Rus' Justice was the legal code of Kievan Rus' and the subsequent Rus' principalities during the times of feudal division. It was remade during many centuries; the basis of the Russkaya Pravda, Pravda of Yaroslav was written at the beginning of the 11th century. Russkaya Pravda was a main source of Old Russian Law. In spite of great influence of Byzantine legislation on the contemporary world, in spite of great cultural and commercial ties between Byzantium and Kievan Rus', Rus' Justice bore no similarity whatsoever to that of the Byzantine Empire; the absence of capital and corporal punishment rather reflects the Norse way of thought. Three recensions of Russkaya Pravda are known: the Short Edition, the Extensive Edition, the Abridged Edition. Over 110 extant copies dating from the 13th to the 18th centuries are preserved, included in various manuscripts: chronicles and compilations. Of these, over 100 copies, including the oldest preserved, are of the Extensive Edition; this code was discovered by the historian Vasily Tatischev in the text of one of the Novgorod chronicles and brought to the attention of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1738.
The first commented edition of the text was published by August Ludwig von Schlözer in 1767. Pravda Rus'skaya’s legal regulations reflected the evolution of the social relations in the Rus' of the 11th-13th centuries. Common law, Knyaz legislation, legal proceedings represented the basis of “RP”; the Short Edition of Rus' Justice contains two distinct parts, called by researchers Pravda Yaroslava, otherwise known as Drevneyshaya Pravda of Yaroslav the Wise, Pravda Yaroslavichey. Some indicate other distinct components of the text added later; the Yaroslav’s Law comprised legal regulations of feudal law along with the archaic regulations that could be traced back to the primitive communal system. According to a popular theory, it was promulgated in order to settle a conflict between Konstantin Dobrynich, a posadnik of Novgorod, the Varangian population of the city. Subsequent development and improvement of the Rus' Justice took place in times of Yaroslav's sons and his grandson Vladimir Monomakh.
New provisions are believed to have been added to Pravda Rus'skaya after the revolts in Kiev and Rostov-Suzdal province in 1068–1071. In the arising Russian state, the Pravda Rus'skaya was replaced in 1497 by the Sudebnik, the Code of Law. Several centuries earlier, new legal codes were promulgated in Novgorod. “Pravda Yaroslavichey” increased responsibility of a given community for killing knyaz’es soldiers, starostas and other servants on their own territory. “Pravda Yaroslavichey” provided severe punishment for arson, deliberate cattle mutilation, collective encroachment on rich people's property. After the 1113 Riot in Kiev, an exorbitant interest law was introduced that limited financial operations of moneylenders. "RP" stabilized the system of social inequality. During 11th-13th centuries “RP” served the strengthening of feudal dependency of smerds, kholops etc; the Vast Edition of “RP” contains special regulations with regards to the status of zakups and kholops. “RP” reflects the role of the court of knyaz’, a trend towards increasing differentiation of punishments and penalties, larger fines for the benefit of knyaz’ or his administration with correspondingly decreasing compensation to the victims.
In an attempt to abolish blood feud, “RP” narrowed its “usage” and limited the number of avengers to the closest relatives of the dead. If there were no avengers on the victim's side, the killer had to pay a fine in favour of the knyaz’ and partial compensation to the relatives of the victim. If a woman were killed, one would have to pay half of the regular fine. “RP” defended the health and honour of the free members of the feudal society and had provisions about financial compensations for mutilation or an insult by word or deed. “RP” had a detailed system of punishments and penalties for larceny in a city or countryside, deliberate damage to forests, hunting grounds or lands, trespassing etc. It regulated debt relations between individuals and contained articles of liability and hereditary law. Under “RP”, legal proceedings included use of witnesses, use of oaths and use of “ordaliy”, a kind of a last-resort test used to prove defendant's innocence or guilt; the search for culprits included listening to collecting evidence, or hot pursuit.
Investigators had to check for false accusations, as well. These were the first steps towards forensic science. 1. If a man kills a man: a brother avenges a brother, or a son avenges a father, or a cousin, or a nephew.
Peter the Great
Peter the Great, Peter I or Peter Alexeyevich ruled the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire from 7 May 1682 until his death in 1725, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars, he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power and laid the groundwork for the Russian navy after capturing ports at Azov and the Baltic Sea, he led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific and based on the Enlightenment. Peter's reforms made a lasting impact on Russia, many institutions of Russian government trace their origins to his reign, he is known for founding and developing the city of Saint Petersburg, which remained the capital of Russia until 1917. The imperial title of Peter the Great was the following: By the grace of God, the most excellent and great sovereign prince Pyotr Alekseevich the ruler of all the Russias: of Moscow, of Kiev, of Vladimir, of Novgorod, Tsar of Kazan, Tsar of Astrakhan and Tsar of Siberia, sovereign of Pskov, great prince of Smolensk, Yugorsk, Vyatsky and others, sovereign and great prince of Novgorod Nizovsky lands, Chernigovsky, of Ryazan, of Rostov, Belozersky, Udorsky and the sovereign of all the northern lands, the sovereign of the Iverian lands, of the Kartlian and Georgian Kings, of the Kabardin lands, of the Circassian and Mountain princes and many other states and lands western and eastern here and there and the successor and sovereign and ruler.
Named after the apostle, described as a newborn as "with good health, his mother's black, vaguely Tatar eyes, a tuft of auburn hair", from an early age Peter's education was put in the hands of several tutors, most notably Nikita Zotov, Patrick Gordon, Paul Menesius. On 29 January 1676, Tsar Alexis died, leaving the sovereignty to Peter's elder half-brother, the weak and sickly Feodor III of Russia. Throughout this period, the government was run by Artamon Matveev, an enlightened friend of Alexis, the political head of the Naryshkin family and one of Peter's greatest childhood benefactors; this position changed when Feodor died in 1682. As Feodor did not leave any children, a dispute arose between the Miloslavsky family and Naryshkin family over who should inherit the throne. Peter's other half-brother, Ivan V of Russia, was next in line for the throne, but he was chronically ill and of infirm mind; the Boyar Duma chose the 10-year-old Peter to become Tsar with his mother as regent. This arrangement was brought before the people of Moscow, as ancient tradition demanded, was ratified.
Sophia Alekseyevna, one of Alexis' daughters from his first marriage, led a rebellion of the Streltsy in April–May 1682. In the subsequent conflict some of Peter's relatives and friends were murdered, including Matveev, Peter witnessed some of these acts of political violence; the Streltsy made it possible for Sophia, the Miloslavskys and their allies to insist that Peter and Ivan be proclaimed joint Tsars, with Ivan being acclaimed as the senior. Sophia exercised all power. For seven years, she ruled as an autocrat. A large hole was cut in the back of the dual-seated throne used by Peter. Sophia would sit behind the throne and listen as Peter conversed with nobles, while feeding him information and giving him responses to questions and problems; this throne can be seen in the Kremlin Armoury in Moscow. Peter was not concerned that others ruled in his name, he engaged in such pastimes as sailing, as well as mock battles with his toy army. Peter's mother sought to force him to adopt a more conventional approach and arranged his marriage to Eudoxia Lopukhina in 1689.
The marriage was a failure, ten years Peter forced his wife to become a nun and thus freed himself from the union. By the summer of 1689, Peter age 17, planned to take power from his half-sister Sophia, whose position had been weakened by two unsuccessful Crimean campaigns against the Crimean Khanate in an attempt to stop devastating Crimean Tatar raids into Russia's southern lands; when she learned of his designs, Sophia conspired with the leaders of the Streltsy, who continually aroused disorder and dissent. Peter, warned by the Streltsy, escaped in the middle of the night to the impenetrable monastery of Troitse-Sergiyeva Lavra. Sophia was overthrown, with Peter I and Ivan V continuing to act as co-tsars. Foy de la Neuville records that Sophia requested influential members of Peter's family, notably her aunts Tatyana and Anna, to mediate with him. Peter forced Sophia to enter a convent, where she gave up her name and her position as a member of the royal family. Still, Peter could not acquire actual control over Russian affairs.
Power was instead exercised by Natalya Naryshkina. It was only. Formally, Ivan V remained a co-ruler with Peter. Peter became the sole ruler when Ivan died in 1696. Peter was 24 years old. Peter grew to be tall as an a
Pskov is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, located about 20 kilometers east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. Population: 203,279 . Pskov is one of the oldest cities in Russia; the name of the city Pleskov, may be loosely translated as " of purling waters". It was known in English as Plescow, its earliest mention comes in 903, which records that Igor of Kiev married St. Olga. Pskovians sometimes take this year as the city's foundation date, in 2003 a great jubilee took place to celebrate Pskov's 1,100th anniversary; the first prince of Pskov was Vladimir the Great's youngest son Sudislav. Once imprisoned by his brother Yaroslav, he was not released until the latter's death several decades later. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the town adhered politically to the Novgorod Republic. In 1241, it was taken by the Teutonic Knights, but Alexander Nevsky recaptured it several months during a legendary campaign dramatized in Sergei Eisenstein's 1938 movie Alexander Nevsky.
In order to secure their independence from the knights, the Pskovians elected a Lithuanian prince, named Daumantas, a Roman Catholic converted to Orthodox faith and known in Russia as Dovmont, as their military leader and prince in 1266. Having fortified the town, Daumantas routed the Teutonic Knights at Rakvere and overran much of Estonia, his remains and sword are preserved in the local kremlin, the core of the citadel, erected by him, still bears the name of "Dovmont's town". By the 14th century, the town functioned as the capital of a de facto sovereign republic, its most powerful force was the merchants. Pskov's independence was formally recognized by Novgorod in 1348. Several years the veche promulgated a law code, one of the principal sources of the all-Russian law code issued in 1497. For Russia, the Pskov Republic was a bridge towards Europe. In the 13th century German merchants were present in Zapskovye area of Pskov and the Hanseatic League had a trading post in the same area in the first half of 16th century which moved to Zavelichye after a fire in 1562.
The wars with Livonian Order, Poland-Lithuania and Sweden interrupted the trade but it was maintained until the 17th century, with Swedish merchants gaining the upper hand eventually. The importance of the city made it the subject of numerous sieges throughout its history; the Pskov Krom withstood twenty-six sieges in the 15th century alone. At one point, five stone walls ringed it, making the city impregnable. A local school of icon-painting flourished, the local masons were considered the best in Russia. Many peculiar features of Russian architecture were first introduced in Pskov. In 1510, the city fell to Muscovite forces; the deportation of noble families to Moscow under Ivan IV in 1570 is a subject of Rimsky-Korsakov's opera Pskovityanka. As the second largest city of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, Pskov still attracted enemy armies. Most famously, it withstood a prolonged siege by a 50,000-strong Polish army during the final stage of the Livonian War; the king of Poland Stephen Báthory undertook some thirty-one attacks to storm the city, defended by civilians.
After one of the city walls was broken, the Pskovians managed to fill the gap and repel the attack. "It's amazing how the city reminds me of Paris", wrote one of the Frenchmen present at Báthory's siege. Peter the Great's conquest of Estonia and Latvia during the Great Northern War in the early 18th century spelled the end of Pskov's traditional role as a vital border fortress and a key to Russia's interior; as a consequence, the city's importance and well-being declined although it has served as a seat of separate Pskov Governorate since 1777. During World War I, Pskov became the center of much activity behind the lines, it was at a railroad siding in Pskov, aboard the imperial train, that Tsar Nicholas II signed the manifesto announcing his abdication in March 1917, after the Russo-German Brest-Litovsk Peace Conference, the Imperial German Army invaded the area. Pskov was occupied by the Estonian army between 25 May 1919 and 28 August 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence when Bułak-Bałachowicz became the military administrator of Pskov.
He ceded most of his responsibilities to a democratically elected municipal duma and focused on both cultural and economical recovery of the war-impoverished city. He put an end to censorship of press and allowed for creation of several socialist associations and newspapers. Under the Soviet government, large parts of the city were rebuilt, many ancient buildings churches, were demolished to give space for new constructions. During World War II, the medieval citadel provided little protection against modern artillery of Wehrmacht, Pskov suffered substantial damage during the German occupation from July 9, 1941 until July 23, 1944. A huge portion of the population died during the war, Pskov has since struggled to regain its traditional position as a major industrial and cultural center of Western Russia. Pskov is the administrative center of the oblast and, within the framework of administrative divisions, it serves as the administrative center of Pskovsky District though it is not a part of it.
As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Pskov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As
A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. The Greek prefix, "geo," means "earth" and the Greek suffix, "graphy," meaning "description," so a geographer is someone who studies the earth; the word "geography" is a Middle French word, believed to have been first used in 1540. Although geographers are known as people who make maps, map making is the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographers do not study only the details of the natural environment or human society, but they study the reciprocal relationship between these two. For example, they study how the natural environment contributes to human society and how human society affects the natural environment. In particular, physical geographers study the natural environment while human geographers study human society. Modern geographers are the primary practitioners of the GIS, who are employed by local and federal government agencies as well as in the private sector by environmental and engineering firms.
The paintings by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer and The Astronomer are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting in 1668–69. There are three major fields of study, which are further subdivided: Physical geography: including geomorphology, glaciology, climatology, pedology, oceanography and environmental geography. Human geography: including Urban geography, cultural geography, economic geography, political geography, historical geography, marketing geography, health geography, social geography. Regional geography: including atmosphere and lithosphereThe National Geographic Society identifies five broad key themes for geographers: location place human-environment interaction movement regions Media related to Geographers at Wikimedia Commons Steven Seegel. Map Men: Transnational Lives and Deaths of Geographers in the Making of East Central Europe. University of Chicago Press, 2018. ISBN 978-0-226-43849-8
Tolyatti known in English as Togliatti, is a city in Samara Oblast, Russia. Population: 719,632 , it is the largest city in Russia which does not serve as the administrative center of a federal subject. Internationally, the city is best known as the home of Russia's largest car manufacturer AvtoVAZ, founded in the late 1960s, it was known as Stavropol-on-Volga. It was founded in 1737. Informally it was referred as Stavropol-on-Volga to distinguish from Stavropol, a large city in southwest Russia; the construction of the Kuybyshev Dam and Hydroelectric Station on the Volga River in the 1950s created the Kuybyshev Reservoir, which covered the existing location of the city, it was rebuilt on a new site. In 1964, the city was renamed Tolyatti. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Tolyatti serves as the administrative center of Stavropolsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the city of oblast significance of Tolyatti—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Tolyatti is incorporated as Tolyatti Urban Okrug. For the administrative purposes, the city is divided into three districts: Avtozavodsky called Novy Gorod, is the most modern; the city's main claim to fame has been automobiles Lada manufactured by AvtoVAZ car plant employing some 110,000 people: in cooperation with Italy's Fiat since 1970, with General Motors since 2001 and with the Renault-Nissan Alliance since 2012. Other industries have moved into Tolyatti because it is close to abundant supplies of electricity and water. Petrochemicals are well represented in the city. Among the significant enterprises based there are "TogliattiAzot" and "KuibyshevAzot". Other industries include building materials production, ship repair and electrical equipment and electronics. In 2011 the Togliatti Special Economic Zone was launched in order to develop the region further and diversify the economy of the city. Several auto-component producers have since been registered, as well as large industrial manufacturers.
By November 2012 the value of project investment totalled 10 billion Rubles and around 3000 jobs were being created. The transport system is well developed in the city. Public transport includes municipal buses and trolley-buses, so-called "alternative" transport or marshrutkas. External transport routes are provided by two railway stations and a city harbour. Tolyatti has its airport as well; the city is linked to the federal road network by the M5 "Ural" highway. As one of Russia's "motor cities", Tolyatti's car population has been expanded, traffic jams are common during morning and evening rush hours — Samara Oblast was one of the first regions to receive an additional licence plate code because its existing code did not have enough numbers for all its residents' cars; the creation of the Kuybyshev Reservoir in the 1950s destroyed much of the city's history, so all the city's cultural points of interest date from the Soviet period, but the city administration has continued to build new monuments and cathedrals.
A recent notable event was the 1998 opening of the large Tatishchev Monument near the Volga. The Transfiguration Cathedral was completed in 2002. Education is represented by over one hundred public and ten private schools, as well as several higher education institutions. Most notable ones include: Togliatti State University Volga Region State University of Service Tatishchev University of Volga Togliatti Academy of Management Togliatti Technical Museum AvtoVAZ Museum Togliatti museum of local lore In the eyes of the Soviet leaders, Tolyatti was a perfect Soviet city – many sports facilities appeared so that the "perfect Soviet person" could be healthy; the city has high-quality sports facilities: gymnasiums, swimming pools, ice arenas, association football and racing stadiums — as a result, many athletes, including Olympic Champion Alexei Nemov, Stanley Cup winners Alexei Kovalev and Ilya Bryzgalov had moved to Tolyatti. Current Montreal Canadiens defensemen Alexei Emelin, Former Washington Capitals winger Viktor Kozlov and defenseman Alexei Tezikov were born there.
Tolyatti is represented in every kind of team sports. Tolyatti's Lada-sponsored Ice Hockey Club broke the Moscow teams' domination of the game; the Lada women's football team has won the Russian championship several times — and the Lada women's handball team, wh
Sudebnik of 1497
The Sudebnik of 1497 was a collection of laws introduced by Ivan III in 1497. It played a big part in the centralisation of the Russian state, creation of the nationwide Russian Law and elimination of feudal division, it took its roots from Old Russian Law, including Russkaya Pravda, Legal Code of Pskov, princely decrees, common law, the regulations of, upgraded with reference to social and economic changes. Sudebnik was a collection of legal procedures, it established a universal system of the judicial bodies of the state, defined their competence and subordination, regulated legal fees. Sudebnik expanded the range of acts, considered punishable by the standards of criminal justice, it renewed the concept of different kinds of a crime. Sudebnik established the investigative nature of legal proceedings, it provided different kinds of punishment, such as death penalty, flagellation etc. In order to protect the feudal landownership, Sudebnik introduced certain limitations in the law of estate, increased the term of limitation of legal actions with regards to princely lands, introduced flagellation for the violation of property boundaries of princely and monastic lands - violation of peasant land boundaries entailed a fine.
Sudebnik introduced a fee for peasants who wanted to leave their feudal lord, established a universal day across the Russian state for peasants, who wanted to switch their masters. Old Russian Law Russkaya Pravda Sudebnik of 1550 Stoglav Sobornoye Ulozheniye Law of the Russian Federation Law of the Soviet Union