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Vasculitis is a group of disorders that destroy blood vessels by inflammation. Both arteries and veins are affected. Lymphangitis is sometimes considered a type of vasculitis. Vasculitis is caused by leukocyte migration and resultant damage. Although both occur in vasculitis, inflammation of veins or arteries on their own are separate entities. Possible symptoms include: General symptoms: Fever, weight loss Skin: Palpable purpura, livedo reticularis Muscles and joints: Myalgia or myositis, arthralgia or arthritis Nervous system: Mononeuritis multiplex, stroke, reduced visual acuity, acute visual loss Heart and arteries: Myocardial infarction, gangrene Respiratory tract: Nose bleeds, bloody cough, lung infiltrates GI tract: Abdominal pain, bloody stool, perforations Kidneys: Glomerulonephritis Vasculitis can be classified by the cause, the location, the type of vessel or the size of vessel. Underlying cause. For example, the cause of syphilitic aortitis is infectious However, the causes of many forms of vasculitis are poorly understood.

There is an immune component, but the trigger is not identified. In these cases, the antibody found is sometimes used in classification, as in ANCA-associated vasculitides. Location of the affected vessels. For example, ICD-10 classifies "vasculitis limited to skin" with skin conditions, "necrotizing vasculopathies" with musculoskeletal system and connective tissue conditions. Arteritis/phlebitis on their own are classified with circulatory conditions. Type or size of the blood vessels. Apart from the arteritis/phlebitis distinction mentioned above, vasculitis is classified by the caliber of the vessel affected. However, there can be some variation in the size of the vessels affected. A small number have been shown to have a genetic basis; these include adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency and haploinsufficiency of A20 According to the size of the vessel affected, vasculitis can be classified into: Large vessel: Takayasu's arteritis, Temporal arteritis Medium vessel: Buerger's disease, Kawasaki disease, Polyarteritis nodosa Small vessel: Behçet's syndrome, Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Cutaneous vasculitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Henoch–Schönlein purpura, microscopic polyangiitis.

Condition of some disorders have vasculitis as their main feature. The major types are given in the table below:Takayasu's arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa and giant cell arteritis involve arteries and are thus sometimes classed under arteritis. Furthermore, there are many conditions that have vasculitis as an accompanying or atypical feature, including: Rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis Cancer, such as lymphomas Infections, such as hepatitis C Exposure to chemicals and drugs, such as amphetamines and anthrax vaccines which contain the Anthrax Protective Antigen as the primary ingredient. In pediatric patients varicella inflammation may be followed by vasculitis of intracranial vessels; this condition is called post varicella angiopathy and this may be responsible for arterial ischaemic strokes in children. Several of these vasculitides are associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; these are: Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis Microscopic polyangiitis Laboratory tests of blood or body fluids are performed for patients with active vasculitis.

Their results will show signs of inflammation in the body, such as increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, elevated C-reactive protein, increased white blood cell count and eosinophilia. Other possible findings are hematuria. Other organ functional tests may be abnormal. Specific abnormalities depend on the degree of various organs involvement. A Brainspect can show decreased blood flow to the brain damage; the definite diagnosis of vasculitis is established after a biopsy of involved organ or tissue, such as skin, lung, nerve and kidney. The biopsy elucidates the pattern of blood vessel inflammation; some types of vasculitis display leukocytoclasis, vascular damage caused by nuclear debris from infiltrating neutrophils. It presents as palpable purpura. Conditions with leucocytoclasis include hypersensitivity vasculitis and cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis. An alternative to biopsy can be an angiogram, it can demonstrate characteristic patterns of inflammation in affected blood vessels. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography has become a used imaging tool in patients with suspected Large Vessel Vasculitis, due to the enhanced glucose metabolism of inflamed vessel walls.

The combined evaluation of the intensity and the extension of FDG vessel uptake at diagnosis can predict the clinical course of the disease, separating patients with favourable or complicated progress. Acute onset of vasculitis-like symptoms in small children or babies may instead be the life-threatening purpura fulminans associated with severe infection. In this table: ANA = Antinuclear antibodies, CRP = C-reactive protein, ESR = Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, dsDNA = double-stranded DNA, ENA = extractable nuclear antigens, RNP = ribonucleoproteins.

Break the Chain

"Break the Chain" is a song by Japanese rock band Tourbillon, was the band's fifth and final single. It was released a year-and-a-half following the release of their second album A Tide of New Era, was used as the opening theme for the 2008 television series Kamen Rider Kiva. Ryuichi Kawamura stated that the song was not just the "let's beat up the bad guys!" Kind of Kamen Rider Series opening theme, but a song that both children and adults can enjoy."Break the Chain" reached the number 3 position of the Oricon Weekly Charts on the week of its release, the highest ranked single the band released. As Tourbillion ceased activities following the release of "Break the Chain", the song was not included on any of their albums, it would be included in the Kamen Rider Kiva soundtracks and it was featured on the "Song Attack Ride" album series during the broadcast of the successor to Kiva, Kamen Rider Decade, where it was remixed by Rider Chips and Shuhei Naruse. All lyrics are written by Shoko Fujibayashi.


SpicyNodes was a system for displaying hierarchical data, in which a focus node displays detailed information, the surrounding nodes represent related information, with a layout based on radial maps. It has mobile implementations. SpicyNodes displays a central node, orbited by related nodes; each child node can be linked to other child nodes. As the user navigates from node to node, a root path traces the path back to the home node. In a typical implementation, only child and ancestor nodes are displayed; when the user browses, nodes appear and disappear, the layout rearranges to fit. It is a generic method, with uses ranging from dynamic poetry, to mind concept mapping. Visual browsing – Similar to other concept mapping tools, SpicyNodes allows authors to display visual thoughts and links between information, publish an information map for users to browse. Non-linear – Users can jump from node to node, or descend into a tree to find specific information. Since the number of nodes increases exponentially with the number of orbits, a user can find a piece of information in only N clicks/taps, while navigating a space of XN nodes, where X=average nodes per orbit.

Conversely, node layouts are inefficient for reading contiguous pieces of content in a linear manner. Displays a subset – Only a limited number of nodes can fit on a typical screen at once, which requires a large enough screen to fit the nodes, means it is not possible to display all the nodes simultaneously. Balanced branches – Layouts only make sense if there are balanced branches with fewer than two dozen child nodes. A typical implementation requires an average of 2-10 linked/child nodes per node. Too few, the layout becomes a string of pearls. Too many, the nodes do not fit. SpicyNodes is a radial tree layout engine, modified using force-based algorithms, bias controls, variable pivot point, it uses an approach similar to hyperbolic trees to reduce sizes far from the focus node. Key aspects of the method are publicly described; the layout is adaptive, to minimize cluttering. Nodes can contain any content or links to other nodes or content. There is a "focus" node, users change focus from node to node.

The algorithm was developed by Michael Douma and colleagues at, starting in 2005. The layout algorithm is based on the work of Yee and his associates, the underlying mechanics have been further described in papers and talks at conferences on Information visualization, on Museums and the Web, on distance education. Early implementations include: Genealogical browser of the Greek Gods released March 2006 in the WebExhibits online museum. Used a teaching resource in'Mythology' taught by Mr. Russell Rice. A master's thesis in 2007. Virtual exhibit navigation, for three online exhibits released in 2008 in the WebExhibits online museum. Web-based – A web-based platform for authoring and publishing node maps. is available as a Software as a service, built on Adobe Flash, provided with both free and paid versions by the original development team at, launched 2009. It has an open API. Received a "Best Website for Teaching and Learning" award in 2011 from American Association of School Librarians, voted #edchat's 35 Best Web 2.0 Classroom Tools in 2010.

It has been used for presentations in professional meetings. There are third party guides, reviews regarding general usage, instructional design; the web implementation allows embedding in a blog, can be run as a form of slide show where each node corresponds to a slide. Multitouch – The first multitouch implementation of SpicyNodes was as part of the WikiNodes multitouch Wikipedia browser for the Apple iPad, launched in April 2011. For authoring, there are related mind concept mapping products, such as FreeMind; these do not allow the end user to change focus from node to node. For display, there is analogous software for moving node to node, including: Visual Thesaurus from ThinkMap, TuneGlue and Prefuse Flare, the Discovr apps. – the organization that researched and developed the method Radial tree – the general type of layout algorithm Official website

Ferhad Shakely

Ferhad Shakely is a prominent Kurdish writer and researcher. He is one of the founders of modern Kurdish poetry in the post-Goran period, he was born in 1951 in the province of Kirkuk in Iraq. He began publishing poetry in 1968. In the early 1970s he studied in the Kurdish department of the Baghdad University, he joined the Kurdish national movement under the leadership of Mustafa Barzany in 1974 and went to Syria in 1975. He lived in Germany from Autumn 1977 to Summer 1978, he settled in Sweden in the same year. In 1981, after studying for one year at the University of Stockholm, he went to Uppsala University where he studied Iranian languages, he is now teaching in the same university. He published a Swedish-Kurdish Journal between 1989 called Svensk-Kurdisk Journal. Moreover, he published a literary Kurdish magazine, Mamosta-y Kurd between 1985 and 1996. In 1992, he published Kurdish nationalism in Mam and Zin of Ahmad Khani, a literary history, translated into Swedish and Arabic. Many of his poems have been translated into Persian, Norwegian, English, Italian and Danish.

He has written 20 books, including: Project of a secret coup, in Kurdish, 1973. A river of light flowing from the red sun, in Kurdish, Beirut, 1977; the smell of darkness, in Kurdish, Stockholm 1997. Acclivity, in Kurdish, 1981. Kurdish nationalism in Mam and Zin of Ahmad Khani, in English, Sweden, 1983. String, Sweden, 1985. Kurdish artistic prose, in Swedish, Sweden, 1989. I engrave your picture on the walls of my jail, in Kurdish 1994. All my secrets are revealed, all your revelation is concealed, in Kurdish 2001, 2nd edition 2002, Kurdistan, 3rd edition, Hawler Kurdistan 2006; this Lamp Illuminates My Heart and Burns My Age, in Kurdish, Kurdistan 2006. Tuwan, Translation of the novel by Eva Boholm-Olsson, Pham Van Dôn, 28 pp. Kurdiska kulturförl, Stockholm, 1986. ISBN 91-86146-26-2 Alfons û cinawireke, Translation of the work by Gunilla Bergström, 29 pp. Kurdiska kulturförl. Stockholm, 1989. ISBN 91-86146-29-7. Ay filbaz, Alfuns Obiri!, Translation of the work by Gunilla Bergström, 25 pp. Kurdiska kulturförl, Stockholm, 1990.

ISBN 91-86146-33-5. Bahar-i Tazade, Translation of the work by Astrid Lindgren, 32 pp. Kurdiska kulturförl, Stockholm, 1990. Pipi, Kiçey Gorawîdirêj, Translation of the work by Astrid Lindgren, 24 pp. Kurdiska kulturförl, Stockholm, 1991. ISBN 91-86146-36-X Evgeni Pasternak, Translation of the work by Boris Pasternak, 55 pp. Kulturfören. Sverige-Kurdistan, 1995. ISBN 91-972384-6-5 Tûte paqijiyê dike, Translation of the work by Gunilla Wolde, 25 pp. Spånga: Apec, 1996. ISBN 91-89014-01-4 Tûte xanî çêdike. Translation of the work by Gunilla Wolde, 25 pp. Spånga: Apec, 1996. ISBN 91-89014-02-2 Pariya. Translation of the work by August Strindberg, 60 pp. Malmö: Rosengård, 2000. ISBN 91-89489-11-X String, Translation of the poem by Abdurrahman Ahmad Wahab & Jessica Johnston, Zoland Poetry Volume 2, 2008. ISBN 978-1-58195-224-7. Farhad Shakely in International Journal of Kurdish Studies, Jan. 2005 Farhad Shakely, Life for a Kurdish poet in Exile Reflections of a Kurdish poet–An interview with Farhad Shakely Ferhad Shakely, Immigrant Institutet My Soul is Intoxicated and my Body is Ruined by a Goblet of Love, in:Orientalia Suecana, Vol. LI-LII, pp. 399–404

The Game of Silence

The Game of Silence is a 2005 novel by Louise Erdrich. It is the second novel in "The Birchbark" series; the two novels both feature the family of the Ojibwe girl Omakayas. The story picks up from the previous novel in 1850, when Omakayas is 9 years old and with the arrival of a group of Ojibwe refugees who have been driven off their land by the government; the title refers to the "game" that the elders use to keep the children quiet when the adults are having serious conversations, in this case, discussions with the refugees about how to interpret the government's actions and how to respond. The elders send four men on a year-long quest to uncover the causes of the government's hostility, only to learn that the answer is government rapacity and complete disregard for the Indians' rights; the story ends with Omakayas' people having to leave their home for new land out west. Meanwhile, Omakayas is growing up and learning to control her spiritual gifts, including healing and communicating with the spirits, learning the values of her community, such as that her gifts are to be used to help others, that individualism and the group can co-exist, that it is better to patiently work with the white people rather than resist and lose their lives.

ALA Booklist Editors’ Choice Winner ALA Notable Children’s Book Winner Horn Book Fanfare Winner Kirkus Reviews Editors’ Choice Winner New York Times Notable Winner Scott O'Dell Award for Historical Fiction Winner

Samuel M. Roosevelt

Samuel Montgomery Roosevelt was an American artist and merchant from New York City. Roosevelt was born on February 1857 in New York City, he was the son of prominent businessman Samuel Mary Jane Roosevelt. His brother was Nicholas Latrobe Roosevelt, the father of Henry Latrobe Roosevelt, who served as the Assistant Secretary of the Navy under their distant cousin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, his paternal grandparents were Nicholas Roosevelt, an inventor involved with the steamboat, Lydia Sellon Roosevelt, daughter of his grandfather's friend and business partner, architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe. He was educated at St. John's School in Ossining, New York and studied art at the Art Students League of New York and in Paris, studied painting under Jean-Joseph Benjamin-Constant and Jean-Paul Laurens. A wine merchant by trade, he was an accomplished portrait artist, he is remembered for his portraits of his distant cousin Theodore Roosevelt, Oliver Belmont, Antonio de La Gandara, Hudson Maxim, Henry Shoemaker, others.

His work was exhibited at the Paris Salon and the National Academy of Design and in Philadelphia and Chicago. He was President of the National Association of Portrait Painters from 1912 until his death, he was New York City Commissioner of Schools. Roosevelt was an active sportsman, skilled at fencing and interested in yachting, he went to Colorado in 1878 on ranching and scouting expeditions with the ninth cavalry against the Ute Indians, was described as having been a "cowboy" for a period by a cousin upon his death. He entertained and gained notoriety for once serving a whole roasted baby lion to guests, he was a chevalier of the French Legion of Honor. He married Augusta Eccleston Boylston of Baltimore on May 5, 1885, she was a daughter of Samuel Moor Shoemaker, a vice president and key figure in the Adams Express Company whose great-grandfather Samuel Shoemaker and great-great-grandfather Benjamin Shoemaker were mayors of Philadelphia. In 1899, he bought a 25-room mansion on Skaneateles Lake in New York.

Theodore Roosevelt visited in 1915, Franklin Delano Roosevelt twice. S. Senate in 1964. Roosevelt died at the Knickerbocker Club in New York City on August 19, 1920. After his death, he left his entire estate, including Roosevelt Hall in Skaneateles, New York, to his nephew, Henry. Samuel M. Roosevelt at Find a Grave