The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga and Brahmaputra. The river is 1,400 kilometres long; the river is called Krishnaveni. It is one of the major sources of irrigation for Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh; the Krishna river originates in the Western Ghats near Mahabaleshwar at an elevation of about 1,300 metres, in the state of Maharashtra in central India. It is one of the longest rivers in India; the Krishna river is around 1,400 km in length. The Krishna river's source is at Mahabaleswar near the Jor village in the extreme north of Wai Taluka, Satara District, Maharashtra in the west and empties into the Bay of Bengal at Hamasaladeevi in Andhra Pradesh, on the east coast, it flows through the state of Karnataka before entering Telangana State. The delta of this river is one of the most fertile regions in India and was the home to ancient Satavahana and Ikshvaku Sun Dynasty kings. Vijayawada is the largest city on the River Krishna.
It causes heavy soil erosion during the monsoon floods. It flows fast and furious reaching depths of over 75 feet. There is a saying in Marathi: "Shant vaahate Krishnamaai" which means "quiet flows Krishna"; this term is used to describe. The largest tributary of the Krishna River is the Tungabhadra River with a drainage basin measuring 71,417 km2, running for about 531 km, but the longest tributary is the Bhima River, which makes a total run of 861 km and has an large drainage area of 70,614 km2. Three tributaries Panchganga and Yerla meet Krishna river near Sangli; these places are considered holy. It is said. Sangameswaram of Kurnool district in Andhra Pradesh is a famous pilgrim center for Hindus where Tungabhadra and Bhavanasi rivers join the Krishna river; the Sangameswaram temple is now drowned in the Srisailam reservoir, visible for devotees only during summer when the reservoir's water level comes down. Krishna Basin extends over an area of 258,948 km2, nearly 8% of the total geographical area of the country.
This large basin lies in the states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. The Krishna river rises in the Western Ghats, at an elevation of about 1,337 m just north of Mahabaleshwar, about 64 km from the Arabian Sea, it outfalls into the Bay of Bengal. The principal tributaries joining Krishna are the Ghataprabha River, Malaprabha River, Bhima River, Tungabhadra River and Musi River. Most of this basin comprises rolling and undulating country, except for the western border, formed by an unbroken line of the Western Ghats; the important soil types found in the basin are black soils, red soils and lateritic soils, mixed soils and black soils and saline and alkaline soils. An average annual surface water potential of 78.1 km3 has been assessed in this basin. Out of this, 58.0 km3 is utilizable water. Culturable area in the basin is about 203,000 km2, 10.4% of the total cultivable area of the country. As the water availability in the Krishna river was becoming inadequate to meet the water demand, Godavari River is linked to the Krishna river by commissioning the Polavaram right bank canal with the help of Pattiseema lift scheme in the year 2015 to augment water availability to the Prakasam Barrage in Andhra Pradesh.
The irrigation canals of Prakasam Barrage form part of National Waterway 4. Agumbe which receives second highest rainfall in India, is located in the Krishna river basin. Mullayanagiri peak in Karnataka at an altitude of 1,930 m above msl, is the highest point of the Krishna basin; this river is revered by Hindus as sacred. The river is believed to remove all sins of people by taking a bath in this river; the centre of attraction is the Krishna Pushkaram fair, held once in twelve years on the banks of the Krishna river. There are many pilgrimage places in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh on the course of the river; the first holy place on the river Krishna is at Wai, known for the Mahaganpati Mandir and Kashivishweshwar temple. It has seven ghats along the river. Temples like Dattadeva temple, revered by the people of Maharashtra, are located on the banks of Krishna at Narsobawadi and Audumbar near Sangli. Located on the banks of the river Krishna are the Sangameshwar Shiva temple at Haripur, goddess Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada and Ramling temple near Sangli, Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga, Amareshwara Swamy Temple, Dattadeva temple, Sangameshwara Shiva temples at Alampur in Telangana.
Wide spread area near to the Krishna river holds the rich fauna. The last surviving Mangrove forests in the Krishna estuary have been declared as the Krishna Wildlife Sanctuary; the sanctuary is the home to the large number of migratory birds. Fishing cat, Estuarine crocodile, spotted deer, black buck, snake and jackal can be spotted in the sanctuary; the sanctuary supports rich vegetation with plants like Rhizophora and Aegiceros. The following are few other wildlife sanctuaries located in the river basin; the following are few other waterfalls located in the river basin The Krishna River is spanned by several bridges along its course, some of which are listed below. Krishna Bridge, Maharashtra – This bridge, located in the Dharmpuri Peth area of the town of Wai, is one o
Karnataka is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka in 1973; the state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore. Karnataka is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Telangana to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, Kerala to the south; the state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the sixth largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Telugu, Malayalam and Beary. Karnataka contains some of the only villages in India where Sanskrit is spoken.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Vedavathi and Tungabhadra in North Karnataka Sharavathi in Shivamogga and the Kaveri and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka eastward. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the accepted one is that Karnataka is derived from the Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may be read as karu, meaning "black" and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme region of the state; the British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna. With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India; the philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day.
Karnataka has contributed to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions. The economy of Karnataka is the third-largest state economy in India with ₹15.88 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹174,000. Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE. Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka formed part of the Nanda Empire before coming under the Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed; the decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity.
The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi. These were the first kingdoms to use Kannada in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi; these dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada empires such as the Badami Chalukyas, the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the Western Chalukya Empire, which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature which became a precursor to the Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka were occupied by the Chola Empire at the turn of the 11th century; the Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it came under Hoysala rule. At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada literary metres, the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara style of architecture.
The expansion of the Hoysala Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the early 14th century and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana, on the banks of the Tungabhadra River in the modern Bellary district; the empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim advances into South India, which it controlled for over two centuries. In 1565, Karnataka and the rest of South India experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota; the Bijapur Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan. The Bahmani and Bijapur rulers encouraged Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic architecture, the Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka from Salcette, while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics migrated to North Canara and South Canara from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.
In the period that followed
The Lakshmana Tirtha is a river of Karnataka, India. It flows eastward, it joins the Kaveri in the Krishna Raja Sagara lake
The Arkavati is an important mountain river in Karnataka, originating at Nandi Hills of Chikkaballapura district. It is a tributary of the Kaveri, which it joins at 34 km south of Kanakapura, Ramanagara District called Sangama in Kannada, after flowing through Ramanagara and Kanakapura; the river drains into the Chikkarayappanahalli Lake near Kanivenarayanapura. Kumudavathi and Vrishabhavathi rivers are tributaries to this river, it forms. It joins Cauvery river as a tributary near Mekedatu; the river is used by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board to provide 135 million litres of drinking water per day to the city of Bengaluru, or about 20% of all the city's water. As it is filtered in the nearby mountain aquifer, the water is crystal clear; the water is taken from two reservoirs built on the river, the Hesaraghatta, built in 1894, the Tippagondanahalli Reservoir, built in 1933. There is Manchanabele dam, across the river further downstream, located in Ramanagara District Ponnaiyar River Palar River Vrishabhavathi River Hesaraghatta Lake Thippagondanahalli Reservoir
Souparnika River or Sowparnika nadi is a river flowing through Kundapur taluk in Karnataka, India. It joins with the Varahi River, Kedaka River, Chakra River, Kubja River known as Panchagangavali river and merges into the Arabian Sea, it flows near Mookambika temple, Kollur hence sometimes known as Kolluru nadi and is considered holy river by devotees of the temple. It is believed that Garuda called Suparna performed penance on the banks of the river and attained salvation thus the name become Souparnika, it is believed that river absorbs the elements of 64 different medicinal plants and roots as it flows, therefore it cures diseases of those who bath in it. Kundapura: 40 km Udupi: 80 km Murudeshwara: 55 km Mangalore: 140 km Bangalore: 405 km Sringeri: 115 km
The Ghataprabha river is an important right-bank tributary of the Krishna River and flows eastward for a distance of 283 kilometers before its confluence with the Krishna River at Almatti. The river basin is 8,829 square kilometers wide and stretches across Maharashtra and Karnataka states; the river is crossed by a suspension bridge near the Gokak Falls. The bridge was constructed in the late 1800s/early 1900s. Ghataprabha River Project
The Penna is a river of southern India. The Penna rises in Nandi Hills in Chikballapur District of Karnataka state, runs north and east through the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal, it is 597 kilometres long, with a drainage basin covering 55,213 km2: 6,937 km2 in Karnataka and 48,276 km2 in Andhra Pradesh. The river basin lies in the rain shadow region of Eastern Ghats and receives 500 mm average rainfall annually; the name of the river Penneru is derived from Telugu words penu పెను meaning grand and yeru ఏఱు / యేఱు meaning river, stream, or a rivulet or else from neeru నీరు water, in flow of course. It called as Utthara Pinakini in Karnataka; the name Pinakini refers to Pinaka bow of the Nandhiswara, the presiding deity of the Nandi hills at the origin of the river. The Penna river has several mouths; the main stream starts in Nandi Hills in of Karnataka, flows for 597km in north and east directions through several mountains and plains, joins the Bay of Bengal in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh.
The river is seasonal. The main source of the water is from rains, it appears like small stream during dry periods. The major tributaries of the Penna are the Jayamangali and Sagileru from the north, Chitravathi and Cheyyeru from the south; the Penna river rises at 13.55°N 77.60°E / 13.55. It starts in north west direction at its source, it flows near the towns like Maralur. It flows for 48km towards north through the Kolar and Tumkur districts in Karnataka before entering Andhra Pradesh in Anantpur district. At 69km, the Penna meets the Kumudavati river. At 82km, the Penna meets the Jayamangali river near the Hindupur town in Anantapur district; the Jayamangali river rises in Tumkur district and traverses 77km in northeast direction before joining the Penna river on the left bank. The Penna flows northwards for the next 146km from the confluence of Jayamangali. After traversing for 67km in Anantapur district, the Penna reenters Karnataka at Pavagada Taluk in Tumkur district at 115km from its source.
After traversing for 13km in Tumkur district again, it reenters Andhra Pradesh in Kalyandurg Taluk in Anantapur district at 128km from its source. The Penna turns east at Penna Ahobilam and flows through Marutia and katrimala reserve forests and near the towns like Tadipatri; the Penna gains the volume but loses stream by the time it crosses Palakondalu and enters Cuddapah district of Andhra Pradesh. It regains the stream in district after meeting many tributaries including Chitravati, Papagni, Kunderu and Cheyyeru and flows near the towns like Kodur, Proddatur and Siddhavattam; the Penna meets its major tributary Chitravati at Gandalur near the Gandikota at 336km from its source. The Chitravati rises near the Chikballapur town in the Kolar district of Karnataka and traverses 218km in northeast direction in Kolar and Cuddapah districts before joining the Penna on the right bank; the Penna river forces through Gandikota gorge and flows east through a gap in the Eastern Ghats to go to the plains of Coastal Andhra.
The rivers Papagni and Kunderu meets the Penna near Kamalapuram. The Papagni river rises near Sidlaghatta town in Kolar district of Karnataka and traverses 205km before joining the Penna on the right bank; the Kunderu river rises in Kurnool district of Andra Pradesh and travels 205km before joining the Penna on the left bank. The Penna river continues in southeastern direction and cuts across the Nallamala hills; the river turns east. The Sagileru flows south to meet the Penna; the Penna river meets Cheyyeru at Gundlamada near the Sidhout on the right bank. The Cheyyeru river is formed by the confluence of the rivers Bahuda and Puncha that originate in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh; the two flows towards north for 87 km before joining the Penna. The Penna emerges from Velikonda Range in Eastern Ghats at 467km from its source and enters the Somasila plains in the Nellore district; the Pennar river flows near the towns like Atmakuru, Jonnawada and Nellore. It meets the Boggeru and the Biraperu near the Sangam town.
The Boggeru rises in Boggu Venkatapuram and joins other minor streams before meeting the Penna river. The Biraperu is a small stream to carry off the rainfall of the north east portion of Nellore and Kavali Mandals to the Penna river, it joins the Bay of Bengal at 14.58°N 80.14°E / 14.58. The watershed of the Penna and its tributaries covers part of the southern Deccan plateau, including most of the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh and part of Karnataka; the Kolar Plateau forms the divide between the Penna watershed and those of the Kaveri and Palar rivers to the south. The Penna drains the northern portion of the plateau, which includes parts of Kolar and Tumkur districts in Karnataka; the Krishna River and its tributaries drain the Deccan plateau to the west and north of the Penna's watershed, the low Erramala hills forms the northern divide of the Penna basin. The upper watershed of the Penna includes Cuddapah District and eastern Anantapur District, the southern part of Kurnool District, northwestern Chittoor District.
EstuaryThe estuary of the Penna river extends 7 km upstream from the Bay of Bengal. Tidal influence and salt water extends further upstream during the November to June dry season. Coastal dunes as high as 7 meters form around the river mouth. Upputeru tidal creek, 15 km in length, Isakap