A sea cave, known as a littoral cave, is a type of cave formed primarily by the wave action of the sea. The primary process involved is erosion, sea caves are found throughout the world, actively forming along present coastlines and as relict sea caves on former coastlines. Some of the largest wave-cut caves in the world are found on the coast of Norway and these would still be classified as littoral caves. Some of the sea caves are European. Fingals Cave, on the Scottish island of Staffa, is a cave some 70 m long. The Blue Grotto of Capri, although smaller, is famous for the apparent luminescent quality of its water, the Romans built a stairway in its rear and a now-collapsed tunnel to the surface. The Greek islands are noted for the variety and beauty of their sea caves. Numerous sea caves have been surveyed in England, and in France, until 2013, the largest known sea caves were found along the west coast of the United States, the Hawaiian islands, and the Shetland Islands. In 2013 the discovery and survey of the worlds largest sea cave was announced, located on New Zealands Otago coast on the South Island, Matainaka Cave has proven to be the worlds most extensive at 1.5 km in length.
Also in 2013, Crossley reported a newly surveyed complex reaching just over a kilometer in survey at Bethells Beach on New Zealands North Island, there are some notable exceptions as discussed below. In order to form a sea cave, the host rock must first contain a weak zone. In metamorphic or igneous rock, this is either a fault as in the caves of the Channel Islands of California, or a dike as in the large sea caves of Kauai. In sedimentary rocks, this may be a bedding-plane parting or a contact between layers of different hardness. The latter may occur in rocks, such as in the caves on Santa Cruz Island, California. The driving force in littoral cave development is wave action, erosion is ongoing anywhere that waves batter rocky coasts, but where sea cliffs contain zones of weakness, rock is removed at a greater rate along these zones. Adding to the power of the waves is the abrasive force of suspended sand. Most sea-cave walls are irregular and chunky, reflecting an erosional process where the rock is fractured piece by piece.
However, some caves have portions where the walls are rounded and smoothed, typically floored with cobbles, and result from the swirling motion of these cobbles in the surf zone
The Areni-1 cave complex is located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, it was announced that the earliest known shoe was found at the site, in January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was announced to have been found. Also in 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3900 BC was reported, in 2009, the oldest brain was discovered
Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools associated primarily with Neanderthals. They date to the Middle Paleolithic, the part of the European Old Stone Age. The culture was named after the site of Le Moustier. Similar flintwork has been all over unglaciated Europe and the Near East. Handaxes and points constitute the industry, sometimes a Levallois technique or another prepared-core technique was employed in making the flint flakes, Mousterian tools that have been found in Europe were made by Neanderthals and date from around 160,000 BP and 40,000 BP. In North Africa and the Near East, Mouseterian tools were produced by anatomically modern humans. In the Levant, for example, assemblages produced by Neanderthals are indistinguishable from those made by Qafzeh type modern humans, possible variants are Denticulate, Charentian named after the Charente region and the Acheulean Tradition - Type-A and Type-B. The industry continued alongside the new Châtelperronian industry during the 45, Mousterian artifacts have been found in Haua Fteah in Cyrenaica and other sites in Northwest Africa.
Contained within a cave in the Syria region, along with a Neanderthaloid skeleton, located in the Haibak valley of Afghanistan. Zagros and Central Iran The archaeological site of Atapuerca, gorhams Cave in Gibraltar contains Mousterian objects. Uzbekistan has sites of Mousterian culture, including Teshik-Tash, siberia has many sites with Mousterian style implements, eg Denisova Cave. Neanderthal extinction hypotheses Synoptic table of the old world prehistoric cultures Levallois technique Neanderthals’ Last Stand Is Traced — New York Times article
Gibraltarpedia is a project by the Government of Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory in the south end of the Iberian Peninsula, to improve coverage of Gibraltar-related topics on Wikipedia. It builds on Monmouthpedia, a project along similar lines linking Wikipedia. The Gibraltarpedia project was announced in July 2012 by the Government of Gibraltar, according to Gibraltarpedias web site, the project aims to cover every single notable place, artefact and animal in Gibraltar in as many languages as possible. The Gibraltarpedia project was announced in July 2012 by the Government of Gibraltar, the idea for Gibraltarpedia originated with Tyson Lee Holmes, a Gibraltarian who contributes to Wikipedia. Holmes read about Monmouthpedia and believed Gibraltar could benefit from a similar project, Holmes contacted Stewart Finlayson of the Gibraltar Museum, and Finlayson contacted representatives of Wikimedia UK. The organisers of Monmouthpedia were invited to Gibraltar to discuss proposals, the Government of Gibraltar viewed Gibraltarpedia as a means to promote tourism, and the Gibraltar Tourist Board played a key role in the projects formation.
Gibraltars Minister for Tourism, Neil Costa, told a Welsh newspaper, We as a Government have always said we need to be responsive and be able to seize opportunities as and when they arrive. Costa arranged meetings in Gibraltar for people from Wikipedia, which included tours of sites by staff from the Gibraltar Museum. The Government initially had concerns about the fact that Wikipedia editors who did not have Gibraltars best interest at heart may write untrue or negative articles and those concerns were reportedly allayed by assurances from Wikimedia UK. In June 2012, the Government of Gibraltar signed a letter of intent with Roger Bamkin, a co-creator of Monmouthpedia and a director of Wikimedia UK, and with John Cummings, Bamkin provided consultancy advice on the production of QR codes and training for project contributors. He told the Western Mail in July 2012 that he selected Gibraltar as his project after being flooded with invitations from places around the world hoping to be the second Wikipedia town.
Workshops to facilitate contributions to Wikipedia and, more specifically, Gibraltarpedia were scheduled in Gibraltar in late July 2012, the project has plans to use QRpedia QR codes to provide multilingual smartphone access to Wikipedia articles covering notable subjects in Gibraltar. Once implemented, the codes are intended to allow visitors to retrieve Wikipedia articles in their languages by using their smartphones to read the QR codes. The project plans to install plaques with the QR codes on significant buildings in Gibraltar, Roger Bamkin described the system as tap technology, allowing visitors to tap QR codes with a cellular phone. On 18 September 2012, BBC News published a report on Gibraltarpedia, the BBC reported that tourism is a big part of Gibraltars economy and noted that Gibraltar authorities were keen to seize any opportunity to increase revenue. Also on 18 September 2012, a CNET report asserted that Bamkin appeared to be using Wikipedias main page Did You Know feature, fox News reported that Gibraltar had been featured in Wikipedias coveted Did You Know main page section seventeen times in August.
Giving Gibraltar access to a hundred million page views per month. A contentious debate developed over Bamkins paid consultancy relationship with the Government of Gibraltar, slate magazine summarized the concerns of some as follows, Once Wikipedia becomes a pay-to-play platform in any sense, its no longer a balanced, universal wellspring of information
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula. It has an area of 6.7 km2 and shares its border with Spain. The Rock of Gibraltar is the landmark of the region. At its foot is a populated city area, home to over 30,000 Gibraltarians. An Anglo-Dutch force captured Gibraltar from Spain in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession on behalf of the Habsburg claim to the Spanish throne, the territory was subsequently ceded to Great Britain in perpetuity under the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. Today Gibraltars economy is based largely on tourism, online gambling, financial services, the sovereignty of Gibraltar is a major point of contention in Anglo-Spanish relations as Spain asserts a claim to the territory. Gibraltarians overwhelmingly rejected proposals for Spanish sovereignty in a 1967 referendum, under the Gibraltar constitution of 2006, Gibraltar governs its own affairs, though some powers, such as defence and foreign relations, remain the responsibility of the British government.
The name Gibraltar is the Spanish derivation of the Arabic name Jabal Ṭāriq, earlier, it was known as Mons Calpe, a name of Phoenician origin and one of the Pillars of Hercules. The pronunciation of the name in modern Spanish is, evidence of Neanderthal habitation in Gibraltar between 28,000 and 24,000 BP has been discovered at Gorhams Cave, making Gibraltar possibly the last known holdout of the Neanderthals. Within recorded history, the first inhabitants were the Phoenicians, around 950 BC, Gibraltar became known as one of the Pillars of Hercules, after the Greek legend of the creation of the Strait of Gibraltar by Heracles. The Carthaginians and Romans established semi-permanent settlements, after the collapse of the Roman Empire, Gibraltar came briefly under the control of the Vandals. The area formed part of the Visigothic Kingdom of Hispania from 414 AD until the Islamic conquest of Iberia in 711 AD, in 1160, the Almohad Sultan Abd al-Mumin ordered that a permanent settlement, including a castle, be built.
It received the name of Medinat al-Fath, on completion of the works in the town, the Sultan crossed the Strait to look at the works and stayed in Gibraltar for two months. The Tower of Homage of the Moorish Castle remains standing today, from 1274 onwards, the town was fought over and captured by the Nasrids of Granada, the Marinids of Morocco and the kings of Castile. In 1462, Gibraltar was finally captured by Juan Alonso de Guzmán, after the conquest, King Henry IV of Castile assumed the additional title of King of Gibraltar, establishing it as part of the comarca of the Campo Llano de Gibraltar. In 1501, Gibraltar passed back to the Spanish Crown, the occupation of the town by Alliance forces caused the exodus of the population to the surrounding area of the Campo de Gibraltar. As the Alliances campaign faltered, the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht was negotiated and ceded control of Gibraltar to Britain to secure Britains withdrawal from the war. Unsuccessful attempts by Spanish monarchs to regain Gibraltar were made with the siege of 1727 and again with the Great Siege of Gibraltar, during the American War of Independence
The original Germanic term knopp meant strike, shape, or work, so it could theoretically have referred equally well to making a statue or dice. Modern usage is specific, referring almost exclusively to the hand-tool pressure-flaking process pictured. Flintknapping or knapping is done in a variety of ways depending on the purpose of the final product, for stone tools and flintlock strikers, chert is worked using a fabricator such as a hammerstone to remove lithic flakes from a nucleus or core of tool stone. Stone tools can be refined using wood, bone. For building work a hammer or pick is used to split chert nodules supported on the lap, often the chert nodule will be split in half to create two cherts with a flat circular face for use in walls constructed of lime. More sophisticated knapping is employed to produce almost perfect cubes which are used as bricks, there are many different methods of shaping stone into useful tools. Early knappers could have used hammers made of wood or antler to shape stone tools.
The factors that contribute to the results are varied, but the EPA indeed influences many attributes, such as length, thickness. Hard hammer techniques are used to remove large flakes of stone, early knappers and hobbyists replicating their methods often use cobbles of very hard stone, such as quartzite. This technique can be used by flintknappers to remove broad flakes that can be made into smaller tools and this method of manufacture is believed to have been used to make some of the earliest stone tools ever found, some of which date from over 2 million years ago. Soft hammer techniques are more precise than hard hammer methods of shaping stone, soft hammer techniques allow a knapper to shape a stone into many different kinds of cutting and projectile tools. These soft hammer techniques produce longer, thinner flakes, potentially allowing for material conservation or a lighter lithic tool kit to be carried by mobile societies, pressure flaking involves removing narrow flakes along the edge of a stone tool.
This technique is used to do detailed thinning and shaping of a stone tool. Pressure flaking involves putting an amount of force across a region on the edge of the tool. The major advantage of using soft metals rather than wood or bone is that the metal punches wear down less and are likely to break under pressure. Archaeologists usually undertake the task so that they can understand how prehistoric stone tools were made. Knapping is often learned by outdoorsmen, such as British bushcraft exponent Ray Mears, knapping gun flints, used by flintlock firearms was formerly a major industry in flint bearing locations, such as Brandon in Suffolk and the small towns of Meusnes and Couffy in France. Meusnes has a museum dedicated to the industry
The red deer is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia and it inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to areas, including Australia, New Zealand, United States, Peru, Chile. In many parts of the world, the meat from red deer is used as a food source, Red deer are ruminants, characterized by a four-chambered stomach. Genetic evidence indicates the red deer as traditionally defined is a group, rather than a single species. It is probable that the ancestor of all red deer, including wapiti, originated in central Asia, although at one time red deer were rare in parts of Europe, they were never close to extinction. The red deer is the fourth-largest deer species behind moose, elk and it is a ruminant, eating its food in two stages and having an even number of toes on each hoof, like camels and cattle.
European red deer have a long tail compared to their Asian. The deer of Central and Western Europe vary greatly in size, large red deer stags, like the Caspian red deer or those of the Carpathian Mountains, may rival the wapiti in size. Female red deer are smaller than their male counterparts. The male red deer is typically 175 to 250 cm long and weighs 160 to 240 kg, the tail adds another 12 to 19 cm and shoulder height is about 95 to 130 cm. In Scotland, stags average 201 cm in length and 122 cm high at the shoulder. Size varies in different subspecies with the largest, the huge but small-antlered deer of the Carpathian Mountains, weighing up to 500 kg. At the other end of the scale, the Corsican red deer weighs about 80 to 100 kg, European red deer tend to be reddish-brown in their summer coats. The males of many subspecies grow a short neck mane during the autumn, the male deer of the British Isles and Norway tend to have the thickest and most noticeable manes. Male Caspian red deer and Spanish red deer do not carry neck manes, male deer of all subspecies, tend to have stronger and thicker neck muscles than female deer, which may give them an appearance of having neck manes.
Red deer hinds do not have neck manes, the European red deer is adapted to a woodland environment. Only the stags have antlers, which growing in the spring and are shed each year
The common bream, freshwater bream, bronze bream or carp bream, is a European species of freshwater fish in the family Cyprinidae. It is now considered to be the species in the genus Abramis. The common breams home range is Europe north of the Alps and Pyrenees and it is found as far east as the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, and the Aral Sea. The common bream lives in ponds and canals, the bream is usually 30 to 55 cm long, though some specimens of 75 cm have been recorded, it usually weighs 2 to 4 kg. The maximum length is 90 cm with a recorded weight of about 9.1 kg. It has a flattened and high-backed body and a slightly undershot mouth. It is a grey colour, though older fish can be bronze-coloured especially in clear waters. The fins are greyish to black, but never reddish, the common bream can easily be confused with the silver or white bream, in particular at the younger stages. The most reliable method of distinguishing these species is by counting the scales in a straight line downwards from the first ray of the fin to the lateral line.
Silver bream have fewer than 10 rows of scales, while common bream have 11 or more, at the adult stage the reddish tint of the pectoral fin of the silver bream is diagnostic. Like other Cyprinidae, common bream can easily hybridise with other species, the common bream generally lives in rivers and in nutrient-rich lakes and ponds with muddy bottoms and plenty of algae. It can be found in sea waters. The common bream lives in schools near the bottom, at night common bream can feed close to the shore and in clear waters with sandy bottoms feeding pits can be seen during daytime. The fishs protractile mouth helps it dig for chironomid larvae, Tubifex worms, the bream eats water plants and plankton, as well. In very turbid waters, common bream can occur in large numbers, the bream are forced to live by filter feeding with their gill rakers, Daphnia water fleas being the main prey. As the fish grows, the gill rakers become too far apart to catch small prey, if a common bream is malnourished, it can develop a so-called knife back, a sharp edge along its back.
The common bream spawns from April to June, when temperatures are around 17 °C. At this time, the males form territories within which the females lay 100,000 to 300,000 eggs on water plants, the fry hatch after three to 12 days and attach themselves to water plants with special adhesive glands, until their yolk is used up
In historic and modern usage, a hearth /ˈhɑːrθ/ is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace, with or without an oven, used for heating and originally used for cooking food. In a medieval hall, the hearth commonly stood in the middle of the hall, such hearths were moved to the side of the room and provided with a chimney. In fireplace design, the hearth is the part of the fireplace where the fire burns, usually consisting of masonry at floor level or higher, the word hearth derives from an Indo-European root, *ker-, referring to burning and fire. In archaeology, a hearth is a firepit or other feature of any period. Hearths are common features of many eras going back to prehistoric campsites and they were used for cooking and the processing of some stone, wood and floral resources. Farming or excavation—deform or disperse hearth features, making difficult to identify without careful study. Lined hearths are easily identified by the presence of fire-cracked rock, often present are fragmented fish and animal bones, carbonized shell, charcoal and other waste products, all embedded in a sequence of soil that has been deposited atop the hearth.
Unlined hearths, which are easily identified, may include these materials. Because of the nature of most of these items, they can be used to pinpoint the date the hearth was last used via the process of radiocarbon dating. Although carbon dates can be affected if the users of the hearth burned old wood or coal. This was the most common way to cook, and to interior spaces in cool seasons. Kapnikon was a tax raised on households without exceptions for the poor, in England, a tax on hearths was introduced on 19 May 1662. Householders were required to pay a charge of two shillings per annum for each hearth, with half the payment due at Michaelmas and half at Lady Day. Exemptions to the tax were granted, to those in receipt of relief, those whose houses were worth less than 20 shillings a year. Also exempt were charitable institutions such as schools and almshouses, and industrial hearths with the exception of smiths forges, the returns were lodged with the Clerk of the Peace between 1662 and 1688.
A revision of the Act in 1664 made the tax payable by all who had more than two chimneys The tax was abolished by William III in 1689 and the last collection was for Lady Day of that year and it was abolished in Scotland in 1690. Hearth tax records are important to historians as they provide an indication of the size of each assessed house at the time. The numbers of hearths are generally proportional to the size of the house, the assessments can be used to indicate the numbers and local distribution of larger and smaller houses
Gorhams Cave is a natural sea cave in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar. It is considered to be one of the last known habitations of the Neanderthals in Europe. It gives its name to the Gorhams Cave complex, which is a combination of four distinct caves of importance that they are combined into a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The three other caves are Vanguard Cave, Hyaena Cave, and Bennetts Cave and it is located on the southeastern face of the Rock of Gibraltar. When first inhabited some 55,000 years ago, it would have been approximately 5 kilometres from the shore, the cave is named after Captain A. Gorham of the 2nd Battalion Royal Munster Fusiliers who discovered it in 1907, gorham inscribed his name and the date of his discovery in lamp-black on the wall of the cave, which has borne his name ever since. Gorhams Cave is sea cave which has formed in Jurassic limestone, total length of this cave is approximately 100 m and at the entrance it is approximately 35 m high. Further inside the cave becomes narrower and turns per approximately 90 degrees, from the entrance of cave opens a view on Alboran Sea.
It is possible that further research the cave will become longer. Gorhams Cave has been a site of archaeological interest since its importance was first recognised, Royal Engineers Keighley and Ward were the first to report artefacts of archaeological interest in the cave via the Gibraltar newspapers. They had found pottery and stone tools, they reported that human and animal remains had been discovered in Gorhams cave. Rev. F. E. Brown of the Gibraltar Society reported these findings to the governor of Gibraltar who requested further investigations after a site visit and these investigations were reported to the British Museum for their deliberation. Lieutenant George Baker Alexander, Royal Engineer and a graduate geologist from the University of Cambridge and he decided to make a geological survey of Gibraltar that resulted in a detailed geological map. Alexander was the first to excavate Gorham’s Cave, before his departure from Gibraltar in 1948 after the Gibraltar Museum challenged his methods, there are no preserved materials about these excavations.
In 1945, the governor wrote to the British Museum requesting that they continue further explorations of the cave, garrod sought the assistance of Dr. John dArcy Waechter, a fellow of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara. Waechter arrived in September 1948 and spent two months digging test pits to see if further excavation would be justified, waechters success resulted in his return in June 1950. He went back to England in 1951, without concluding the work, during a final visit in 1954 he successfully requested financial assistance from the local government to complete his work. Excavation of this site has resulted in the discovery of four layers of stratigraphy, level I has produced evidence for eighth to third centuries BC use by Phoenicians
Morocco, officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a sovereign country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. Geographically, Morocco is characterized by a mountainous interior, large tracts of desert. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of 446,550 km2 and its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tetouan, Salé, Agadir, Oujda, Kenitra, a historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, the Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1666. In 1912 Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with a zone in Tangier. Moroccan culture is a blend of Arab, indigenous Berber, Sub-Saharan African, Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara as its Southern Provinces. Morocco annexed the territory in 1975, leading to a war with indigenous forces until a cease-fire in 1991.
Peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock, Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy, the king can issue decrees called dahirs which have the force of law. He can dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister, Moroccos predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Tamazight. The Moroccan dialect, referred to as Darija, and French are widely spoken, Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa, the full Arabic name al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyyah translates to Kingdom of the West, although the West in Arabic is الغرب Al-Gharb. The basis of Moroccos English name is Marrakesh, its capital under the Almoravid dynasty, the origin of the name Marrakesh is disputed, but is most likely from the Berber words amur akush or Land of God.
The modern Berber name for Marrakesh is Mṛṛakc, in Turkish, Morocco is known as Fas, a name derived from its ancient capital of Fes. The English name Morocco is an anglicisation of the Spanish Marruecos, the area of present-day Morocco has been inhabited since Paleolithic times, sometime between 190,000 and 90,000 BC. During the Upper Paleolithic, the Maghreb was more fertile than it is today, twenty-two thousand years ago, the Aterian was succeeded by the Iberomaurusian culture, which shared similarities with Iberian cultures. Skeletal similarities have been suggested between the Iberomaurusian Mechta-Afalou burials and European Cro-Magnon remains, the Iberomaurusian was succeeded by the Beaker culture in Morocco