Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries and lymphatic circulation, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, surgical reconstruction. The specialty evolved from general and cardiac surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques pioneered by interventional radiology; the vascular surgeon is trained in the diagnosis and management of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system excluding the coronaries and intracranial vasculature. Early leaders of the field included Russian surgeon Nikolai Korotkov, noted for developing early surgical techniques, American interventional radiologist Charles Theodore Dotter, credited with inventing minimally invasive angioplasty, Australian Robert Paton, who helped the field achieve recognition as a specialty. Edwin Wylie of San Francisco was one of the early American pioneers who developed and fostered advanced training in vascular surgery and pushed for its recognition as a specialty in the United States in the 1970s.
The specialty continues to be based on operative arterial and venous surgery but since the early 1990s has evolved greatly. There is now considerable emphasis on minimally invasive alternatives to surgery; the field was pioneered by interventional radiologists, chiefly Dr. Charles Dotter, who invented angioplasty. Of note, Dr. Thomas Fogarty invented the balloon catheter. Further development of the field has occurred via joint efforts between interventional radiology, vascular surgery, interventional cardiology; this area of vascular surgery is called Endovascular Surgery or Interventional Vascular Radiology, a term that some in the specialty append to their primary qualification as Vascular Surgeon. Endovascular and endovenous procedures can now form the bulk of a vascular surgeon's practice; the development of endovascular surgery has been accompanied by a gradual separation of vascular surgery from its origin in general surgery. Most vascular surgeons would now confine their practice to vascular surgery and general surgeons would not be trained or practice the larger vascular surgery operations or most endovascular procedures.
More professional vascular surgery societies and their training program have formally separated "Vascular Surgery" into a separate specialty with its own training program, accreditation. Notable societies are Society of Vascular Surgery, USA. Local societies exist e.g. New South Wales Vascular and Melbourne Society of Vascular Surgeons. Larger societies of surgery separate and encourage specialty surgical societies under their umbrella e.g. Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. Arterial and venous disease treatment by angiography and non-operative varicose vein treatment sclerotherapy, endovenous laser treatment are replacing major surgery in many first world countries; these newer procedures provide reasonable outcomes that are comparable to surgery with the advantage of short hospital stay with lower morbidity and mortality rates. Performed by interventional radiologists, vascular surgeons have become proficient with endovascular methods; the durability of endovascular arterial procedures is good when viewed in the context of their common clinical usage i.e. arterial disease occurring in elderly patients and associated with concurrent significant patient comorbidities ischemic heart disease.
The cost savings from shorter hospital stays and less morbidity are considerable but are somewhat balanced by the high cost of imaging equipment and staffing of dedicated procedural suites, of the implant devices themselves. The benefits for younger patients and in venous disease are less persuasive but there are strong trends towards nonoperative treatment options driven by patient preference, health insurance company costs, trial demonstrating comparable efficacy at least in the medium term. A recent trend in the United States is the stand-alone day angiography facility associated with a private vascular surgery clinic, thus allowing treatment of most arterial endovascular cases conveniently and with lesser overall community cost. Similar non-hospital treatment facilities for non-operative vein treatment have existed for some years and are now widespread in many countries. NHS England conducted a review of all 70 vascular surgery sites across England in 2018 as part of its Getting It Right First Time programme.
The review specified that vascular hubs should perform at least 60 abdominal aortic aneurysm procedures and 40 carotid endarterectomies a year. 12 trusts missed many more missed one of them. A programme of concentrating vascular surgery in fewer centres is proceeding. Vascular surgery encompasses surgery of the aorta, carotid arteries, lower extremities, including the iliac and tibial arteries. Vascular surgery involves surgery of veins, for conditions such as May–Thurner syndrome and for varicose veins. In some regions, vascular surgery includes dialysis access surgery and transplant surgery; the main disease categories and procedures associated with them are listed below. Netherland Vascular Study MASS Trial – The Multicentre Aneurysm Screening Study trial, which found reduced mortality after screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms in the UK. UK Small Aneurysm Trial – 1090 patients. No difference in survival. ADAM VA Cooperative Group Trial – 73451 VA patients screened with no
The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council is a British Research Council that provides government funding for grants to undertake research and postgraduate degrees in engineering and the physical sciences to universities in the United Kingdom. The head office is in Swindon, Wiltshire in the same building that houses the AHRC, BBSRC, ESRC, MRC, Natural Environment Research Council and Technology Facilities Council, TSB, Research Councils UK and the UK Space Agency. EPSRC was created in 1994, it was a part of the Science and Engineering Research Council. Paul Golby, Chair of EngineeringUK, was appointed as the Chairman of the EPSRC from 1 April 2012 for four years, he succeeded Sir John Armitt. From 2007 to March 2014, the chief executive and deputy chair of EPSRC was David Delpy FREng FRS, a medical physicist and vice provost at University College London, he was succeeded in April 2014 by Philip Nelson, former University of Southampton pro vice-chancellor for research and enterprise.
In April 2016 Professor Tom Rodden was appointed as the Deputy CEO of EPSRC, a new position created to work alongside Philip Nelson while he acts as Chair of RCUK Strategic Executive. Rodden joins the EPSRC on secondment from the University of Nottingham where he is Professor of Computing and Co-Director of Horizon Digital Economy Research. In October 2018 Nelson was succeeded by Lynn Gladden in the new role of Executive Chair. In addition to funding academic research projects, the EPSRC funds Centres for Doctoral Training; these deliver four-year doctoral training programmes to cohorts of PhD students and EngD research engineers studying within UK universities, are funded to target specific areas of research for which there is recognised need. In 2008, the EPSRC announced funding for 44 new CDTs spanning its entire remit; the EPSRC funds or joint-funds'Innovation and Knowledge Centres'. Innovation and Knowledge Centres are university based business incubators established in order to support commercialisation of emerging technologies.
Between 2007 and 2016, the EPSRC has funded 7 Innovation and Knowledge Centres: Cambridge Innovation and Knowledge Centre: Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Photonics and Electronics - University of Cambridge Ultra Precision and Structured Surfaces - Cranfield University Centre for Secure Information Technologies -Queen's University Belfast Medical Technologies IKC - University of Leeds Sustainable Product Engineering Centre for Innovative Functional Industrial Coatings - Swansea University Centre for Smart Infrastructure and Construction - University of Cambridge Synthetic Biology Innovation and Commercialisation Industrial translation Engine - Imperial College London EPSRC website Grants information Doctoral Training Accounts Centres for Doctoral Training Research Councils UK EPSRC YouTube channel
Swedish submissions for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film are handed out annually by representatives from the Guldbagge Awards jury. Sweden has submitted films for consideration in the Best Foreign Language Film category since the inaugural award in 1956; the Swedes have sent more films than any other country, except for France, Italy and Spain, have only failed to submit a film one time in the past thirty years. 14 films from Sweden have been nominated for the Academy Award: The Virgin Spring, Through a Glass Darkly, Raven's End, Dear John, Ådalen'31, The Emigrants, The New Land, Flight of the Eagle and Alexander, The Ox, All Things Fair, Under the Sun, Evil and As It Is in Heaven. Three Swedish films have won the Oscar: The Virgin Spring, Through a Glass Darkly and Fanny and Alexander. All the winners have been directed by Ingmar Bergman, his Scenes from a Marriage was submitted in 1974, but was disqualified because it had aired on Swedish television. According to Robert Osborne, the country did not enter in 1975 as a protest.
In 1978, the country did not submit his film Autumn Sonata and made no entry. Other prominent directors include Bo Widerberg and Jan Troell, both who have had three of their films nominated; the 1988 winner Pelle the Conqueror was a Swedish-Danish co-production, but was submitted by Denmark. In 2002 there was a bit of controversy as Sweden's submission Lilja 4-ever had most of its dialogue in Russian and not Swedish, it was accepted as eligible, but did not receive a nomination. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has invited the film industries of various countries to submit their best film for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film since 1956; the Foreign Language Film Award Committee reviews all the submitted films. Following this, they vote via secret ballot to determine the five nominees for the award. Below is a list of the films that have been submitted by Sweden for review by the Academy for the award by year. List of Academy Award winners and nominees for Best Foreign Language Film List of Academy Award-winning foreign language films Cinema of Sweden The Official Academy Awards Database The Motion Picture Credits Database IMDb Academy Awards Page
Aaron Weistrop is an American guitarist and composer based out of Chicago. Weistrop was born in Fort Stewart and was raised in Shorewood, Wisconsin, he is the grandson of Ernest Kurnow. In high school he formed the rock band Skwid Bait, he graduated from the Oberlin Conservatory of Music in 1995. Weistrop has played coast to coast, at venues such as the Mint in Los Angeles, The Jazz Showcase in Chicago, Jazz Estate in Milwaukee, Douglas Corner in Nashville, Johnny D's near Boston, The Knitting Factory in New York, he has performed on, written music, played on radio stations nationally and internationally. Hanukkah Blues, co-written with Ted Wulfers, was chosen for 93XRT's on-air feature'Hear First' as a way of introducing Wulfers as a "promising new artist."Weistrop scored the opening and closing credits for the 2009 film Eye of the Sandman. He was awarded a fellowship for music composition by the Illinois Arts Council in 1998. 2007: Happy Butterfly Foot Beware the Foot Volume I 1999: Silent Films 1997: Aaron Weistrop with Spazztet Beautiful Impatience 2010: Ted Wulfers What Would Santa Do?
2009: Michael Carlos Damage and Remainder 2008: Melanie Devaney Happy Lucky Lost & Free 2004: Ted Wulfers Cheap Liquor 2004: Michael Carlos Yesterdays Icons 2003: Tautologic Basement Sessions, Vol. 1 1999: Justin Kramer with Spazztet Headin' Out! 1998: Ripley Caine Thrift Store Sweater 1997: Rob Paravonian Playing for Drunks Happy Butterfly Foot Split Pillow's Eye of the Sandman
Richard Hetherington "Dick" O'Kane was a United States Navy submarine commander in World War II, awarded the Medal of Honor for commanding USS Tang in Pacific War against Japan to the most successful record of any United States submarine ever. He received three Navy Crosses and three Silver Stars, for a total of seven awards of the United States military's three highest decorations for valor in combat. Before commanding Tang, O'Kane served in the successful USS Wahoo as executive officer and approach officer under noted Lieutenant Commander Dudley "Mush" Morton. In his ten combat patrols, five in Wahoo and five commanding Tang, O'Kane participated in more successful attacks on Japanese shipping than any other submarine officer during the war. O'Kane was born in Dover, New Hampshire, on February 2, 1911, he was the youngest of four children of University of New Hampshire entomology professor Walter Collins O'Kane, of Irish ancestry, his wife, Clifford Hetherington. O'Kane graduated from Phillips Academy, Andover in 1930 and the United States Naval Academy in May 1934, upon which he was commissioned an officer in the United States Navy.
O'Kane spent his first years of active duty on the heavy cruiser USS Chester and destroyer USS Pruitt. He received submarine instruction in 1938 and was assigned to the USS Argonaut. O'Kane qualified for submarines aboard Argonaut in 1938 and remained aboard until her overhaul at Mare Island in 1942. In early 1942, Lieutenant O'Kane joined the pre-commissioning crew of the new submarine USS Wahoo and served as its executive officer on five war patrols during World War II, first under Lieutenant Commander Marvin G. "Pinky" Kennedy and under the legendary Lieutenant Commander Dudley "Mush" Morton. Morton established a record as an excellent tactician, as he preferred to run the demanding analysis and plots while his executive officer manned the periscopes, a reversal of standard practices. Under Morton's tutelage, O'Kane developed the skills which enabled him to become the single most accomplished American submarine commander in history. In July 1943, following his fifth patrol in Wahoo, O'Kane was detached, promoted to lieutenant commander, shortly made prospective commanding officer of USS Tang, under construction.
He commanded her for her entire career. He was an innovator, developed several operational tactics that markedly increased his ship's effectiveness. Among these were daylight surface cruising with extra lookouts, periscope recognition and range drills, drifting when not bound somewhere, methods of night surface attacks, one of his favorite techniques to obtain and maintain the initiative in battle. In five war patrols on the Tang, O'Kane was recognized with sinking a total of 24 Japanese ships – the second highest total for a single American submarine and the highest for a single commanding officer. Postwar reviews of Japanese war records, corroborated by Tang's surviving logs and crewmen, revised the totals to 33 ships totalling over 116,454 long tons sunk; this placed Tang first for both number of ships and tonnage. Several times during the war, he took Tang into the middle of a convoy and attacked ships ahead and behind – counting on Tang's relative position and low profile to keep clear of enemy escorts.
Tang's third patrol, into the Yellow Sea, sank more Japanese ships than any other submarine patrol of the war. O'Kane claimed eight ships sunk. During one attack, he fired six torpedoes at two large ships. Japanese records showed the torpedoes hit four ships; this number of sinkings surpassed the next highest patrol, Wahoo's in the same area the year before. Under O'Kane, Tang performed "lifeguard duty", a common joint operation, with a Fast Carrier Task Force, of positioning one or more submarines in a "ditching station" off an enemy island under air attack in order to rescue downed pilots. Off Truk, he and the Tang rescued 22 airmen in one mission, thus earning a Presidential Unit Citation. O'Kane was captured by the Japanese when Tang was sunk in the Formosa Strait by her own flawed torpedo during a surface night attack on October 24–25, 1944. O'Kane lost all but eight members of his crew, was at first secretly held captive at the Ōfuna navy detention center later moved to the regular army Omori POW camp.
Following his release, O'Kane received the Medal of Honor for "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity" during his submarine's final operations against Japanese shipping. In the years following World War II, O'Kane served with the Pacific Reserve Fleet as commanding officer of the submarine tender USS Pelias, testified at Japanese war crimes trials, was executive officer of the submarine tender USS Nereus and was Commander, Submarine Division 32, he was a student at the Armed Forces Staff College in 1950–51 and was subsequently assigned to the Submarine School at New London, Connecticut as an instructor and, in 1952–53, as the commanding officer. Promoted to the rank of captain in July 1953, O'Kane commanded the submarine tender USS Sperry until June 1954 and became Commander, Submarine Squadron Seven. Following studies at the Naval War College in 1955–56, he served in Washington, D. C. with the Ship Characteristics Board. O'Kane retired from active duty in July 1957 and, on the basis of his extensive combat record and under the tombstone promotion rule in effect at the time, was advanced to the rank of rear admiral on the Retired List.
O'Kane died of pne
Adler Fels Winery is a California winery based in Sonoma that produces over 100 different wine labels in addition to production under its own Adler Fels brand. These include private labels for various restaurants and retailers. Adler Fels Winery was founded in Sonoma Valley in 1979 by Ayn Coleman; the winery soon established itself as a producer of Sauvignon blanc, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay from Sonoma County, with a particular emphasis on Russian River Valley. Adler Fels expanded their sourcing to include varietals from Napa Valley and other premier appellations throughout California. In 2004, the winery was purchased by Adams Wine Group. A wine line under the name Cabzilla used a image resembling too much like Godzilla and was sued by Toho for copyright infringement; the suit ended with the company being forced to dump all of the wine. In 2008, Adler Fels has a sales volume of 450,000 cases, ranking it as the 27th top winery in the United States by Winebusiness.com. Among the labels produced by Adler Fels include Coyote Creek, Big Ass and Leaping Lizard.