Vasa Koilaniou is a village in the Limassol District of Cyprus, located 4 km south of Omodos
Vasa Kellakiou is a village in the Limassol District of Cyprus, located 5 km northwest of Asgata
The Province of Vaasa was a province of Finland, established in 1775 when Finland was an integrated part of Sweden from the southern part of Ostrobothnia County and disbanded in 1996. The province was named after the city of Vaasa. On the death of Tsar Nicholas I in 1855, a small group of citizens in the city of Vaasa tendered a petition to change the name of the city after him; the name of the city came from the Royal House of Vasa and despite that only 15 citizens were backing the proposal the name of the city was changed to Nikolaistad. This meant that the Vaasa Province was called the Nikolaistad Province, after 1855. In 1862 a large group of citizens in the city unsuccessfully petitioned to have the old name restored; the new name remained official until 1917. In 1960 the eastern part was separated as the Province of Central Finland. In 1997 it was reunited with Central Finland, together they merged with the northern part of the Province of Häme and the Province of Turku and Pori to establish the new Province of Western Finland.
The former province corresponds to the current regions of Ostrobothnia, Central Ostrobothnia and Southern Ostrobothnia. Bror Cederström 1775–1785 Adolf Tandefeldt 1785–1794 Carl Fridrik Krabbe 1794–1805 Magnus Wanberg 1805–1808 Nils Fredric von Schoultz 1808 Carl Constantin de Carnall 1808–1822 Herman Henrik Wärnhjelm 1822–1830 Gustaf Magnus Armfelt 1830–1832 Carl Gustaf von Mannerheim 1832–1833 and 1833–1834 Carl Olof Cronstedt 1834–1837 and 1837-1845 John Ferdinand Bergenheim 1845–1847 Berndt Federley 1847–1854 Alexander von Rechenberg 1854–1858 Otto Leonard von Blom 1858–1861 Carl Gustaf Fabian Wrede 1862–1863 and 1863–1884 Viktor Napoleon Procopé 1884–1888 August Alexander Järnefelt 1888–1894 Fredrik Waldemar Schauman 1894–1898 Gustaf Axel von Kothen 1898–1900 Fredrik Geronimo Björnberg 1900–1903 Theodor Knipovitsch 1903–1906 Kasten Fredrik Ferdinand de Pont 1906–1910 Bernhard Otto Widnäs 1910–1913 Nikolai Sillman 1913–1916 Leo Aristides Sirelius 1916–1917 Juho Torppa 1917 Teodor August Heikel 1917–1920 Bruno Sarlin 1920–1930 Erik Heinrichs 1930 Kaarlo Martonen 1930–1938 Jalo Lahdensuo 1938–1943 Toivo Tarjanne 1943–1944 K. G. R. Ahlbäck 1944–1967 Martti Viitanen 1967–1977 Antti Pohjonen 1977–1978 Mauno Kangasniemi 1978–1991 Tom Westergård 1991–1997
Vaasa is a city on the west coast of Finland. It received its charter in 1606, during the reign of Charles IX of Sweden and is named after the Royal House of Vasa. Vaasa has a population of 67,588, is the regional capital of Ostrobothnia; the city is bilingual with 69.8% of the population speaking Finnish as their first language and 24.8% speaking Swedish. The surrounding Ostrobothnian municipalities have a clear Swedish-speaking majority, wherefore the Swedish language maintains a strong position in the city. Over the years, Vaasa has changed its name several times, due to alternative spellings, political decisions and language condition changes. At first it was called Mustasaari or Mussor after the village where it was founded in 1606, but just a few years the name was changed to Wasa to honor the royal Swedish lineage. Mustasaari or Korsholm remains as the name of the surrounding rural municipality, which since 1973 surrounds the city; the city was known as Wasa between 1606 and 1855, Nikolaistad and Nikolainkaupunki between 1855 and 1917, Vasa and Vaasa after the February revolution, with the Finnish spelling of the name being the primary one from ca 1930 when Finnish speakers became the majority in the city.
The history of Korsholm and of Vaasa begins in the 14th century, when seafarers from the coastal region in central Sweden disembarked at the present Old Vaasa, the wasteland owners from Southwest Finland came to guard their land. In the middle of the century, Saint Mary's Church was built, in the 1370s the building of the fortress at Korsholm, was undertaken, served as an administrative centre of the Vasa County. King Charles IX of Sweden founded the town of Mustasaari/Mussor on October 2, 1606, around the oldest harbour and trade point around the Korsholm church seven kilometres to the southeast from the present city. In 1611, the town was renamed after the Royal House of Vasa. Thanks to the sea connections, ship building and trade tar trade, Vaasa flourished in the 17th century and most of the inhabitants earned their living from it. In 1683, the three-subject or Trivial school moved from Nykarleby to Vaasa, four years a new schoolhouse was built in Vaasa; the first library in Finland was founded in Vaasa in 1794.
In 1793, Vaasa had 2,178 inhabitants, in the year of the catastrophic town fire of 1852 the number had risen to 3,200. During the Finnish War, fought between Sweden and Russia in 1808–1809, Vaasa suffered more than any other city. In June 1808, Vaasa was occupied by the Russian forces, some of the local officials pledged allegiance to the occupying force. On 25 June 1808 the Swedish colonel Johan Bergenstråhle was sent with 1,500 troops and four cannons to free Vaasa from the 1,700 Russian troops who were led by generalmajor Nikolay Demidov; the Battle of Vaasa started with the Swedish force disembarking north of Vaasa in Österhankmo and advancing all the way to the city where they attacked with 1,100 troops, as some had to be left behind to secure the flank. There was heavy fighting in the streets and in the end the Swedish forces were repelled and forced to retreat back the way they came. Generalmajor Demidov suspected that the inhabitants of Vaasa had taken to arms and helped the Swedish forces though the provincial governor had confiscated all weapons that spring, he took revenge by letting his men plunder the city for several days.
During those days 17 civilians were killed, property was looted and destroyed, many were assaulted and several people were taken to the village of Salmi in Kuortane where they had to endure the physical punishment called running the gauntlet. The massacre in Vaasa was exceptional during the Finnish war as the Russian forces had avoided that kind of cruelty that far, it was a result of the frustration the Russians felt because of intensive guerilla activity against them in the region. On 30 June the Russian forces withdrew from Vaasa, all officials that had pledged allegiance to Russia were discharged, some were assaulted by locals. On 13 September the Russian forces returned and on the next day the decisive Battle of Oravais, won by Russia, was fought some 50 kilometres further north. By winter 1808, the Russian forces had overrun all of Finland, in the Treaty of Fredrikshamn Sweden lost the whole eastern part of its realm. Vaasa would now become a part of the newly formed Grand Duchy of Finland within the Russian Empire.
The wooden and densely built town was utterly destroyed in 1852. A fire started in a barn belonging to district court judge J. F. Aurén on the morning of August 3. At noon the whole town was ablaze and the fire lasted for many hours. By evening, most of the town had burned to the ground. Out of 379 buildings only 24 owned buildings had survived, among them the Falander–Wasastjerna patrician house which now houses the Old Vaasa Museum; the Court of Appeal, some Russian guard-houses along with a gunpowder storage and the buildings of the Vaasa provincial hospital survived the blaze. The ruins of the greystone church, the belfry, the town hall and the trivial school can still be found in their original places. Much of the archived material concerning Vaasa and its inhabitants was destroyed in the fire. According to popular belief, the fire got started when a careless visitor fell asleep in Aurén's barn and dropped his pipe in the dr
The vasa vasorum is a network of small blood vessels that supply the walls of large blood vessels, such as elastic arteries and large veins. The name derives from Latin, meaning'the vessels of the vessels'. Studies conducted with 3-dimensional microcomputed tomography on pig and human arteries from different vascular beds have shown that there are three different types of vasa vasorum: Vasa vasorum internae, that originate directly from the main lumen of the artery and branch into the vessel wall. Vasa vasorum externae, that originate from branches of the main artery and dive back into the vessel wall of the main artery. Venous vasa vasorae, that originate within the vessel wall of the artery but drain into the main lumen or branches of concomitant vein. Depending on the type of vasa vasorum, it penetrates the vessel wall starting at the intimal layer or the adventitial layer. Due to higher radial and circumferential pressures within the vessel wall layers closer to the main lumen of the artery, vasa vasorum externa cannot perfuse these regions of the vessel wall.
The structure of the vasa vasorum varies with the size and location of the vessels. Cells need to be within a few cell-widths of a capillary to stay alive. In the largest vessels, the vasa vasorum penetrates the outer layer and middle layer to the inner layer. In smaller vessels it penetrates only the outer layer. In the smallest vessels, the vessels' own circulation nourishes the walls directly and they have no vasa vasorum at all. Vasa vasorum are more frequent in veins than arteries; some authorities hypothesize that the vasa vasorum would be more abundant in large veins, as partial oxygen pressure and osmotic pressure is lower in veins. This would lead to more vasa vasorum needed to supply the vessels sufficiently; the converse argument is that artery walls are thicker and more muscular than veins as the blood passing through is of a higher pressure. This means that it would take longer for any oxygen to diffuse through to the cells in the tunica adventitia and the tunica media, causing them to need a more extensive vasa vasorum.
A method of scanning is optical coherence tomography that gives 3D imaging. The vasa vasorum are found in large vein and arteries such as its branches; these small vessels serve to provide blood supply and nourishment for tunica adventitia and outer parts of tunica media of large vessels. In the human descending aorta, vasa vasorum cease to supply the arterial tunica media with oxygenated blood at the level of the renal arteries. Thus, below this point, the aorta is dependent on diffusion for its metabolic needs, is markedly thinner; this leads to an increased likelihood of aortic aneurysm at this location in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Other species, such as dogs, do have vasa vasorum below their renal vasculature, aneurysms at this site are less likely. Cerebral blood vessels are devoid of vasa vasorum. A relationship exists between changes in the vasa vasorum and the development of atheromatous plaques, it is not understood whether changes in the vasa vasorum in terms of their appearance and disappearance, is a cause or an effect of disease processes.
In 2009 Uffe Ravnskov and Kilmer S. McCully published review and hypothesis on vulnerable plaque formation from obstruction of vasa vasorum. In 2017 Haverich proposed that the formation of plaques is not from inside the vessel, but the result of inflammation of the vasa vasorum. Haverich noted that arteries fed by vasa vasorum are subject to development of arteriosclerotic plaques, he postulated. He noted. Damage by inflamed vasa vasorum leads to cell death within the wall and subsequent plaques formation. Vasa vasorum inflammation can be caused by viruses and fine dust among others. According to his view this concept conforms to observations that cardiac infarctions are more common when influenza has occurred or fine particles have been inhaled. Small vessels like vasa vasorum and vasa nervorum are susceptible to external mechanical compression, thus are involved in pathogenesis of peripheral vascular and nerve diseases. A tear in vasa vasorum situated in tunica media layer of aorta may start pathologic cascade of events leading to aortic dissection.
Presence of corkscrew collateral vessels in vasa vasorum is a hallmark of Buerger's disease and distinguishes it from Raynaud's phenomenon. T cells found. Inflammation and subsequent destruction of the vasa vasorum is the cause of syphilitic aortitis in tertiary syphilis. Obliterating endarteritis of the vasa vasorum results in ischemia and weakening of the aortic adventitia, which may lead to aneurysm formation in the thoracic aorta. Histology image: 05702loa – Histology Learning System at Boston University
The name vasa parrot is used for the greater vasa parrot. The vasa parrots are three species of parrot which are endemic to Madagascar and other islands in the western Indian Ocean; some taxonomists place the genus in Mascarinus. There are three to four species and several subspecies:Coracopsis, Wagler 1832 Coracopsis vasa, 1812 – Coracopsis vasa comorensis, 1854 Coracopsis vasa drouhardi, Lavauden 1929 Coracopsis vasa vasa, 1812 Coracopsis nigra, 1758 – Coracopsis nigra libs, Bangs 1927 Coracopsis nigra nigra, 1758 Coracopsis nigra sibilans, Milne-Edwards & Oustalet 1885 Coracopsis barklyi, Newton 1867 – A 2011 genetic study found the Mascarene parrot from Réunion to be nested among the subspecies of the lesser vasa parrot from Madagascar and nearby islands, therefore not related to the Psittacula parrots, it found that the Mascarene parrot line diverged 4.6 to 9 million years ago, prior to the formation of Réunion, indicating this must have happened elsewhere. The cladogram accompanying the study is shown below: Another group of scientists acknowledged the finding, but pointed out that the sample might have been damaged, that further testing was needed before the issue could be resolved.
They noted that if Mascarinus was confirmed to be embedded within the genus Coracopsis, the latter would become a junior synonym, since the former name is older. Hume has expressed surprise by these findings, due to the anatomical similarities between the Mascarene parrot and other parrots from the islands that are believed to be psittaculines. † Mascarinus mascarinus, They are notable in the parrot world for their peculiar appearance, which includes truncated bodies with long necks, black to grey feathers and a pink beak. The skin of both female and male vasas turns yellow during the breeding season, there is feather loss. However, in females the feather loss can result in complete baldness. Another interesting feature of the females breeding physiology is when her feathers, which are black to grey, turn brown without a moult; this is caused by the redistribution of melanin, the pigment that makes the vasas' feathers black. In addition to their appearance they possess aspects of their physiology that make them unique amongst parrots.
Vasa chicks are known to hatch after only 18–20 days of incubation, irregular as parrots of the vasa size range tend to take up to 30 days to hatch. The male vasas' cloaca is able to invert into a hemipenis, which becomes erect during mating – a feature unique to the genus; this phallus is associated with prolonged matings enforced by a copulatory tie. Baby vasas possess pads on their beaks; these pads disappear after only a few weeks, however the feeding or'weaning' reflex remains unusually strong well into adulthood. Aviculturalists have to use a syringe to force food into the crops of young vasas as the intensity of the weaning reflex prevents them from being spoon fed. Vasa parrots infected with the debilitating psittacine beak and feather disease are known to turn white, during the 1970s when the first wave of birds were exported into Europe and America, resulted in them being mistakenly advertised by importers as albinos. Kundu, S. C. G. Jones, R. P. Prys-Jones, J. J. Groombridge. 2012. The evolution of the Indian Ocean parrots: extinction, adaptive radiation and eustacy.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62: 296–305