Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Siddhartha Mukherjee is an Indian-American physician, biologist and author. He is best known for his 2010 book, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer that won notable literary prizes including the 2011 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction, Guardian First Book Award, among others; the book was listed in the "All-Time 100 Nonfiction Books" by Time magazine in 2011. His 2016 book The Gene: An Intimate History made it to #1 on The New York Times Best Seller list, was among The New York Times 100 best books of 2016, a finalist for the Wellcome Trust Prize and the Royal Society Prize for Science Books. After completing school education in India, Mukherjee studied biology at Stanford University, obtained a D. Phil. From University of Oxford as a Rhodes scholar, an M. D. from Harvard University. He joined the faculty of medicine at the Columbia University Medical Center in New York City in 2009; as of 2018, he is an Associate Professor of Medicine in the Division of Oncology. Featured in the Time 100 list of most influential people, Mukherjee writes for The New Yorker and is a columnist in The New York Times.
He is described as part of a select group of doctor-writers who have "transformed the public discourse on human health", allowed a generation of readers a rare and intimate glimpse into the life of science and medicine. His research concerns the physiology of cancer cells, immunological therapy for blood cancers, the discovery of bone- and cartilage-forming stem cells in the vertebrate skeleton; the Government of India conferred him its fourth highest civilian award, the Padma Shri, in 2014. Siddhartha Mukherjee was born to a Bengali family in India, his father, Sibeswar Mukherjee, was an executive with Mitsubishi, his mother Chandana Mukherjee, was a former schoolteacher from Calcutta. He attended St. Columba's School in Delhi, where he won the school's highest award, the'Sword of Honour', in 1989; as a biology major at Stanford University, he worked in Nobel Laureate Paul Berg's laboratory, defining cellular genes that change the behaviours of cancer cells. He earned membership in Phi Beta Kappa in 1992, completed his Bachelor of Science degree in 1993.
Mukherjee won a Rhodes Scholarship for doctoral research at University of Oxford. He worked on the mechanism of activation of the immune system by viral antigens, he was awarded a D. Phil. in 1997 for his thesis titled The processing and presentation of viral antigens. After graduation, he attended Harvard Medical School, where he earned his Doctor of Medicine degree in 2000. Between 2000 and 2003 he worked as a resident in internal medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital. From 2003 to 2006 he trained in oncology as a Fellow at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, Massachusetts. In 2009, Mukherjee joined the faculty of the Department of Medicine in the Division of Hematology/Oncology at the Columbia University Medical Center as an Assistant Professor; the medical center is attached to the NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City. He was affiliated with the Harvard Stem Cell Institute and with Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, he has worked as the Plummer Visiting Professor at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, the Joseph Garland lecturer at the Massachusetts Medical Society, an honorary visiting professor at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
His laboratory is based at Columbia University's Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center. Mukherjee is a trained haematologist and oncologist whose research focuses on the links between normal stem cells and cancer cells. Through his findings, he had shown the roles of cells in cancer therapy, he has been investigating the microenvironment of stem cells on blood-forming stem cells. Blood-forming stem cells are present in the bone marrow in specific microenvironments. Osteoblasts, cells that form bone, are one of the principal components this environment; these cells regulate the process of blood cell formation and development by providing them with signals to divide, remain quiescent, or maintain their stem cell properties. Distortion in the development of these cells results in severe blood cancers, such as myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia. Mukherjee's research has been recognised through many grants from the National Institutes of Health and from private foundations. Mukherjee and his co-workers have identified several genes and chemicals that can alter the microenvironment, or niche, thereby alter the behavior of normal stem cells, as well as cancer cells.
Two such chemicals – proteasome inhibitors and activin inhibitors6 – are under clinical trials. Mukerjee's lab has identified novel genetic mutations in myelodysplasia and acute myelogenous leukaemia and has played a leading role in finding therapies for these diseases. Mukherjee's team is known for defining and characterizing skeletal stem/progenitor cells. In 2015, they prospectively identified these progenitor cells from bone, showed, using lineage tracing, that these cells can give rise to bone and reticular cells, they established that these cells form a part of the adult skeleton in vertebrates, that they maintain and repair the skeleton. OCR cells are among the newest progenitor cells to be defined in vertebrates; the work generated wide interest and was described in prominent journals as a major breakthrough for understanding biology and for understanding diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. Mukherjee's team have shown that OCR cells
WBAY-TV, virtual channel 2, is an ABC-affiliated television station licensed to Green Bay, United States. The station is owned by Gray Television. WBAY-TV's studios are located on South Jefferson Street in downtown Green Bay, its transmitter is located in Ledgeview. WBAY-TV first signed on the air on March 17, 1953 as the second television station in Wisconsin, after WTMJ-TV in Milwaukee, it was owned by the Norbertine Order of Priests, whose abbey is in nearby De Pere. The priests run St. Norbert College in De Pere, operated WBAY radio in Green Bay and WHBY radio in Appleton. Like WTMJ when that station started in 1947, as the only station in the market, WBAY carried programming from all four networks of the day – channel 2 was a primary CBS affiliate with secondary affiliations with NBC, ABC and DuMont. NBC moved to Marinette's WMBV-TV when it signed on in 1954, with WNAM-TV from Neenah taking the ABC affiliation upon its 1955 debut. With the shutdown of DuMont in 1956, WBAY was left as an exclusive CBS affiliate, remained the only station licensed to Green Bay proper until the 1959 relocation of WLUK to the city.
Channel 2 upgraded its transmitter and began broadcasting network programming in color around 1959. The station's studios in downtown Green Bay were built in 1924 as a former Knights of Columbus clubhouse and was turned into a private Roman Catholic high school during the Great Depression when the Norbertines took over the building; the former gymnasium/auditorium is now called the WBAY Auditorium and is used as the studio for the station's Cerebral Palsy telethon. During the early years of WBAY, it served as the main studio until 1954 when an addition was built behind the main building; the auditorium has been used for local theatrical productions. The station's newsroom is in the basement of the building in an area that held a swimming pool and bowling alley; the WBAY building served as the home of the WBAY radio stations, which were purchased by Midwest Communications in the late 1970s, but remained in the building until Midwest built a combined Green Bay operations facility/company headquarters in 2007 and a news-weather sharing agreement was maintained between WBAY-TV and its former radio sisters for many years before it was discontinued in favor of an agreement with WLUK-TV.
As a CBS affiliate, WBAY-TV benefited from that network's coverage of National Football League games those of the Green Bay Packers. The station carried its first Packers game a few months after signing on, continued to air most Packers games until 1991 by virtue of CBS holding the rights to the Packers' conference, the National Football Conference. Packers games drew up to a 90 percent share of the audience during the team's championship era of the 1960s under Vince Lombardi, the station carried the team's coaches' show The Vince Lombardi Show; the station originated the team's exhibition game coverage from the 1960s to 2002, with some exceptions. Main anchor Bill Jartz has been Lambeau Field's PA system announcer since the start of the 2005–2006 season; the station continued to air Monday Night Football Packer games originating from ESPN beginning with the move of MNF to cable starting with the 2006 until the 2015 season. For the 2016 season, WLUK-TV, the Packers' primary home by virtue of Fox presently holding the rights to the NFC, acquired the syndication rights to the ESPN games under a multi-year agreement.
It was the first time that WBAY did not carry a Packers game during an NFL season in its 63-year history. In 1974, WBAY was sold to Nationwide Communications, which operated the station until 1993, when it was sold to Young Broadcasting along with its two ABC-affiliated sisters WATE-TV in Knoxville, Tennessee and WRIC-TV in Richmond, Virginia. In 1991, CBS purchased the assets of Midwest Television to acquire its long-dominant affiliate in Minneapolis–Saint Paul, WCCO-TV. Midwest owned channel 2's longtime competitor, WFRV. CBS considered WBAY a strong affiliate, tried to sell WFRV and their Escanaba, Michigan-based satellite station, WJMN-TV, after the deal with Midwest closed. However, after FCC rules were relaxed at the time to allow one company to own more stations, the network decided to keep the two stations as a result and switched WFRV/WJMN to CBS in 1992. After it was announced that WFRV would join CBS, channel 2 decided to take WFRV/WJMN's ABC affiliation. Since that date fell on a Tuesday in 1992, WFRV and WBAY swapped networks on March 15, which fell on a Sunday.
The station pre-empted the first hour of the ABC lineup on Tuesday evenings during the football season to carry the local program Tuesday Night Touchback, known as Monday Night Countdown before it was moved in 2007 because of Dancing with the Stars and the departure of Monday Night Football from ABC. Progr
Variety Girl is a 1947 American musical comedy film directed by George Marshall and starring Mary Hatcher, Olga San Juan, DeForest Kelley, Frank Ferguson, Glenn Tryon, Nella Walker, Torben Meyer, Jack Norton, William Demarest. It was produced by Paramount Pictures. Numerous Paramount contract players and directors make cameos or perform songs, with large amounts of screen time featuring Bob Hope and Bing Crosby; the opening caption reads, "This picture is dedicated to Variety Clubs, International, "The Heart of Show Business", which beats in behalf of the under-privileged children of the world... regardless of race, creed or color". The story revolves around two young girls who exchange identities, causing confusion at the Variety Club and the Paramount studio; the elaborate closing song, "Harmony," begins with Bing Crosby and Bob Hope singing and dancing on stage in matching checkered suits and straw hats moves to a merry-go-round with Gary Cooper in cowboy regalia seated on a plastic horse while talking through a couple of stanzas with Barry Fitzgerald gradually incorporates the entire cast, which includes everyone under contract to Paramount at the time, in a rousing finale launched by William Holden and Ray Milland chasing a scantily-clad woman across a soundstage.
The film includes a five-minute color Puppetoon segment Romeow and Julicat by George Pal in Technicolor, in black and white in most prints. It turned out to be Pal's last Puppetoon short. Mary Hatcher as Catherine Brown Olga San Juan as Amber La Vonne DeForest Kelley as Bob Kirby Frank Ferguson as R. J. O'Connell Glenn Tryon as Bill Farris Nella Walker as Mrs. Webster Torben Meyer as Andre Jack Norton as Busboy at Brown Derby William Demarest as Barker Frank Faylen as Stage manager Variety wrote that the film "emerges a socko entertainment... and Crosby click with their “Harmony” routine, a socko number for all its paraphrasing of the “Friendship” routine out of Du Barry Was a Lady which Bert Lahr and Ethel Merman made famous. The New York Times review of October 16, 1947 concluded: "The people who carry along the story are not to be overlooked for they bring to the effort the right spirit of good-natured abandon. Mary Hatcher, discovered in Oklahoma!, is a welcome addition to the screen's songbird assembly, she has a wide-eyed innocent look which won't hurt her either.
Variety Girl is hodge-podge. But let's not quibble about its lack of form, because it is a hearty slam-bang entertainment wherein the good definitely outweighs the poor." "Tallahasee": sung by Alan Ladd, Dorothy Lamour and others "Harmony": sung by Bing Crosby, Bob Hope and others "Tired": sung by Pearl Bailey "He Can Waltz": sung by Mary Hatcher "Your Heart Calling Mine": sung by Mary Hatcher and Spike Jones and his City Slickers "Romeow and Julicat": performed by Mary Hatcher, Pinto Colvig, chorus "I Must Have Been Madly in Love" "I Want My Money Back" "Impossible Things" "The French" The song "Tallahasee" appeared in the Billboard charts with recordings by Bing Crosby and The Andrew Sisters and by Dinah Shore and Woody Herman. Variety Girl on IMDb Variety Girl at Rotten Tomatoes
Childhood leukemia is leukemia that occurs in a child and is a type of childhood cancer. Childhood leukemia is the most common childhood cancer, accounting for 29% of cancers in children aged 0–14 in 2018. There are multiple forms of leukemia that occur in children, the most common being acute lymphoblastic leukemia followed by acute myeloid leukemia. Survival rates vary depending on the type of leukemia, but may be as high as 90% in ALL. Leukemia is a cancer of the blood, it develops in the soft inner part of bones where new blood cells are made. When a child has leukemia, the bone marrow produces white blood cells. Normal healthy cells only reproduce; the body will regulate the production of cells by sending signals of. When a child has leukemia, the cells do not respond to the signals telling them when to stop and when to produce cells; the bone marrow becomes crowded resulting in problems producing other blood cells. Common childhood leukemia signs and symptoms include excessive tiredness, easy bruising or bleeding, bone pain and paleness.
Leukemia is described either as "acute", which grows or "chronic", which grows slowly. The vast majority of childhood leukemia is acute, chronic leukemias are more common in adults than in children. Acute leukemias develop and worsen quickly. Chronic leukemias develop over a slower period of time, but are more difficult to treat than acute leukemias; the following are some of the main types of leukemia. The most common form childhood leukemia is acute lymphocytic leukemia, which makes up 75-80% of childhood leukemia diagnoses. ALL is a form of leukemia that affects lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells which fights infection; when a patient has ALL, the bone marrow makes too many immature white blood cells and they do not mature correctly. These white blood cells do not work to fight infection; the white blood cells over-produce, crowding the other blood cells in the bone marrow. Another type of acute leukemia is acute myelogenous leukemia. AML accounts for most of the remaining cases of leukemia in children, comprising about 20% of childhood leukemia.
AML is cancer of the blood. The marrow continues to produce abnormal cells that crowd the other blood cells and do not work properly to fight infection. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a specific type of AML. In this leukemia promyelocytes are build up in the bone marrow. A specific chromosome translocation is found in patients with APL. Genes on chromosome 15 change places with genes on chromosome 17; this genetic change prevents the promyelocytes from maturing properly. Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a chronic leukemia that develops over months to years. CML does occur. CML patients have too many immature white blood cells being produced, the cells crowd the other healthy blood cells. A chromosome translocation occurs in patients with CML. Part of chromosome 9 breaks off and attaches itself to chromosome 22, facilitating exchange of genetic material between chromosomes 9 and 22; the rearrangement of the chromosomes changes the positions and functions of certain genes, which causes uncontrolled cell growth.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is another form of chronic leukemia, but is rare in children. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a form of leukemia in which myelomonocytic cells are overproduced, it is sometimes considered a myeloproliferative neoplasm. It is rare and most occurs in children under the age of four. In JMML, the myelomonocytic cells produced by the bone marrow and invade the spleen and intestines. Most initial symptoms of leukemia are related to problems with the bone-marrow function. There are a variety of symptoms; the symptoms tend to appear in acute leukemia and over time in chronic leukemia. Symptoms in the different types of childhood leukemia include: feelings of fatigue or weakness repetitive infections or fever bone and joint pain refusing to walk, which results from bone pain or fatigue easy bleeding or bruising increased paleness of skin abdominal pain or fullness, which may cause shortness of breath or loss of appetite swollen lymph nodes under the arms, in the groin and neck.
Enlarged spleen or liver weight loss rash The exact cause of most cases of childhood leukemia is not known. Most children with leukemia do not have any known risk factors. One hypothesis is that childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is caused by a two-step process, starting with a prenatal genetic mutation and exposure to infections While this theory is possible, there is not enough evidence in patients to either support or refute the relationship between infection and developing ALLThere is evidence linking maternal alcohol consumption to AML development in children. Indoor insecticide exposure has been linked to the development of childhood leukemias. High levels of coffee consumption during pregnancy have been linked to childhood leukemia as well, it has been suggested that allergies are linked to the development of childhood leukemia but this is not supported by current evidence. Childhood leukemia is diagnosed in a variety of ways; the diagnostic procedures confirm if there is leukemia present, the extent of the leukemia, the type of leukemia.
The diagnostic procedures are similar for the different types of leukemias: A bone-marrow a
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Sidney Farber was an American pediatric pathologist. He is regarded as the father of modern chemotherapy for his work using folic acid antagonists to combat leukemia, which led to the development of other chemotherapeutic agents against other malignancies. Farber was active in cancer research advocacy and fundraising, most notably through his establishment of the Jimmy Fund, a foundation dedicated to pediatric research in childhood cancers; the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute is named after him. He was born in New York to Jewish parents Simon and Matilda Farber, he was the third oldest of 14 children. He was the younger brother of the noted philosopher and University of Buffalo professor Marvin Farber. Sidney Farber graduated from University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, or SUNY Buffalo, in 1923. Farber Hall, built in 1953 on the South Campus of SUNY Buffalo, is named for him. In the mid-1920s, Jewish students were refused admission to US medical schools, prompting him to go to Europe.
As Farber was fluent in German, he undertook his first year of medical school at the Universities of Heidelberg and Freiburg in Germany. Having excelled in Germany, Farber entered Harvard Medical School as a second-year student and graduated in 1927. Farber pursued postgraduate training in pathology at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, where he was mentored by Kenneth Blackfan, was appointed to a resident pathologist post at Children's Hospital in 1929. Following postgraduate training, Farber became an Instructor in Pathology at Harvard Medical School in 1929; that same year, he was appointed the first full-time pathologist to be based at Children's Hospital, where he became a close mentee and friend of pathologist Simeon Burt Wolbach. Farber was an meticulous and precise scientist, his laboratory become known for its tidiness. In 1946, Farber was named Chairman of the Staff at the Children's Hospital, where he managed the Medical Center of Children's and envisioned an Institute for Pediatric Pathology which now exists as the Pediatric Research building.
Farber was appointed Pathologist-in-Chief of the Children's Hospital in 1947 and Professor of Pathology at Harvard Medical School in 1948. Throughout his career, Farber published more than 270 books and research papers on pediatric pathology and the history of medicine. Many remain classic references today, such as his 1937 book on autopsy methods and techniques titled The Postmortem Examination. Farber's research was focused on diseases in children and infants, his work at Children's spanned many areas, including cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, infant hyaline membrane disease, Eastern equine encephalitis, eosinophilic granuloma, meconium ileus, sudden infant death syndrome. As a result, Farber is now known as a founder of pediatric pathology. Through the mid- to late-1940s, childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia was inevitably fatal and little was known about the mechanisms of the disease. Only basic forms of treatment were available, including red blood cell transfusions and antibiotics, leading to survival rates of weeks to months after diagnosis.
Despite general pessimism in the scientific community towards efforts to cure cancer, Farber became dedicated to the battle against childhood leukemia in 1947 during his assistant professorship at Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Farber discovered that folic acid plays a key role in the proliferation of cancer cells in leukemias. Realizing this, he attempted to use a folate antagonist, aminopterin, to block the function of folic acid in patients with leukemia in hopes of achieving remission. In 1947, Farber conducted a clinical trial on aminopterin on 16 children, 10 of which achieved temporary remission. While many practicing physicians responded to these results with enthusiasm, many scientists expressed disbelief and resistance against the new drug since Farber, a young pathologist at the time, was viewed as presumptuous. However, Farber's discovery marked a breakthrough in cancer research since no drugs had been found effective against tumors of the bodily fluids. While working at Harvard Medical School on a research project funded by a grant from the American Cancer Society, he carried out both the preclinical and clinical evaluation of aminopterin.
He showed for the first time that induction of clinical and hematological remission in this disease was achievable. These findings promoted Farber as the father of the modern era of chemotherapy for neoplastic disease, having been recognized for a decade as a founder of modern pediatric pathology. Throughout the 1950s and'60s, Farber continued to make advances in cancer research, notably the 1955 discovery that the antibiotic actinomycin D and post-operative radiation therapy could produce remission in Wilms' tumor, a pediatric cancer of the kidneys; the antibiotic, derived from Streptomyces parvulus, was offered for free by the Eli Lilly Pharmaceutical Company. Farber and his colleagues published their results on the efficacy of actinomycin D in 1960, further development of treatment protocols by the National Wilms Tumor Study Group resulted in a 90% survival rate in children with Wilms' tumors by the end of the century. In 1939, during his appointment at the Children's Hospital, Farber worked with colleague Jerome S. Harris to publish a classic description of the transposition of the great blood vessels in the heart.
This work played a major role in the advancement of pediatric cardiac surgery. In 1952, Farber described a lipid storage disease, subsequently named Farber disease. Farber began raising funds for cancer resea