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Vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. During the procedure, the male vas deferens are cut and tied or sealed so as to prevent sperm from entering into the urethra and thereby prevent fertilization of a female through sexual intercourse. Vasectomies are performed in a physician's office, medical clinic, or, when performed on an animal, in a veterinary clinic—hospitalization is not required as the procedure is not complicated, the incisions are small, the necessary equipment routine. There are several methods by which a surgeon might complete a vasectomy procedure, all of which occlude at least one side of each vas deferens. To help reduce anxiety and increase patient comfort, men who have an aversion to needles may consider a "no-needle" application of anesthesia while the "no-scalpel" or "open-ended" techniques help to accelerate recovery times and increase the chance of healthy recovery. Due to the simplicity of the surgery, a vasectomy takes less than thirty minutes to complete.

After a short recovery at the doctor's office, the patient is sent home to rest. Because the procedure is minimally invasive, many vasectomy patients find that they can resume their typical sexual behavior within a week, do so with little or no discomfort; because the procedure is considered a permanent method of contraception and is not reversed, men are counseled and advised to consider how the long-term outcome of a vasectomy might affect them both and physically. The procedure is not encouraged for young single childless men as their chances for biological parenthood are thereby more or less permanently reduced to zero, it is performed on dogs but is performed on bulls. A vasectomy is done to prevent fertility in males, it ensures that in most cases the person will be sterile after confirmation of success following surgery. The procedure is regarded as permanent because vasectomy reversal is costly and does not restore the male's sperm count or sperm motility to prevasectomy levels. Men with vasectomies have a small chance of impregnating a woman, but a vasectomy has no effect on rates of sexually transmitted infections.

After vasectomy, the testes remain in the scrotum where Leydig cells continue to produce testosterone and other male hormones that continue to be secreted into the bloodstream. Some studies have found; when the vasectomy is complete, sperm cannot exit the body through the penis. Sperm is broken down and absorbed by the body. Much fluid content is absorbed by membranes in the epididymis, much solid content is broken down by the responding macrophages and reabsorbed via the bloodstream. Sperm is matured in the epididymis for about a month before leaving the testicles. After vasectomy, the membranes must increase in size to store more fluid. Within one year after vasectomy, sixty to seventy percent of vasectomized men develop antisperm antibodies. In some cases, vasitis nodosa, a benign proliferation of the ductular epithelium, can result; the accumulation of sperm increases pressure in the vas epididymis. The entry of the sperm into the scrotum can cause sperm granulomas to be formed by the body to contain and absorb the sperm which the body will treat as a foreign biological substance.

Vasectomy is the most effective permanent form of contraception available to men. In nearly every way that vasectomy can be compared to tubal ligation it has a more positive outlook. Vasectomy is more cost effective, less invasive, has techniques that are emerging that may facilitate easier reversal, has a much lower risk of postoperative complications. Early failure rates, i.e. pregnancy within a few months after vasectomy result from unprotected sexual intercourse too soon after the procedure while some sperm continue to pass through the vasa deferentia. Most physicians and surgeons who perform vasectomies recommend one postprocedural semen specimens to verify a successful vasectomy. In January 2008, the FDA cleared a home test called SpermCheck Vasectomy that allows patients to perform postvasectomy confirmation tests themselves. Late failure, i.e. pregnancy following spontaneous recanalization of the vasa deferentia, has been documented. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists states there is a agreed-upon rate of late failure of about one in 2000 vasectomies— better than tubal ligations for which the failure rate is one in every 200 to 300 cases.

A 2005 review including both early and late failures described a total of 183 recanalizations from 43,642 vasectomies, sixty pregnancies after 92,184 vasectomies. Short-term possible complications include infection and bleeding into the scrotum resulting in a collection of blood known as a hematoma. A study in 2012 demonstrated an infection rate of 2.5% postvasectomy. The stitches on the small incisions required are prone to irritation, though this can be minimized by covering them with gauze or small adhesive bandages; the primary long-term complications are chronic pain conditions or syndromes that can affect any of the scrotal, pelvic or lower-abdominal regions, colle

Dave Butz

David Butz is a former American Football defensive tackle in the National Football League who played for the St. Louis Cardinals and the Washington Redskins in a sixteen year career from 1973 to 1988. Butz played high school football at Maine South High School in Park Ridge, where he was two-time high school All-American, he played basketball and was the Illinois High School discus champion, setting a state record. He played college football at Purdue University, where he was a 1972 finalist for the Lombardi Award, he was a 1st team All-Big Ten member and played in both the East-West Shrine Game and Senior Bowl, where he was named the Defensive MVP. At the victory parade following the Redskins win in Super Bowl XXII, Butz famously shouted to the crowd, "We came, we saw, we kicked their butz."Butz was named to Purdue's All Time Football team and was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 2014. Butz was drafted in the first round of the 1973 NFL Draft by the St. Louis Cardinals, where he would play for two seasons.

Redskins coach George Allen gave the Cardinals two first-round draft picks and a second-rounder for the right to Butz. Butz played for the Washington Redskins for 14 years, where he had three Super Bowl appearances, he ranks third in franchise history in sacks. He was a one time Pro Bowler in 1983 in a season in which he got a career-best, he only missed four games in his entire 16-year career. Butz was among the largest players in the NFL when he played standing 6'8" and weighing around 300 pounds; when he retired, he was the oldest starting player in the NFL. Butz was named one of the 70 Greatest Redskins. In 1975 Butz was granted free agency due to a mistake in his contract that he signed as a rookie in 1973. George Allen signed him, but the NFL ruled that the Redskins had to pay the Cardinals 2 first-round picks and a second-round pick. Butz has served as a consultant and board member for the National Rifle Association. Butz lives in Virginia, he is the nephew of Earl Butz, a former United States Secretary of Agriculture under Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford.

Energy in Singapore

Energy in Singapore describes energy related issues in Singapore, a developed country located in eastern Asia. Energy imports to other are about three times the primary energy supplied in the country itself. Additionally, oil exports in relation to the population demands of the country itself are concerningly high; the world's largest palm oil company, Wilmar International, is based in Singapore, due to vast amount of forestation available for harvesting many products that rely on palm oil. A Finnish company operates the world's biggest palm oil based diesel plant in Singapore with 800,000 tonnes produced annually since the end of 2010. According to the IEA Singapore had no energy production in 2008. Energy imports increased 18.6% in 2008 compared to 2004. The primary energy declined by about one third in 2007-8 but during the same period energy imports increased. Energy import was about three times the total primary energy supply in 2008. Compared to the UK in 2008, per capita electricity consumption was 135% and per capita carbon dioxide emissions were 110%..

The use of energy in Singapore is only 1/3 of the imported energy. Singapore is ranked no. 9 among 156 countries in the index of geopolitical gains and losses after energy transition and will be among the main winners geopolitically after the global transition to renewable energy is completed. Singapore was the top 10th country in oil imports in 2008: 50 megatonnes. For comparison, oil imports in Spain were 77 megatonnes and in Italy they were 73 megatonnes; the biggest palm oil based diesel plant in the world, 800,000 t/a production, started operations in Singapore at the end of 2010 by Neste Oil from Finland. The plant requires a million tonnes of raw material annually from the oil palm Elaeis guineensis, equivalent to 2,600–3,400 km2 oil palm plantation. Greenpeace demonstrated in November 2010 in Espoo, Finland, by hanging an orangutan puppet in front of Neste Oil, saying that Neste Oil endangers the rainforest ecosystem. According to UNEP the majority of new palm oil plantations take place in the rainforests.

According to European Union studies the increased demand for palm oil leads to new plantations being established in the forests and peat land areas. Land use changes have large green house gas emissions making palm oil diesel much more harmful than petroleum in respect to global warming. According to Greenpeace the Neste Oil plant in Singapore made Finnish Neste Oil among the world's leading palm oil consumers leading to increased rain forest destruction. Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation would be a way to mitigate climate change. According to UNEP the international REDD mechanism will be a key element of the post-2012 international climate change regime. Jurong Port is building a 10MW solar installation on the roofs of its warehouses; the system was expected online by the end of 2015. Wilmar International is listed in Singapore. Headed by Kuok Khoon Hong, it is the world's largest palm oil firm. Kuok was the third richest person in Singapore in 2009 with a net worth of $3.5 billion.

According to in 2007 the Kuok family owned by Malaysian companies a biofuel plant in Indonesia. The Wilmar director Martua Sitorus lived in Indonesia in 2009. In July 2007 Friends of the Earth Netherlands and two Indonesian NGOs accused Wilmar of illegal forest clearances in West Kalimantan, inadequate Environmental Impact Assessments and clearing land outside its concessions. Wilmar denies the allegation; the report calls on Unilever, a major purchaser from Wilmar, to review its purchasing relationship with the company. Singapore was the 58th top carbon dioxide emitter per capita in the world. Electricity sector in Singapore

Pillar Bluff

Pillar Bluff is a headland projecting 1.1 km from the southwest coast of Weddell Island in the Falkland Islands and forming the west side of the entrance to Pillar Cove. It is located at 51°55′47″S 61°05′44″W, 9.3 km northwest of Race Point, 1.8 km northeast of Horse Block, 4 km southeast of Weddell Point and 9.8 km west of Mount Weddell. The Falkland Islands. Scale 1:401280 map. London: Edward Stanford, 1901 Falkland Islands Explorer Map. Scale 1:365000. Ocean Explorer Maps, 2007 Falklands Topographic Map Series. Scale 1:50000, 29 sheets. DOS 453, 1961-1979 Falkland Islands. Scale 1:643000 Map. DOS 906. Edition 3-OS, 1998 Map 500k--xm20-4. 1:500000 map of Weddell Island and part of West Falkland. Russian Army Maps Approaches to the Falkland Islands. Scale 1:1500000 chart. Gps Nautical Charts, 2010 Illustrated Map of Weddell Island B. Stonehouse. Encyclopedia of Antarctica and the Southern Oceans. Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons, 2002. 404 pp. ISBN 978-0-471-98665-2 C. H. Barnard. A Narrative of the Sufferings and Adventures of Capt. Charles H. Barnard, in a Recent Voyage Round the World, Including an Account of His Residence for Two Years on An Uninhabited Island.

New York: J. P. Callender, 1836 P. P. King and R. Fitzroy; the South America Pilot. Part II. From the Rio de la Plata to the Bay of Panama, including Magellan Strait, the Falkland, Galapagos Islands. Fifth Edition. London: Printed for the Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, 1860. Pp. 116-118 Weddell Island Official Website Weddell Island from space. NASA Johnson Space Center, 30 April 2005

Tania Mihailuk

Tania Mihailuk is an Australian politician. She has been a Labor Party member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly since March 2011, representing the electorate of Bankstown, she became to the first woman to represent Bankstown in its 80-plus-year history. Mihailuk was the Mayor of Bankstown, a position which she held from 2006 to 2012. Mihailuk attended Macquarie University and graduated with a degree in economics and a degree in law, she has worked in various industries including public policy. She was elected to Bankstown council in 2004 and became mayor in 2006. Mihailuk was endorsed as the Labor candidate for Bankstown in November 2010 after sitting member Tony Stewart announced his resignation, she stated she would resign from council if she won, which she did despite a swing against the party of more than 15 points in the Coalition's landslide win. She resides in Bankstown with her husband Alex and has three children

Andrew Currie (sculptor)

Andrew Currie was a 19th-century Scottish sculptor and antiquarian. His most noted works are the statue of James Hogg at St Mary’s Loch, the statue of Robert the Bruce on the esplanade at Stirling Castle, the figures of Edie Ochiltree and Old Mortality on the Scott Monument, he was born in the Ettrick Forest area, the son of a Howford sheep farmer, in 1812. He was apprenticed as a mill-wright in Denholm, he is known to have attended Yarrow church with James Hogg and knew him adding to the authenticity of his statue to him. After travelling south to London and working in the Chatham Dockyard he returned to Scotland in 1839 and continued to work as a mill-wright in Earlston until his forties, but began his career as a sculptor. Only aged 43 did, he exhibited from 1855 to 1877. Around 1857 he moved to Darnick, he converted to Catholicism in 1864. He is buried in Weirhill Cemetery in Melrose. Statue of Mungo Park in Selkirk Edie Ochiltree, The Gaberlunzie man, in the grounds of Scott’s home, Abbotsford House.

Girl with Flowers, Edinburgh City Art Centre. Carved bookshelf carved for Cowdenknowes House Fairy Flower Stand, exhibited RSA 1855, current whereabouts unknown Side altar and pulpit, Our Lady and St Andrews Church, Galashiels Moss Trooper, Netherby Hall Fireplace and over-mantle exported to his brother, John Lang Currie, for his mansion in St Kilda, Melbourne Carving History: The Life and Works of Andrew Currie by Bob Johnstone