Roza Eskenazi was a famous Jewish-Greek singer of rebetiko and Greek folk music born in Constantinople, whose recording and stage career extended from the late 1920s into the 1970s. Eskenazi was born Sarah Skinazi to an impoverished Sephardic Jewish family in Istanbul, in the Constantinople Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Throughout her career she hid her real date of birth, claimed to have been born in 1910. In fact, she was at least a decade older, was born sometime between 1895 and 1897, her father, Avram Skinazi, was a rag dealer. In addition to Roza, he and his wife Flora had two sons, the eldest, Sami. Shortly after the turn of the century, Skinazi family relocated to Thessaloniki still under Ottoman rule; the city was undergoing rapid economic expansion at the time, with its population growing by 70 percent between 1870 and 1917. Avram Skinazi found work in a cotton processing mill and took various odd jobs to improve his family’s financial standing. At the time, he entrusted young Sarah to a neighboring girl, who tutored several local children in basic reading and writing.
These sessions were the extent of her formal education. For some time, her brother, her mother lived in nearby Komotini, a city that at that time, still had a sizable Turkish-speaking population. Roza's mother found employment there as the live-in maid for a wealthy family, Roza assisted her with the housework. One day, Sarah was overheard singing by the Turkish owners of a local tavern, they were enthralled by her voice, came to the door to express their wish to hire the girl to perform in their club. Sarah's mother was incensed at the suggestion that her daughter, or any other member of her family, would become an artiste. Years in an interview, Roza admitted that her time in Komotini was a turning point in her life, it was there, she said, that she decided to become a dancer. She was not to realize her dream until her return to Thessaloniki. At the time, the family was renting an apartment near the city's Grand Hotel Theater, several of the neighbors performed there; every day, Sarah would help two of the dancers carry their costumes to the theater, hoping that she would one day appear on the stage alongside them.
It was there that she began her career as a dancer. While still a teenager, she fell in love with Yiannis Zardinidis, a wealthy man from one of Cappadocia's most prominent families. Zardinidis' family disapproved of the match; the two of them eloped around 1913, Sarah changed her name to Roza, the name by which she was known throughout her career. Zardinidis died of unknown causes around the year 1917, leaving Sarah/Roza with a little child, Paraschos. Realizing that she could not maintain her career as a performer while raising an infant, she brought him to the St. Taksiarchis nursery in the city of Xanthi, his father's family agreed to support him there, Paraschos Zardinidis grew up to be a high-ranking officer in the Greek Air Force. It was only years that he reunited with his mother, after finding her in Athens in 1935. Roza had moved to Athens shortly after Zardinidis's death to pursue her musical career, she teamed up with two Armenian cabaret artists and Zabel, who liked her because she could speak Turkish, because she showed talent as a singer.
Though she continued to perform as a dancer, she began to sing for patrons of the club in Greek and Armenian. It was there that she was first "discovered" by well-known composer and impresario Panagiotis Toundas in the late 1920s. Toundas recognized her talent and introduced her to Vassilis Toumbakaris of Columbia Records. In 1929 Roza cut four sides for Columbia, three of which were one demotic. By the mid-1930s, she had recorded over 300 songs for Columbia and HMV, had become one of their most popular stars; some were folk songs from Greece and Smyrna in Turkey. Her most important contribution to the local music scene, was her recordings of rebetiko and the Smyrna school of rebetiko, she was credited with being responsible for the breakthrough of this style into popular culture. Soon after she began recording, Roza began performing nightly at the Taygetos nightclub in Athens as well. Appearing with her on stage were Toundas, the violinist Dimitrios Semsis and oud player Agapios Tomboulis. Eskenazi, however was the star of the show, earning an unprecedented 200 drachmas per night.
She confided to her biographer Kostas Hatzidoulis that she should have been much wealthier, just on the income from the show, but that she had a weakness for expensive jewelry and spent too much of her income on it. Before long, her career extended beyond the political boundaries of Greece to the Greek Diaspora. Together with Tomboulis, she traveled to Egypt and Serbia, receiving a warm reception not only from the local Greek communities, but from the Turkish communities as well, her music had a certain edginess to it, one of her songs, Πρέζα όταν Πιείς, was censored by Greek dictator Ioannis Metaxas. As a result of his decisions, many other traditional Rebetiko artists were marginalized, though a new trend in the genre, led by Vassilis Tsitsanis, was gaining ground. Within a short time, Greece's own independence would be challenged. By 1940, Italy invaded, in 1941 the German army occupied the country. Despite the repressive regime, she continued performing, in 1942, she opened up her own nightclub, together with her son Paraschos, with whom she had since been reunited.
Greek folk music
Greek folk music includes a variety of Greek styles played by ethnic Greeks in Greece, Australia, the United States and elsewhere. Apart from the common music found all-around Greece, there are distinct types of folk music, sometimes related to the history or the taste of the specific places; the Greek folk music, in Greek Demotiko or Paradosiako, refers to the traditional Greek popular songs and music of mainland Greece and islands dated to the Byzantine times. It was the sole popular musical genre of the Greek people until the spread of rebetiko and laiko in the early 20th century, spread by the Greek refugees from Asia Minor; this kind of music evolved from the ancient and the medieval Greek era and was established until the present day. The lyrics are based on Demotiki poetry and popular themes are love, humor, nature, sea, about klephts, various war fighters or battles etc The songs are played in the following tempos: Syrtos, Tsamiko and Pentozali; some notable folk songs include "Itia", "Milo mou kokkino", "Kontoula lemonia", "Mou parigile to aidoni", "Enas aetos", "Kira Vangelio", "Gerakina", "Saranta palikaria" and from nisiotika "Ikariotikos", "Samiotisa", "Thalassaki", "Armenaki", "Amorgos Sousta", "Dirlada", "Lygaria", "Psaropoula", such as "Tilirkiotissa" and "Psintri Vasilitsia mou".
The Greek islands of Kárpathos, Khálki, Kássos and Crete form an arc where the Cretan lyra is the dominant instrument. Kostas Mountakis is the most respected master of the lyra, accompanied by the laouto which resembles a mandolin. Bagpipes are played on Kárpathos. Crete has a well known folk dance tradition, which comes from ancient Greece and includes swift dances like pentozalis and other like sousta, trizali, chaniotikos, pidichtos Lasithou, tsiniaris and laziotikos; the Aegean islands of Greece are known for Nisiótika songs. Although the basis of the sound is characteristically secular-Byzantine, the relative isolation of the islands allowed the separate development of island-specific Greek music. Most of the nisiótika songs are accompanied by lyra, clarinet and violin. Notable singers include the Konitopouloi. Folk dances include the ballos, sousta, kalymniotikos, lerikos, michanikos, trata and ikariotikos. In the Aegean Cyclades, the violin is more popular than Cretan lyra, has produced several respected musicians, including Nikos Oikonomidis, Leonidas Klados and Stathis Koukoularis.
Folk dances in Cyclades include lerikos, syrtos Serifou, syrtos Naxou, syrtos Kythnou, Amorgos dance and ballos. One of the most famous singers of cycladic music is Domna Samiou. In Dodacanese there are prominent elements of Cretan music. Dodecanese folk dances include the trata, syrtos, issos, syrtos Rodou and kalymnikos, with origin from the island of Kalymnos. In central Greece many folk songs make references to the klephts and their role during the Greek war of independence. Folk dances in central Greece include: antikrystos, kalamatianos, kamilierikos choros, syrtos, choros tis tratas and syrtokalamatianos; the musical tradition of the region is influenced by the Arvanites. In Epirus, folk songs are polyphonic, sung by both male and female singers. Distinctive songs include vocals with skáros accompaniment and tis távlas; the clarinet is the most prominent folk instrument in Epirus, used to accompany dances slow and heavy, like the tsamikos, menousis, podia, sta dio, sta tria, kentimeni and iatros.
Folk dances from the Peloponnese include the kalamatianos, monodiplos, syrtos, Ai Georgis and diplos horos. In the songs there are references to the klephts. In Mani there is the tradition of the "μοιρολόγια" mirolóyia, sung by the old women of Mani; the Ionian Islands were never under Ottoman control and their songs and kantadhes are based a lot on the western European style. Greek kantadhes are performed by three male singers accompanied by guitar; these romantic songs developed in Kefalonia in the early 19th century but spread throughout Greece after the liberation of Greece. An Athenian form of kantadhes arose accompanied by violin and laouto; however the style is accepted as uniquely Heptanesean. The island of Zakynthos has a diverse musical history with influences from Crete. Folk dances include the tsirigotikos, ballos, syrtos, Ai Georgis, Kerkyraikos. Notable songs are "Kato sto yialo", "S'ena paporo mesa", "Apopse tin kithara mou"; the Church music of the islands is different from the rest of Greece, with a lot of western and Catholic influences on the Orthodox rite.
The region is notable for the birth of the first School of modern Greek classical music, established in 1815. Folk dances in Macedonia include Makedonia, leventikos, endeka Kozanis, stankena, baidouska, Macedonikos antikristos, mikri Eleni, kleftikos Makedonikos, kastorianos, tromakton, o Nikolos, sirtos Macedonias and Kapitan Louka. There are folk songs which make references to the Macedonian Struggle, while it is notable the use of trumpet
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The violin, sometimes known as a fiddle, is a wooden string instrument in the violin family. Most violins have a hollow wooden body, it is highest-pitched instrument in the family in regular use. Smaller violin-type instruments exist, including the violino piccolo and the kit violin, but these are unused; the violin has four strings tuned in perfect fifths, is most played by drawing a bow across its strings, though it can be played by plucking the strings with the fingers and by striking the strings with the wooden side of the bow. Violins are important instruments in a wide variety of musical genres, they are most prominent in the Western classical tradition, both in ensembles and as solo instruments and in many varieties of folk music, including country music, bluegrass music and in jazz. Electric violins with solid bodies and piezoelectric pickups are used in some forms of rock music and jazz fusion, with the pickups plugged into instrument amplifiers and speakers to produce sound. Further, the violin has come to be played in many non-Western music cultures, including Indian music and Iranian music.
The name fiddle is used regardless of the type of music played on it. The violin was first known in 16th-century Italy, with some further modifications occurring in the 18th and 19th centuries to give the instrument a more powerful sound and projection. In Europe, it served as the basis for the development of other stringed instruments used in Western classical music, such as the viola. Violinists and collectors prize the fine historical instruments made by the Stradivari, Guarneri and Amati families from the 16th to the 18th century in Brescia and Cremona and by Jacob Stainer in Austria. According to their reputation, the quality of their sound has defied attempts to explain or equal it, though this belief is disputed. Great numbers of instruments have come from the hands of less famous makers, as well as still greater numbers of mass-produced commercial "trade violins" coming from cottage industries in places such as Saxony and Mirecourt. Many of these trade instruments were sold by Sears, Roebuck and Co. and other mass merchandisers.
The parts of a violin are made from different types of wood. Violins can be strung with Perlon or other synthetic, or steel strings. A person who makes or repairs violins is called a violinmaker. One who makes or repairs bows is called an bowmaker; the word "violin" was first used in English in the 1570s. The word "violin" comes from "Italian violino, diminutive of viola"; the term "viola" comes from the expression for "tenor violin" in 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, Medieval Latin vitula" as a term which means "stringed instrument," from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy... or from related Latin verb vitulari, "to exult, be joyful." The related term "Viola da gamba" means "bass viol" is from Italian "a viola for the leg"." A violin is the "modern form of the smaller, medieval viola da braccio." The violin is called a fiddle, either when used in a folk music context, or in Classical music scenes, as an informal nickname for the instrument. The word "fiddle" was first used in English in the late 14th century.
The word "fiddle" comes from "fedele, fidel, earlier fithele, from Old English fiðele "fiddle,", related to Old Norse fiðla, Middle Dutch vedele, Dutch vedel, Old High German fidula, German Fiedel, "a fiddle. As to the origin of the word "fiddle", the "...usual suggestion, based on resemblance in sound and sense, is that it is from Medieval Latin vitula." The earliest stringed instruments were plucked. Two-stringed, bowed instruments, played upright and strung and bowed with horsehair, may have originated in the nomadic equestrian cultures of Central Asia, in forms resembling the modern-day Mongolian Morin huur and the Kazakh Kobyz. Similar and variant types were disseminated along East-West trading routes from Asia into the Middle East, the Byzantine Empire; the direct ancestor of all European bowed instruments is the Arabic rebab, which developed into the Byzantine lyra by the 9th century and the European rebec. The first makers of violins borrowed from various developments of the Byzantine lyra.
These included the lira da braccio. The violin in its present form emerged in early 16th-century northern Italy; the earliest pictures of violins, albeit with three strings, are seen in northern Italy around 1530, at around the same time as the words "violino" and "vyollon" are seen in Italian and French documents. One of the earliest explicit descriptions of the instrument, including its tuning, is from the Epitome musical by Jambe de Fer, published in Lyon in 1556. By this time, the violin had begun to spread throughout Europe; the violin proved popular, both among street musicians and the nobility. One of these "noble" instruments, the Charles IX, is the oldest surviving violin; the finest Renaissance carved and decorated violin in the world is the Gasparo da Salò owned by Ferdinand II, Archduke of Austria and from 1841, by the Norwegian virtuoso Ole Bull, who used it for forty years and thousands of concerts, for i
The bouzouki is a musical instrument popular in Greece, brought there in the 1900s by Greek immigrants from Turkey, became the central instrument to the rebetiko genre and its music branches. A mainstay of modern Greek music, the bouzouki has a flat front heavily inlaid with mother-of-pearl; the instrument is played with a plectrum and has a sharp metallic sound, reminiscent of a mandolin but pitched lower. There are two main types of bouzouki: the trichordo has three pairs of strings and the tetrachordo has four pairs of strings; the name bouzouki comes from the Turkish word bozuk, meaning "broken" or "modified", comes from a particular re-entrant tuning called bozuk düzen, used on its Turkish counterpart, the saz-bozuk. It is in the same instrumental family as the lute; the body was carved from a solid block of wood, similar to the saz, but upon its arrival in Greece in the early 1910s it was modified by the addition of a staved back borrowed from the Neapolitan mandola, the top angled in the manner of a Neapolitan mandolins so as to increase the strength of the body to withstand thicker steel strings.
The type of the instrument used in Rembetika music was a three-stringed instrument, but in the 1950s a four-string variety by Manolis Chiotis was introduced. From a construction point of view, the bouzouki can have differences not only in the number of strings but in other features, e.g. neck length, height, depth of the bowl or main body, the width of the staves etc. These differences are determined by the manufacturer, who in his experience and according to the sound that the instrument should make, modifies his functional elements to achieve a more piercing, deeper or heavier sound; the size and type of the resonating body determine the instrument's timbre, while the length of the neck, by extension the strings, determines the instrument's pitch range, as well as influencing the timbre. While neck length can vary from instrument to instrument, most bouzoukis have the same number of frets, spaced such as to provide a chromatic scale in 12-tone equal temperament. On modern instruments the frets are metal, set into fixed position in the fingerboard The quality of the wood from which the instrument is made is of great importance to the sound.
For the construction of the bowl, apricot, cherry and elm are considered to be the best woods with walnut and chestnut being inferior. The wood must be sourced from slow growth trees; the top or soundboard should spruce if possible, cut in one piece. The top plays a major role in the sound because it resonates and strengthens and prolongs the vibration of the strings. Another factor that affects the quality of the sound is the varnish and the method of its application; the best varnish is a natural one made of shellac, applied by hand in many layers in the traditional way, for both acoustic and visual effect. The neck must be of dry hardwood in order not to warp and increase the distance of the strings from the fret board which makes playing the instrument more laborious. To achieve this, manufacturers use each one having their own secrets. Many modern instrument have a metal rod or bar set into a channel in the neck, under the fingerboard, which adds some weight, but increases rigidity, allows adjustment of the neck should it begin to warp.
The Greek bouzouki is a plucked musical instrument of the lute family, called the thabouras or tambouras family. The tambouras has existed in ancient Greece as pandoura, can be found in various sizes, depths of body, lengths of neck and number of strings; the bouzouki and the baglamas are the direct descendants. The Greek marble relief, known as the Mantineia Base, dating from 330–320 BC, shows a muse playing a variant of the pandoura. From Byzantine times it was called pandura and tambouras. On display in the National Historical Museum of Greece is the tambouras of a hero of the Greek revolution of 1821, General Makriyiannis. Other sizes have appeared and include the Greek instrument tzouras, an instrument smaller in size than standard bouzouki; the bouzouki arrived in Greece following the 1919–1922 war in Asia Minor and the subsequent exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey when the ethnic Greeks fled to Greece. The early bouzoukia were three-string, with three courses and were tuned in different ways, as to the scale one wanted to play.
At the end of the 1950s, four-course bouzoukia started to gain popularity. The four-course bouzouki was made popular by Manolis Chiotis, who used a tuning akin to standard guitar tuning, which made it easier for guitarists to play bouzouki as it angered purists; however it allowed for greater virtuosity and helped elevate the bouzouki into a popular instrument capable of a wide range of musical expression. The three-course bouzouki has gained in popularity; the first recording with the 4-course instrument was made in 1956. The Irish bouzouki, with four courses, a flatter back, differently tuned from the Greek bouzouki, is a more recent development, stemming from the introduction of the Greek instrument into Irish music by Johnny Moynihan around 1965, its subsequent adoption by Andy Irvine, Alec Finn, Dónal Lunny, many others. This
An ouzeri is a type of Greek tavern which serves ouzo and mezedes, small finger foods. John Freely. Strolling through Athens: fourteen unforgettable walks through Europe's oldest city. Tauris Parke Paperbacks, 2004 ISBN 1-85043-595-2, ISBN 978-1-85043-595-2 MacNeill, J. Athens. Prentice Hall. P. 86. Retrieved February 18, 2018
Trikala is a city in northwestern Thessaly and the capital of the Trikala regional unit. The city straddles the Lithaios river, a tributary of Pineios. According to the Greek National Statistical Service, Trikala is populated by 81,355 inhabitants, while in total the Trikala regional unit is populated by 131,085 inhabitants; the region of Trikala has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The first indications of permanent settlement have been uncovered in the cave of Theopetra, date back to approx. 49,000 BC. Neolithic settlements dating back to 6,000 BC have been uncovered in Megalo Kefalovriso and other locations; the city of Trikala is built on the ancient city of Trikka or Trikke, founded around the 3rd millennium BC and took its name from the nymph Trikke, daughter of Penaeus, or according to others, daughter of the river god Asopus. The ancient city was built at a defensive location in between the river Lithaios; the city became an important center in antiquity and it was considered to be the birthplace and main residence of the healing god Asclepius.
The city exhibited one of the most important and ancient of Asclepius' healing temples, called asclepieia. The city is mentioned in Homer's Iliad as having participated in the Trojan War with thirty ships under Asclepius' sons Machaon and Podalirius. In the Mycenean period, the city was the capital of a kingdom, it constituted the main center of the Thessalian region of Estaiotis, which occupied the territory of the modern Trikala Prefecture. In historical times, the city of Trikke and the surrounding area experienced prosperity, it fell to the Achaemenid Persians in 480 BC, while ten years it joined the Thessalian monetary union. In 352 BC it was united with the Macedonia of Philip II; the city became a location of hard battles between Rome. While Philip V of Macedon and his son Perseus tried to keep the city, after 168 BC it fell to the Roman Republic. While the area was considered to be under the rule of the Byzantine Empire, it was invaded by a succession of raiders and nomadic tribes; some of these tribes that raided the area include: Goths, Slavs, Normans, Catalans.
The current name of Trikala first appears in the 11th-century Strategikon of Kekaumenos, where "Trikalitan Vlachs" are mentioned, in the early 12th-century Alexiad of Anna Komnene. In the century, the Arab traveller and geographer al-Idrisi recorded the town as "an important agrarian center with abundant vineyards and gardens". After the dissolution of the Byzantine state by the Fourth Crusade in 1204, Trikala does not appear to have fallen into Frankish hands, but became part of the Despotate of Epirus. Epirote rule lasted until 1259, when the town was taken without resistance by the Empire of Nicaea following the Battle of Pelagonia. In the early 14th century the town was the capital of a semi-independent domain under the sebastokrator Stephen Gabrielopoulos, which extended across much of western Thessaly and Macedonia. After his death in 1332/3 the city, along with most of Gabrielopoulos' lands, was seized by the Epirote ruler John II Orsini, but he was in turn expelled and the area incorporated into the Byzantine Empire by Andronikos III Palaiologos.
In 1348, Thessaly was conquered by Stephen Dushan and incorporated into the newly established Serbian Empire. The Serbian general Preljub was made the region's governor, established himself at Trikala. In 1359, Dushan's half-brother Symeon Uroš established his court at Trikala, in 1366/7 he founded the Meteora monasteries nearby. Symeon was succeeded by his son John Uroš, he in turn by the local magnates Alexios Angelos Philanthropenos and Manuel Angelos Philanthropenos, who ruled until the Ottoman conquest of Thessaly in 1393/4. Under Ottoman rule, the city was called Tırhala in Turkish, its fortunes in the early period of Ottoman rule are unclear: it is reported as being part of a large sanjak under Ahmed, the son of Evrenos Bey, but in the early 15th century it formed part of the domain of Turahan Bey, who brought in Muslim settlers and granted privileges to the local Greek population. Turahan and his son and successor, Ömer Bey, erected many buildings in the city, helping it, in the words of the historian Alexandra Yerolimpos, to " the appearance of a typical Ottoman town, with mosques, medreses, a hammam, imaret and karwansaray extending beyond the citadel and the Varoussi quarter which remained Christian".
As the administrative center of the local province, the city attracted Muslim immigrants and had large Muslim and Jewish communities: in the 1454/5 census, the city had 2,453 inhabitants. The city became an important intellectual center during these years with the Trikke School, where famous intellectuals of the time, such as Dionysius the Philosopher, taught; the 17th-century Ottoman traveller Evliya Çelebi reports that the city had 2,300 houses divided into sixteen Muslim and eight Christian quarters. The city was burned down in a