Medal "For the Defence of Moscow"
For the Defense of Moscow was a World War II campaign medal of the Soviet Union awarded to military and civilians who had participated in the Battle of Moscow. The Medal "For the Defense of Moscow" was established on May 1, 1944 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, its statute was amended by Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on March 8, 1945. The medal's statute was amended one last time on July 18, 1980 by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR № 2523-X; the Medal "For the Defense of Moscow" was awarded to all participants in the defense of Moscow - soldiers of the Red Army, troops of the NKVD, as well as persons from the civilian population who took part in the defense of Moscow during the battle of Moscow. The Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of March 8, 1945 granted the petition of Yaroslavl regional organizations to award the medal "For the Defense of Moscow" to the most distinguished participants in the construction of defensive structures in the Moscow area by the civilian population of the Yaroslavl region.
Award of the medal was made on behalf of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on the basis of documents attesting to actual participation in the defense of Moscow issued by the unit commander, the chief of the military medical establishment or by a relevant provincial or municipal authority. Serving military personnel received the medal from their unit commander, retirees from military service received the medal from a regional, municipal or district military commissioner in the recipient's community, members of the civilian population, participants in the defense of Moscow received their medal from regional or city Councils of People's Deputies. For the defenders who died in battle or prior to the establishment of the medal, it was awarded posthumously to the family; the Medal "For the Defense of Moscow" was worn on the left side of the chest and in the presence of other awards of the USSR, it was located after the Medal "For the Defence of Leningrad". If worn in the presence or Orders or medals of the Russian Federation, the latter have precedence.
The Medal "For the Defense of Moscow" is a 32mm in diameter circular brass medal. On the obverse in the background, the Kremlin wall, in front of the wall at lower center, the left front of a T-34 tank with a group of soldiers on it, below the tank near the medal's lower rim, a relief five pointed star in the center of a laurel wreath going halfway up the medal's circumference on the left and right. To the left of the tank, the relief image of the monument to Minin and Pozharsky, to the right of the tank, a Kremlin tower. Over the Kremlin wall, the dome of the Senate building with a hammer and sickle flag waving from its rooftop mast, in the sky above, five combat aircraft flying towards the left. Along the upper circumference of the medal, the relief inscription in prominent letters "FOR DEFENSE OF MOSCOW". On the reverse near the top, the relief image of the hammer and sickle, below the image, the relief inscription in three rows "FOR OUR SOVIET MOTHERLAND"; the Medal "For the Defense of Moscow" was secured by a ring through the medal suspension loop to a standard Soviet pentagonal mount covered by a 24 mm wide silk moiré ribbon with 2 mm red edge stripes and five alternating 4 mm wide olive green, olive green, olive green stripes.
The individuals below were all recipients of the Medal "For the Defense of Moscow". Admiral of the Fleet Hovhannes Stepani Isakov Colonel General Leonid Mikhaylovich Sandalov Surgeon-General of the Red Army Nikolay Nilovich Burdenko People's Artist of the USSR Nikolay Aleksandrovich Annenkov Veteran of World War 2 actor and director Yuri Petrovich Lyubimov Marshal of the Soviet Union Sergey Fyodorovich Akhromeyev Marshal of the Soviet Union Vasily Danilovich Sokolovsky Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky Marshal of the Soviet Union Leonid Aleksandrovich Govorov Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Stepanovich Konev Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Ignatyevich Yakubovsky Major General Vladimir Sergeyevich Ilyushin Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky Marshal of the Soviet Union Boris Mikhailovitch Shaposhnikov Composer and pianist Tikhon Nikolayevich Khrennikov Marshal of the Soviet Union Dmitriy Feodorovich Ustinov Marshal of the Soviet Union Semyon Konstantinovich Timoshenko Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov Admiral of the Fleet Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov Marshal of the Soviet Union Kliment Yefremovich Voroshilov Army General Yakov Grigorevich Kreizer Army General Stanislav Gilyarovich Poplavsky Hero of Socialist Labour Nikolay Vasilyevich Belov Rocket designer Boris Evseyevich Chertok Sculptor Lev Efimovich Kerbel People's Artist of the USSR Olga Vasiliyevna Lepeshinskaya Army General Sergei Matveevich Shtemenko Marshal of Artillery Vasily Ivanovich Kazakov Army General Mikhail Sergeevich Malinin Politician Vladimir Ivanovich Dolgikh Writer Aleksey Silych Novikov-Priboi Colonel Baurzhan Momyshuly War correspondent Pyotr Andreyevich Pavlenko Aviation scientist Max Arkadyevich Taitz Awards and decorations of the Soviet Union Moscow Hero City Battle of Moscow Yaroslavl Legal Library of the USSR
The Gold Star medal is a special insignia that identifies recipients of the title "Hero" in the Soviet Union and some of its allies, several post-Soviet states. The Gold Star was established by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet on August 1, 1939. A Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded the Order of Lenin and a special diploma describing the heroic feat; the star was introduced to distinguish these heroes from other Order of Lenin recipients. Although it was described as a medal, it was a distinctive badge consisting of a gold star hung from a rectangular suspension device with a red ribbon, was worn on the left and apart from all other orders and medals, always in full; the Gold Star was not issued for posthumous awards of the title "Hero of the Soviet Union". Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the title "Hero of the Soviet Union" was succeeded by titles and insignia in some of the now-independent states, such as "Hero of Belarus", "Hero of the Russian Federation" and "Hero of Ukraine".
Their associated badges derive from the Soviet medal design, replacing red with the color of the issuing state. Hero of Albania National Hero of Armenia Hero of the People's Republic of Bulgaria Hero's Medal Hero of the Republic of Cuba Hero of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Hero of German Democratic Republic Hero of the Republic Hero of the Mongolian People's Republic Hero of the Socialist Republic of Romania Gold Star Order Order of Sukhbaatar Hero of Belarus Hero of Kazakhstan Hero of the Kyrgyz Republic Hero of Uzbekistan National Hero of Azerbaijan Hero of Tajikistan Hero of Turkmenistan Order of National Hero
Operation Barbarossa was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II. The operation stemmed from Nazi Germany's ideological aims to conquer the western Soviet Union so that it could be repopulated by Germans, to use Slavs as a slave labour force for the Axis war effort, to murder the rest, to acquire the oil reserves of the Caucasus and the agricultural resources of Soviet territories. In the two years leading up to the invasion and the Soviet Union signed political and economic pacts for strategic purposes; the German High Command began planning an invasion of the Soviet Union in July 1940, which Adolf Hitler authorized on 18 December 1940. Over the course of the operation, about three million personnel of the Axis powers – the largest invasion force in the history of warfare – invaded the western Soviet Union along a 2,900-kilometer front. In addition to troops, the Wehrmacht deployed some 600,000 motor vehicles, between 600,000 and 700,000 horses for non-combat operations.
The offensive marked an escalation of World War II, both geographically and in the formation of the Allied coalition. Operationally, German forces achieved major victories and occupied some of the most important economic areas of the Soviet Union and inflicted, as well as sustained, heavy casualties. Despite these Axis successes, the German offensive stalled in the Battle of Moscow at the end of 1941, the subsequent Soviet winter counteroffensive pushed German troops back; the Red Army absorbed the Wehrmacht's strongest blows and forced the Germans into a war of attrition that they were unprepared for. The Wehrmacht never again mounted a simultaneous offensive along the entire Eastern front; the failure of the operation drove Hitler to demand further operations of limited scope inside the Soviet Union, such as Case Blue in 1942 and Operation Citadel in 1943 – all of which failed. The failure of Operation Barbarossa proved a turning point in the fortunes of the Third Reich. Most the operation opened up the Eastern Front, in which more forces were committed than in any other theater of war in world history.
The Eastern Front became the site of some of the largest battles, most horrific atrocities, highest World War II casualties, all of which influenced the course of both World War II and the subsequent history of the 20th century. The German armies captured 5,000,000 Red Army troops, who were denied the protection guaranteed by the Hague Conventions and the 1929 Geneva Convention. A majority of Red Army POWs never returned alive; the Nazis deliberately starved to death, or otherwise killed, 3.3 million prisoners of war, as well as a huge number of civilians. Einsatzgruppen death-squads and gassing operations murdered over a million Soviet Jews as part of the Holocaust; as early as 1925, Adolf Hitler vaguely declared in his political manifesto and autobiography Mein Kampf that he would invade the Soviet Union, asserting that the German people needed to secure Lebensraum to ensure the survival of Germany for generations to come. On 10 February 1939, Hitler told his army commanders that the next war would be "purely a war of Weltanschauungen... a people's war, a racial war".
On 23 November, once World War II had started, Hitler declared that "racial war has broken out and this war shall determine who shall govern Europe, with it, the world". The racial policy of Nazi Germany portrayed the Soviet Union as populated by non-Aryan Untermenschen, ruled by Jewish Bolshevik conspirators. Hitler claimed in Mein Kampf that Germany's destiny was to "turn to the East" as it did "six hundred years ago". Accordingly, it was stated Nazi policy to kill, deport, or enslave the majority of Russian and other Slavic populations and repopulate the land with Germanic peoples, under the Generalplan Ost; the Germans' belief in their ethnic superiority is evident in official German records and discernible in pseudoscientific articles in German periodicals at the time, which covered topics such as "how to deal with alien populations". While older histories tended to emphasize the notion of a "Clean Wehrmacht", the historian Jürgen Förster notes that "In fact, the military commanders were caught up in the ideological character of the conflict, involved in its implementation as willing participants."
Before and during the invasion of the Soviet Union, German troops were indoctrinated with anti-Bolshevik, anti-Semitic, anti-Slavic ideology via movies, lectures and leaflets. Likening the Soviets to the forces of Genghis Khan, Hitler told Croatian military leader Slavko Kvaternik that the "Mongolian race" threatened Europe. Following the invasion, Wehrmacht officers told their soldiers to target people who were described as "Jewish Bolshevik subhumans", the "Mongol hordes", the "Asiatic flood", the "Red beast". Nazi propaganda portrayed the war against the Soviet Union as both an ideological war between German National Socialism and Jewish Bolshevism and a racial war between the Germans and the Jewish and Slavic Untermenschen. An'order from the Führer' stated that the Einsatzgruppen were to execute all Soviet functionaries who were "less valuable Asiatics and Jews". Six months into the invasion of the Soviet Union, the Einsatzgruppen had murdered in excess of 500,000 Soviet Jews, a figure greater than the number of Red Army soldiers killed in combat during that same time frame.
German army command
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo. During World War II he participated in multiple battles commanding the 1st Belorussian Front in the Battle of Berlin, which resulted in the defeat of Nazi Germany, the end of the War in Europe. In recognition of Zhukov's role in World War II, he was chosen to accept the German Instrument of Surrender and to inspect the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945. Born into a poverty-stricken peasant family in Strelkovka, Maloyaroslavsky Uyezd, Kaluga Governorate, Zhukov became an apprentice furrier in Moscow. In 1915 the Army of the Russian Empire conscripted him. During World War I, Zhukov was awarded the Cross of St. George twice, promoted to the rank of non-commissioned officer for his bravery in battle, he joined the Bolshevik Party after the 1917 October Revolution. After recovering from a serious case of typhus he fought in the Russian Civil War over the period 1918 to 1921, serving with the 1st Cavalry Army, among other formations.
He received the decoration of the Order of the Red Banner for his part in subduing the Tambov Rebellion in 1921. At the end of May 1923, Zhukov became a commander of the 39th Cavalry Regiment. In 1924, he entered the Higher School of Cavalry, from which he graduated the next year, returning afterward to command the same regiment. In May 1930, Zhukov became commander of the 2nd Cavalry Brigade of the 7th Cavalry Division. In February 1931, he was appointed the Assistant Inspector of Cavalry of the Red Army. In May 1933, Zhukov was appointed a commander in the 4th Cavalry Division. In 1937, he became a commander of the 3rd Cavalry Corps of the 6th Cavalry Corps. In 1938, he became a deputy commander of the Belorussian Military District for cavalry. In 1938, Zhukov was directed to command the First Soviet Mongolian Army Group, saw action against Japan's Kwantung Army on the border between Mongolia and the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo; this campaign was an undeclared war that lasted from 1938 to 1939.
What began as a border skirmish escalated into a full-scale war, with the Japanese pushing forward with an estimated 80,000 troops, 180 tanks and 450 aircraft. These events led to the strategically decisive Battle of Khalkhin Gol. Zhukov requested major reinforcements, on 20 August 1939, his "Soviet Offensive" commenced. After a massive artillery barrage, nearly 500 BT-5 and BT-7 tanks advanced, supported by over 500 fighters and bombers; this was the Soviet Air Force's first fighter-bomber operation. The offensive first appeared to be a typical conventional frontal attack. However, two tank brigades were held back and ordered to advance around on both flanks, supported by motorized artillery and other tanks; this daring and successful manoeuvre encircled the Japanese 6th Army and captured the enemy's vulnerable rear supply areas. By 31 August 1939, the Japanese had been cleared from the disputed border, leaving the Soviets victorious; this campaign had significance beyond local outcome. Zhukov demonstrated and tested the techniques used against the Germans in the Eastern Front of the Second World War.
These innovations included the deployment of underwater bridges and improving the cohesion and battle-effectiveness of inexperienced units by adding a few experienced, battle-hardened troops to bolster morale and overall training. Evaluation of the problems inherent in the performance of the BT tanks led to the replacement of their fire-prone petrol engines with diesel engines, provided valuable practical knowledge, essential to the success in development of the T-34 medium tank used in World War II. After this campaign, Nomonhan veterans were transferred to units that had not seen action, to better spread the benefits of their battle experience. For his victory, Zhukov was declared a Hero of the Soviet Union. However, the campaign – and Zhukov's pioneering use of tanks – remained little known outside of the Soviet Union itself. Zhukov considered Nomonhan invaluable preparation for conducting operations during the Second World War. In 1940 Zhukov became an Army General. In autumn 1940, G. K. Zhukov started preparing the plans for the military exercise concerning the defence of the Western border of the Soviet Union, which at this time was pushed further to the west due to the annexation of Eastern Poland.
In his memoirs Zhukov reports that in this exercise he commanded the "Western" or "Blue" forces and his opponent was Colonel General D. G. Pavlov, the commander of the "Eastern" or "Red" forces, he noted. Zhukov in his memoirs describes the events of exercise as similar to actual events during the German invasion; as historian Bobylev reports in his article in "Military History Journal", the actual details of the exercises were reported differently in different memoirs of their participants. He reported that there were two exercises, one on 2–6 January 1941, another on 8–11 January 1941. In the first one "Western" forces attacked "Eastern" forces on 15 July, but "Eastern" forces counterattacked and by 1 August reached the original border. At that time, "Eastern" forces had a numerical advantage (for example, 51
Kursk is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, located at the confluence of the Kur and Seym rivers. The area around Kursk was the site of a turning point in the Soviet–German struggle during World War II and the site of the largest tank battle in history. Population: 415,159 . Archaeology indicates that the site of Kursk was settled in the 5th or 4th century BCE; the settlement was fortified and included Slavs at least as early as the 8th century CE. The first written record of Kursk is dated 1032, it was mentioned as one of Severian towns by Prince Igor in The Tale of Igor's Campaign: "Saddle, your swift steeds. As to mine, they are ready; the city was rebuilt no than 1283. It was ruled by Grand Duchy of Lithuania between 1360 and 1508. Kursk joined the centralized Russian state in 1508, it was an important center of the corn trade with Ukraine and hosted an important fair, which took place annually under the walls of the monastery of Our Lady of Kursk. However, a century the city re-emerged in a new place.
In 1596 a new fortress was built, in 1616. At the beginning of the 17th century Kursk was attacked by Polish-Lithuania, the Crimean Tatars, the Nogai horde, but Kursk fortress was never taken. Residents of Oryol and other southern Russian cities were resettled in Kursk; the city developed due to its advantageous geographical position on the shortest route from Moscow to the Crimea and from Kiev to the Crimea. It was raided by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Crimean Khanate until the late 17th century and was ruled by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth between 1611 and 1618, it was successively part of the Kiev Governorate, Belgorod Governorate, Kursk Viceroyalty. Town status was granted to Kursk in 1779, it became the administrative center of Kursk Governorate in 1797. After a fire in 1781 devastated Kursk, a new plan for the city was developed in which a market center would be at the heart of the city. In 1768 the Voskirsensko Ilinskaya Church was built. In 1778 both the Sergiev Cathedral Kazan Cathedral Baroque and Trinity Sergius Cathedral were completed.
The city opened its first school for the nobility in 1783. A men's gymnasium was opened in 1808 and a seminary in 1817. A women's gymnasium was opened in 1870. At the beginning of the 20th century Kursk played a dominant role in the food industry and in other industries as well. Organized several engineering enterprises. Working conditions in the factories of Kursk were harsh and resulted in strikes. Kursk workers participated in the general political strike during the 1905 Russian Revolution. On November 26 1917 the Soviets took power. Kornilovites came to Kursk in September 20, 1919. On September 20, 1919, troops under the command of General Denikin entered the city. On November 19, 1919, the Red Army took Kursk; the Soviet government valued Kursk for rich deposits of iron ore and developed it into one of the major railroad hubs in the Russian southwest. In 1932 in the Kursk was included Yamskaya Sloboda. In 1935 a tram system began operating in the city. In 193?, the territory of the city of Kursk was divided into Leninsky District, Dzerzhinsky District and Kirov District.
In 1937 Stalinsky District was formed in the southern outskirts of the city. During World War II, Kursk was occupied by Germany between November 4, 1941 and February 8, 1943. In July 1943, the Germans launched Operation Citadel in an attempt to recapture Kursk. During the resulting Battle of Kursk, the village of Prokhorovka near Kursk became the center of a major armoured engagement – the Battle of Prokhorovka – between Soviet and German forces, considered to have been one of the largest tank battles in history. Operation Citadel was the last major German offensive against the Soviet Union. Rebuilding efforts in the city began in February 1944; the cultural life recovered as well: on 19 February the cinema reopened and on February 27 the drama theatre. In 1953 the tram system began operating. By 1950 the urban economy had been restored. On August 17, 1956, Stalinsky District was renamed Promishlenost District, Dzerzhinsky District was abolished and its territory divided between Promishlenost and Leninsky Districts.
In 2009, for the first time in 90 years at the site of Theotokos of Kursk, the most revered icon in the Russian Orthodox Church, received the name Hodigitria Russian diaspora. Until 2010, Kursk had the status of historica
Order of the October Revolution
The Order of the October Revolution was instituted on October 31, 1967, in time for the 50th anniversary of the October Revolution. It was conferred upon individuals or groups for services furthering communism or the state, or in enhancing the defenses of the Soviet Union and civil, it is the second-highest Soviet order, after the Order of Lenin. The insignia of the Order consisted of a badge, a red star with golden rays between the arms. Above this was a red flag bearing the words "October Revolution" in Russian. A Hammer and Sickle emblem was placed at the bottom; the badge was worn on the left chest with a red ribbon bearing five blue stripes at the centre. The Aurora was itself awarded the Order, the only ship to have received the award. Military units and institutions receiving the award applied the order name to their title upon its reception. Order of the October Revolution at the Directory of the orders and signs of the USSR. Order of the October Revolution Reference Page