is used for motor racing, it was served by Aintree Racecourse railway station until the station closed in 1962.
Listed buildings in Aintree Village Official site of Aintree Racecourse Aintree - Description and Image Gallery Satellite picture by Google Maps
Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
George Stanhope, 6th Earl of Chesterfield
George Stanhope, 6th Earl of Chesterfield, PC, styled Lord Stanhope until 1815, was a British Tory politician and race horse owner. He served as Master of the Buckhounds under Lord Melbourne from 1834 to 1835. Chesterfield was the son of Philip Stanhope, 5th Earl of Chesterfield, his wife Lady Henrietta, daughter of Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath, was educated at Eton and Christ Church, Oxford, he succeeded his father in the earldom in 1815 at the age of ten and took his seat on the Tory benches in the House of Lords. He served in the Tory administration of Sir Robert Peel as Master of the Buckhounds from December 1834 to April 1835 and was sworn of the Privy Council in December 1834. Lord Chesterfield had a great passion for horse racing and spent most of his early years indulging in that pursuit. Although he had some success on the turf, winning the Oaks twice, his victories were not frequent enough to pay for the large string of horses he had in training or to finance his lifestyle of lavish party giving and gambling.
His racing colours of red cap and jacket with blue sleeves were carried to victory by Tom Olliver in the 1843 Grand National aboard his horse Vanguard. In 1840, after the success of Crucifix he decided to give up his expensive mode of living and retire to Bretby Hall, he did construct a gallop of two miles to exercise his horses. Many eminent people visited Bretby to try for shooting in Bretby Park. Among them were the Earl of Wilton, the Earl of Londesborough, Lord Newport and Sir Henry des Voeux; the best jockeys came to Bretby. Lord Chesterfield married the Honourable Anne Elizabeth Weld-Forester, daughter of Cecil Weld-Forester, 1st Baron Forester, in 1830, they had one daughter. Their daughter Lady Evelyn Stanhope was the first wife of 4th Earl of Carnarvon. Lord Chesterfield died in June 1866, aged 61, was succeeded in the earldom by his only son, George; the Countess of Chesterfield died in July 1885, aged 82. Like her sister Selina, Countess of Bradford, she was an intimate friend of Benjamin Disraeli.
After they had both been widowed Disraeli is said to have proposed to her, but she declined on the ground that people over seventy just look foolish when they decide to marry. Some of their friends thought that she refused him because she believed that he cared more for her sister Selina. 1805–1815: Lord Stanhope 1815–1834: The Right Honourable The Earl of Chesterfield 1834–1866: The Right Honourable The Earl of Chesterfield PC Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Chesterfield
Blacklock was a British Thoroughbred racehorse who won seventeen of his twenty-three races. As a two-year-old in 1816 he was undefeated in three starts. In his first race as a three-year-old he finished second in a neck behind Ebor, he won four races in two weeks, including the Gascoigne Stakes and Dundas Stakes. In 1818 he recorded several wins including two of the Great Subscription Purses at York, he won a third Great Subscription Purse in 1819, along with the York Gold Cup. After retiring from racing, Blacklock became a successful stallion and was champion sire of Great Britain in 1829, the year his son Voltaire won the Doncaster Cup, he was owned by Thomas Kirby as a two-year-old, before being purchased by Richard Watt, who owned him for the remainder of his racing career. Blacklock was trained by Tommy Sykes. Blacklock was a bay colt bred by Francis Moss and foaled in 1814, he was sired by Whitelock. Whitelock was a son of St. Leger and dual Doncaster Cup winner Hambletonian, only defeated once in his career.
Blacklock's dam was a daughter of Coriander. He was the seventh of her nine foals. Francis Moss had bought Blacklock's dam for £3 in 1803. Blacklock was not thought to be a good-looking horse, he was described as being calf-kneed. Thomas Kirby purchased him from Moss for £40. Blacklock, unnamed and raced under the name "Mr. Kirby's b. c. by Whitelock, dam by Coriander", made his racecourse debut on 23 August 1816 at York in a sweepstakes of 20 guineas each for two-year-olds. After starting at the price of about 3/1 he won the race, with the judge being unable to place any of his five rivals. On 11 September at Pontefract, he faced three opponents for a sweepstakes of 20 guineas each over one mile, he won the race. Shylock finished with Angelica in third. Blacklock was purchased by Richard Watt. Racing in Watt's colours and ridden by jockey J. Jackson, Blacklock made his final start as a two-year-old at Doncaster on the 24 September when he competed in another sweepstakes of 20 guineas each, he started as the 4/7 favourite and won the race from the Young Woodpecker colt, followed by Eglinton.
Blacklock won the race easily. Blacklock, still unnamed, had his first race as a three-year-old in the St. Leger Stakes at Doncaster on Monday 22 September, he did not arrive at Doncaster until the Saturday before, after reports that he was amiss his odds had lengthened to as much as 10/1 in the betting. After arriving, he soon shortened in the betting. After another of the pre-race favourites, was withdrawn due to illness Blacklock was sent off as the short-priced favourite at about evens. Blacklock appeared like he was going to win and Jackson eased him up in the final furlong of the race; however and Restless began to close down his lead. By the time Jackson realised, Blacklock could not accelerate quick enough and Ebor came out on top, beating Blacklock by a neck. Restless was the only other runner that could be placed by the judge. Blacklock had a crack in one of his hind heels, thought to have affected him in the race. Two days after the St. Leger, Blacklock faced St. Helena over the same course and distance in the Gascoigne Stakes, which he won easily.
Twenty-four hours Blacklock lost to The Duchess in the Doncaster Club Stakes over two miles. On 8 October at Richmond he won a sweepstakes of 20 guineas each, beating four rivals, with Boroughman finishing second. In the day Blacklock won the Dundas Stakes, beating Rasping, D. I. O and Shepard into second and fourth respectively. Blacklock, racing under his name for the first time, started the 1818 season much earlier than he had done the previous two seasons, with his first race coming on 18 May at the York Spring Meeting in a sweepstakes of 20 guineas each over two miles, he could only finish third behind St. Helena. Two days he started as the 4/6 favourite for the Constitution Stakes over a mile-and-a-quarter, he biggest rival was expected to be the Duke of Leeds's Rasping, priced at 2/1. Blacklock won the race with Hornby in third and Whiff last of the four runners. Blacklock did not race again until August at York, where he ran in the four-mile Great Subscription Purse for four-year-olds, he faced three rivals.
Blacklock won the race by over 100 yards without being asked for an effort, causing some people to proclaim "nothing has been seen at all equal to Mr. Watt's Blacklock since the days of Eclipse." This referring to the ease with which Eclipse won his races. Agatha finished the race in St. Helena in third; the race was won in a time of 7 minutes 23 seconds. The next day he beat Silenus to win the four-mile Great Subscription Purse for four and five-year-olds. In the same day he started as the 1/2 favourite in a two-mile sweepstakes of 25 guineas each, where he faced four opponents. Despite it being his third race in two days he won. Blacklock went to Doncaster, where on 23 September, he started 1/2 favourite and beat The Duchess to win the Doncaster Stakes over four miles; the same day he walked over for a sweepstakes of 50 guineas each over the St. Leger course. Twenty-four hours he beat Rasping to win a sweepstakes of 25 guineas each over four miles, and went on to beat The Duchess to win the Doncaster Club Stakes.
This was his fourth race in the sp
Steeplechase (horse racing)
A steeplechase is a distance horse race in which competitors are required to jump diverse fence and ditch obstacles. Steeplechasing is conducted in Ireland, the United Kingdom, United States and France; the name is derived from early races in which orientation of the course was by reference to a church steeple, jumping fences and ditches and traversing the many intervening obstacles in the countryside. Modern usage of the term "steeplechase" differs between countries. In Ireland and the United Kingdom, it refers only to races run over large, fixed obstacles, in contrast to "hurdle" races where the obstacles are much smaller; the collective term "jump racing" or "National Hunt racing" is used when referring to steeplechases and hurdle races collectively. Elsewhere in the world, "steeplechase" is used to refer to any race; the most famous steeplechase in the world is the Grand National run annually at Aintree Racecourse, in Liverpool, since its inception in 1836, which in 2014 offered a prize fund of £1 million.
The steeplechase originated in Ireland in the 18th century as an analogue to cross-country thoroughbred horse races which went from church steeple to church steeple, hence "steeplechase". The first steeplechase is said to have been the result of a wager in 1752 between Cornelius O'Callaghan and Edmund Blake, racing four miles cross-country from St John's Church in Buttevant to St Mary's Church in Doneraile, in Cork, Ireland. An account of the race was believed to have been in the library of the O'Briens of Dromoland Castle. Most of the earlier steeplechases were contested cross-country rather than on a track, resembled English cross country as it exists today; the first recorded steeplechase over a prepared track with fences was run at Bedford in 1810, although a race had been run at Newmarket in 1794 over a mile with five-foot bars every quarter mile. and the first recorded steeplechase of any kind in England took place in Leicestershire in 1792, when three horses raced the eight miles from Barkby Holt to Billesdon Coplow and back.
The first recorded hurdle race took place at Durdham Down near Bristol in 1821. There were 5 hurdles on the mile long course, the race was run in three heats; the first recognised English National Steeplechase took place on Monday 8 March 1830. The 4-mile race, organised by Thomas Coleman of St Albans, was run from Bury Orchard, Harlington in Bedfordshire to the Obelisk in Wrest Park, Bedfordshire; the winner was Captain Macdowall on "The Wonder", owned by Lord Ranelagh, who won in a time of 16 minutes 25 seconds. Report of the event appeared in the May and July editions of Sporting Magazine in 1830. In Great Britain and Ireland, "steeplechase" only refers to one branch of jump racing. Collectively, Great Britain and Ireland account for over 50% of all jump races worldwide, carding 4,800 races over fences in 2008. Jump racing in Great Britain and Ireland is known as National Hunt racing. French jump racing is similar to British and Irish National Hunt races, with a few notable differences. Hurdles are not collapsible.
Chases have large fences called bullfinches, a large hedge up to 8 ft tall that horses have to jump through rather than over. There are a larger number of cross-country chases where horses have to jump up and down banks, gallop through water, jump over stone walls as well as jump normal chasing fences. Unlike in most countries where the thoroughbred is exclusively used for jump racing, many of the horses in French jump racing are AQPS, a breed of horse developed in France crossing thoroughbreds with saddle horses and other local breeds. Auteuil in Paris is the best known racecourse in France for French jump racing; the Velká pardubická Steeplechase in Pardubice in the Czech Republic is the location of one of the longest steeplechase races in Europe. The first Velka Pardubice Steeplechase was held on 5 November 1874 and it has been hosted annually since. In the United States, there are two forms of steeplechasing: timber. Hurdle races occur always over the National fences, standardized plastic and steel fences that are 52 inches tall, with traditional natural fences of packed pine and live hedges in use on a few courses.
National fences stand 52 inches tall at the highest point, but are made of synthetic "brush" that can be brushed through. The hurdle horse is trained to jump in as much of a regular stride as possible; this allows the horse to maintain its speed upon landing. Since it is not always possible to meet a fence in stride, the horses are schooled in how to jump out of stride. An out of stride jump can decrease a horse's speed drastically. Hurdle races are run at distances of 2–3 miles. Hurdle races occur at steeplechase meets in the Mid-Atlantic and Southeast and on the turf courses of several racetracks – Saratoga, Colonial Downs, Penn National, Monmouth Park and others. Timber racing is conducted over solid and immovable wooden rail fences that, in the most extreme case, may reach five feet high; the distances are longer, ranging from three to four miles, the jumping effort required of the horse is much different. Because of the size of the fences and their solid and unyielding construction, a timber horse is trained to jump with an arc, unlike a hurdle racer.
An important factor in success at timber racing is for th
Bay is a hair coat color of horses, characterized by a brown body color with a black mane, ear edges, lower legs. Bay is one of the most common coat colors in many horse breeds; the black areas of a bay horse's hair coat are called "black points", without them, a horse cannot be considered a bay horse. Black points may sometimes be covered by white markings. Bay horses have dark skin, except under white markings -. Genetically, bay occurs when a horse carries both a black base coat; the addition of other genes creates many additional coat colors. While the basic concepts behind bay coloring are simple, the genes themselves and the mechanisms that cause shade variations within the bay family are quite complex and, at times, disputed; the genetics of dark shades of bay are still under study. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but subsequently pulled from the market. Sooty genetics appear to darken some horses' bay coats, that genetic mechanism is yet to be understood. Bay horses range in color from a light copper red, to a rich red blood bay to a dark red or brown called dark bay, mahogany bay, black-bay, or brown.
The dark, brown shades of bay are referred to in other languages by words meaning "black-and-tan." Dark bays/browns may be so dark as to have nearly black coats, with brownish-red hairs visible only under the eyes, around the muzzle, behind the elbow, in front of the stifle. Dark bay should not be confused with "Liver" chestnut, a dark brown color, but a liver chestnut has a brown mane and legs, no black points; the pigment in a bay horse's coat, regardless of shade, is rich and saturated. This makes bays lustrous in the sun if properly cared for; some bay horses exhibit dappling, caused by textured, concentric rings within the coat. Dapples on a bay horse suggest good condition and care, though many well-cared for horses never dapple; the tendency to dapple may be, to some extent, genetic. Bays have a two-toned hair shaft, which, if shaved too may cause the horse to appear several shades lighter, a somewhat dull orange-gold like a dun. However, as the hair grows out, it will darken again to the proper shade.
This phenomenon is part of bay color genetics, but not seen in darker shades of bay because there is less red in the hair shaft. There are many terms that are used to describe particular qualities of a bay coat; some shade variations can be related to nutrition and grooming, but most appear to be caused by inherited factors not yet understood. The palest shades, which lack specific English terminology found in other languages, are called wild bays. Wild bays are true bays with pigmented reddish coat color and black manes and tails, but the black points only extend up to the pastern or fetlock. Wild bay is found in conjunction with a trait called "pangare" that produces pale color on the underbelly and soft areas, such as near the stifle and around the muzzle. Bay horses have black skin and dark eyes, except for the skin under markings, pink. Skin color can help an observer distinguish between a bay horse with white markings and a horse which resembles bay but is not; some breed registries use the term "brown" to describe dark bays.
However, "liver" chestnuts, horses with a red or brown mane and tail as well as a dark brownish body coat, are sometimes called "brown" in some colloquial contexts. Therefore, "brown" can be an ambiguous term for describing horse coat color, it is clearer to refer to dark-colored horses as dark bays or liver chestnuts. However, to further complicate matters, the genetics that lead to darker coat colors are under study, there exists more than one genetic mechanism that darkens the coat color. One is a theorized sooty gene; the other is a specific allele of Agouti linked to a certain type of dark bay, called seal brown. The seal brown horse has dark brown body and lighter areas around the eyes, the muzzle, flanks. A DNA test said to detect the seal brown allele was developed, but the test was never subjected to peer review and due to unreliable results was subsequently pulled from the market; some foals are born bay, but carry the dominant gene for graying, thus will turn gray as they mature until their hair coat is white.
Foals that are going to become gray must have one parent, gray. Some foals may be born with a few white hairs visible around the eyes and other fine-haired, thin-skinned areas, but others may not show signs of graying until they are several months old. Chestnuts, sometimes called "Sorrels," have a reddish body coat similar to a bay, but no black points, their legs and ear edges are the same color as the rest of their body and their manes and tails are the same shade as their body color or a few shades lighter. Black is confused with dark bays and liver chestnuts because some black horses "sunburn," that is, when kept out in the sun, they develop a bleached-out coat that looks brownish in the fine-haired areas around the flanks. However, a true black can be recognized by looking at the fine hairs around eyes; these hairs are always black on a black horse, but are reddish, brownish, or a light gold on a bay or chestnut. Traditionally, bay is considered to be one of the "hard" or "base" coat