Stolnik was a court office in Poland and Russia, responsible for serving the royal table an honorary court title and a district office. In the Crown of Poland under the first Piast dukes and kings, this was a court office. From the 14th century, it was an honorary court title in the Polish Kingdom and in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, since the 16th century. Stolnik wielki koronny — Grand Pantler of the Crown Stolnik wielki litewski — Grand Pantler of Lithuania Stolnik koronny — Pantler of the Crown Stolnik litewski — Pantler of Lithuania Stolnik nadworny koronny — Court Pantler of the CrownAccording to the 1768 district office hierarchy, the stolnik's position in the Crown of Poland was superior to that of podczaszy and inferior to that of district judge. Stolniks were known as palace servants of the Russian rulers since the 13th century. In the 16th and 17th centuries they were young nobles who brought dishes to the tsar's table, looked after his bedroom, accompanied him in travels; the highest category comprised closer stolniks.
Stolniks could serve in the foreign office or in the army. They were ranked fifth in the hierarchy of Russian bureaucracy, after boyars, duma nobles, duma dyaks. Stolniks were attached to episcopal administrations as were other similar offices found in the grand princely or tsarist administration. For example, stolniks are found in documents from the archiepiscopal records in Veliky Novgorod. Offices in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Stavilac
Poltava is a narrative poem written by Aleksandr Pushkin in 1828-9 about the involvement of the Ukrainian Cossack hetman Ivan Mazepa in the 1709 Battle of Poltava between Sweden and Russia. The poem intertwines a love plot between Mazepa and Maria with an account of Mazepa's betrayal of Tsar Peter I and Peter's victory in battle. Although considered one of Pushkin's lesser works and critiqued as unabashedly imperialistic, a number of critics have praised the poem for its depth of characterization and its ability to synthesize disparate genres; the poem inspired Tchaikovsky's 1884 opera Mazeppa. The poem opens with an epigraph from Byron's 1819 Mazeppa, which depicts the Hetman as a Romantic hero, exiled from Poland for conducting a love affair with a married noblewoman. Pushkin follows this epigraph with a passionate dedication to an anonymous loved one; the first edition carried a foreword in which Puskhin objects to the heroic presentation of Ivan Mazepa in works by other writers and his intention to correct them by depicting him as he was.
The poem itself is divided into three parts - or "songs" - of equal length. Part I opens by setting the scene in the estate of the nobleman Vasily Kochubei, describing the beauty of his daughter Maria. Maria has fallen in love with the Hetman Mazepa, her godfather and much older than she is: therefore they keep their love secret. However, they are discovered, are forced to elope, which brings shame on the family and leaves their parents scared; the narrative switches to a description of the political trouble in Ukraine: there is a significant support for a break with Russia. Kochubei vows to take revenge upon Mazepa for breaking the bond of trust between them and eloping with Maria, he sends a messenger to denounce the Hetman to the Tsar. Most of Part II is written as a dramatic dialogue in the tradition of closet drama. Mazepa is focused on his plans to rebel against the Tsar, Maria is worried that he no longer loves her, he asks her to promise that she would always choose him over her father, but declines to tell her of his betrayal of the Tsar.
Meanwhile, Kochubei has been captured by the rebels and he is tortured and interrogated by Orlik. The rebels demand to know where he has hidden his money but he declines to reply. Maria's mother comes to help her save her father. Mazepa sets out to look for her. Part III switches back to a single third-person narrator. Mazepa pretends that his physical health is failing, so that to lull tsar's vigilance, while King Charles XII of Sweden is preparing for battle against Peter I. Peter I and his cavalry defeat the Swedish army and the Ukrainian rebels. Mazepa flees the battlefield as fast as he can, he sees Maria again. This time it's clear. In a memorable passage, Maria no longer recognizes him, because she sees him for what he is: a ridiculous and horrible old man; the poem closes with a reflection by the narrator after one hundred years, claiming that while Mazepa is now forgotten, Peter I, the hero of the battle, has created an enormous monument for himself. The narrator tells us. Ivan Mazepa, Vasily Kochubei, Kochubei's daughter Maria are historical figures.
According to historians, it is true that Mazepa had a romantic interest in Maria and she went to live in his home, but whether they were involved in a relationship is unclear. In reality and Maria did not elope: Kochubei removed her from Mazepa's home and sent her to a convent, it is true that Kochubei denounced Mazepa to Peter in 1706 for conspiring against him with Charles XII of Sweden, but it is unclear if Kochubei had evidence of this alleged conspiracy. However, in 1708 Charles and Mazepa did sign a secret treaty, they did fight against Peter I in the battle of Poltava; as Pushkin's Foreword makes clear, he had read a number of sympathetic treatments of Ivan Mazepa and was seeking to respond to them. He was responding both to Byron's Mazeppa and to a poem Voinarovskii by the Russian Decembrist poet Konstantin Ryleev which praises Mazepa; this poem has received less attention than Pushkin's other narrative poems, its reception has been mixed. A. D. P. Briggs sees Pushkin's fusion genres and subject matter as unsuccessful, calls it overly-long - at nearly 1500 lines it is one of the longest of Pushkin's narrative poems - and protests the lack of variety in rhyme.
Babinski makes the charge that the disparate elements in the poem are not well-integrated, suggesting the poem is "not a continuous narrative… a narrative poem at all, more like a three-act play with an all-purpose narrator to keep the material together."Several critics have made the charge that Poltava is an apology for Russian Imperialism. J. P. Pauls accuses Pushkin of "propagating the Russian imperialistic cause" and "distorting" historical truth; this view is echoed by Svetlana Evdokimova, who contrasts what she sees as unabashed patriotism of Poltava with the richer, more ambiguous portrayal of Peter I and Empire in The Bronze Horseman. Pushkin's biographer Henri Troyat suggested that Pushkin deliberately wrote a pro-Imperial poem in order to assuage Tsar Nicholas I, suspicious of his political loyalties after his return from exile. Soviet critics tended to be more sympathetic towards the poem. V. M. Zhirmunskii sees the poem as the moment of Pushkin's decisive break with Byron, arguing that
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was a Russian poet and novelist of the Romantic era, considered by many to be the greatest Russian poet and the founder of modern Russian literature. Pushkin was born into Russian nobility in Moscow, his father, Sergey Lvovich Pushkin, belonged to Pushkin noble families. A maternal great-grandfather was African-born general Abram Petrovich Gannibal, he published his first poem at the age of 15, was recognized by the literary establishment by the time of his graduation from the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. Upon graduation from the Lycee, Pushkin recited his controversial poem "Ode to Liberty", one of several that led to his being exiled by Tsar Alexander the First. While under the strict surveillance of the Tsar's political police and unable to publish, Pushkin wrote his most famous play, the drama Boris Godunov, his novel in verse, Eugene Onegin, was serialized between 1825 and 1832. Pushkin was fatally wounded in a duel with his brother-in-law, Georges-Charles de Heeckeren d'Anthès known as Dantes-Gekkern, a French officer serving with the Chevalier Guard Regiment, who attempted to seduce the poet's wife, Natalia Pushkina.
Pushkin's father, Sergei Lvovich Pushkin, was descended from a distinguished family of the Russian nobility that traced its ancestry back to the 12th century. Pushkin's mother, Nadezhda Ossipovna Gannibal, was descended through her paternal grandmother from German and Scandinavian nobility, she was his wife, Maria Alekseyevna Pushkina. Ossip Abramovich Gannibal's father, Pushkin's great-grandfather, was Abram Petrovich Gannibal, an African page kidnapped to Constantinople as a gift to the Ottoman Sultan and transferred to Russia as a gift for Peter the Great. Abram wrote in a letter to Empress Elizabeth, Peter the Great's daughter, that Gannibal was from the town of "Lagon". On the basis of a mythical biography by Gannibal's son-in-law Rotkirkh, some historians concluded from this that Gannibal was born in a part of what was the Abyssinian Empire, located today in Eritrea. Vladimir Nabokov, when researching Eugene Onegin, cast serious doubt on this origin theory. Research by the scholars Dieudonné Gnammankou and Hugh Barnes conclusively established that Gannibal was instead born in Central Africa, in an area bordering Lake Chad in modern-day Cameroon.
After education in France as a military engineer, Gannibal became governor of Reval and Général en Chef in charge of the building of sea forts and canals in Russia. Born in Moscow, Pushkin was entrusted to nursemaids and French tutors, spoke French until the age of ten, he became acquainted with the Russian language through communication with household serfs and his nanny, Arina Rodionovna, whom he loved dearly and was more attached to than to his own mother. He published his first poem at 15; when he finished school, as part of the first graduating class of the prestigious Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo, near Saint Petersburg, his talent was widely recognized within the Russian literary scene. After school, Pushkin plunged into the vibrant and raucous intellectual youth culture of the capital, Saint Petersburg. In 1820, he published his first long poem and Ludmila, with much controversy about its subject and style. While at the Lyceum, Pushkin was influenced by the Kantian liberal individualist teachings of Alexander Petrovich Kunitsyn, whom Pushkin would commemorate in his poem 19 October.
Pushkin immersed himself in the thought of the French Enlightenment, to which he would remain permanently indebted throughout his life Diderot and Voltaire, whom he described as "the first to follow the new road, to bring the lamp of philosophy into the dark archives of history."Pushkin became committed to social reform and emerged as a spokesman for literary radicals. That angered the government and led to his transfer from the capital in May 1820, he went to the Caucasus and to Crimea and to Kamianka and Chișinău in Moldavia, where he became a Freemason. He joined the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization whose purpose was to overthrow Ottoman rule in Greece and establish an independent Greek state, he was inspired by the Greek Revolution and when the war against the Ottoman Turks broke out, he kept a diary recording the events of the national uprising. He stayed in Chișinău until 1823 and wrote two Romantic poems, which brought him acclaim: The Captive of the Caucasus and The Fountain of Bakhchisaray.
In 1823, Pushkin moved to Odessa, where he again clashed with the government, which sent him into exile on his mother's rural estate of Mikhailovskoye from 1824 to 1826. In Mikhaylovskoye, Pushkin wrote nostalgic love poems which he dedicated to Elizaveta Vorontsova, wife of Malorossia's General-Governor. Pushkin continued work on his verse-novel Eugene Onegin. In Mikhaylovskoye, in 1825, Pushkin wrote the poem To***, it is believed that he dedicated this poem to Anna Kern, but there are other opinions. Poet Mikhail Dudin believed. Pushkinist Kira Victorova believed. Vadim Nikolayev argued that the idea about the Empress was marginal and refused to discuss it, while trying to prove that poem had been dedicated to Tatyana Larina, the heroine of Eugene Onegin. Authorities summoned Pushkin to Moscow after his poem "Ode to Liberty" was found among the belongings o
Ivan Stepanovych Mazepa served as the Hetman of Zaporizhian Host in 1687–1708. It is claimed that he was awarded a title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1707 for his efforts for the Holy League. Mazepa was famous as a patron of the arts, played an important role in the Battle of Poltava, where after learning that Tsar Peter I intended to relieve him as acting Hetman of Zaporizhian Host and to replace him with Alexander Menshikov, he deserted his army and sided with King Charles XII of Sweden; the political consequences and interpretation of this desertion have resonated in the national histories both of Russia and of Ukraine. The Russian Orthodox Church laid an anathema on Mazepa's name in 1708 and refuses to revoke it to this day. Anti-Russian elements in Ukraine from the 18th century onwards were derogatorily referred to as Mazepintsy; the alienation of Mazepa from Ukrainian historiography continued during the Soviet period, but post-1991 in independent Ukraine there have been strong moves to rehabilitate Mazepa's image, although he remains a controversial figure.
Mazepa was born on March 30, 1639, in Mazepyntsi, near Bila Tserkva part of the Kiev Voivodeship in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, into a noble Ruthenian-Lithuanian family. His mother was Maryna Mokievska, his father was Stefan Adam Mazepa. Maryna Mokievska came from the family of a Cossack officer, she gave birth to two children -- Oleksandra. Stefan Mazepa served as an Otaman of Bila Tserkva, a Cossack representative of the King of the Polish-Lithuanian Rzecz Pospolita, a Czernihów podczaszy. Ivan Mazepa was educated first in the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy at a Jesuit college in Warsaw; as a page Mazepa was sent to study "gunnery" in Deventer in 1656–1659, during which time he traveled across Western Europe. From 1659 he served at the court of the Polish king, John II Casimir on numerous diplomatic missions to Ukraine, his service at the Polish royal court earned him a reputation as an alleged catholicized "Lyakh" – the Russian Imperial government would use this slur to discredit Mazepa. During this time there arose the legend of his affair with Madam Falbowska that inspired number of European Romantics, such Franz Liszt, Victor Hugo, many others.
In 1663 Mazepa returned home. After the death of his father he inherited the title of the Czernihów cupbearer. In 1669–1673 Mazepa served under Petro Doroshenko as a squadron commander in the Hetman Guard during Doroshenko's 1672 campaign in Halychyna, as a chancellor on diplomatic missions to Poland and Ottoman Empire. In 1674–1681 Mazepa served as a "courtier" of Doroshenko's rival Hetman Ivan Samoylovych after was taken hostage on the way to Crimea by the Kosh Otaman Ivan Sirko in 1674. In 1677–1678 Mazepa participated in the Chyhyryn campaigns during which Yuri Khmelnytsky, with the support from the Ottoman Empire, tried to regain power in Ukraine; the young educated Mazepa rose through the Cossack ranks, in 1682–1686 he served as an Aide-du-Camp General. In 1687 Ivan Mazepa accused Samoylovych of conspiring to secede from Russia, secured his ouster, was elected the Hetman of Left-bank Ukraine in Kolomak, with the support of Vasily Galitzine. At the same time Ivan Mazepa signed the Kolomak Articles, which were based on the Hlukhiv Articles of Demian Mnohohrishny.
Mazepa accumulated great wealth, becoming one of Europe's largest land owners. A multitude of churches were built all over Ukraine during his reign in the Ukrainian Baroque style, he founded schools and printing houses, expanded the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, the primary educational institution of Ukraine at the time, to accommodate 2,000 students. In 1702, the Cossacks of Right-bank Ukraine, under the leadership of hetman Semen Paliy, began an uprising against Poland, which after early successes was defeated. Mazepa convinced Russian Tsar Peter I to allow him to intervene, which he did, taking over major portions of Right-bank Ukraine, while Poland was weakened by an invasion of Swedish king Charles XII. In the beginning of the 18th century, as the Russian Empire lost significant territory in the Great Northern War, Peter I decided to reform the Russian army and to centralize control over his realm. In Mazepa's opinion, the strengthening of Russia's central power could put at risk the broad autonomy granted to the Cossack Hetmanate under the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654.
Attempts to assert control over the Zaporozhian Cossacks included demands of having them fight in any of the tsar's wars, instead of only defending their own land against regional enemies as was agreed to in previous treaties. Now Cossack forces were made to fight in distant wars in Livonia and Lithuania, leaving their own homes unprotected from the Tatars and Poles. Ill-equipped and not properly trained to fight on par with the tactics of modern European armies, Cossacks suffered heavy losses and low morale, as their commanders were Russians and Germans who did not value their lives or their specific military abilities; the Hetman himself started to feel his post threatened in the face of increasing calls to replace him with one of the abundant generals of the Russian army. The last straw in the souring relations with Tsar Peter was his refusal to commit any significant force to defend Ukraine against
Azov campaigns (1695–96)
The Azov campaigns of 1695–96, were two Russian military campaigns during the Russo-Turkish War of 1686–1700, led by Peter the Great and aimed at capturing the Turkish fortress of Azov, blocking Russia's access to the Azov Sea and the Black Sea. Since the Crimean campaigns of 1687 and 1689 had failed because of the difficulty of moving a large army across the steppe, Peter decided to try a river approach; the first Azov campaign began in the spring of 1695. Peter the Great ordered his army to advance towards Azov; the army comprised crack regiments and the Don Cossacks and was divided into three units under the command of Franz Lefort, Patrick Gordon and Avtonom Golovin. Supplies were shipped down the Don from Voronezh. In 1693 the Ottoman garrison of the fortress was 3,656. Between June 27-July 5 the Russians blocked Azov from land but could not control the river and prevent resupply. After two unsuccessful attacks on August 5 and September 25, the siege was lifted on October 1. Another Russian army under the command of Boris Sheremetev set out for the lower reaches of the Dnieper to take the Ottoman forts there.
The main fort at Gazi-Kerman was taken when its powder magazine blew up, as well as Islam-Kerman and Tavan, but the Russians were not able to hold the area and withdrew most of their forces. By the Treaty of Constantinople the remaining Russians were withdrawn and the lower Dnieper was declared a demilitarized zone. At the end of 1695 the Russians began preparing for the second Azov campaign. By the spring of 1696 they had built a fleet of ships to block Turkish reinforcements for the garrison; the cavalry under the command of Sheremetev was once again sent to the lower reaches of the Dnieper. From April 23–26 the main forces under the command of Aleksei Shein started to advance towards Azov by land and water. Peter I and his galley fleet left for Azov on May 3. On May 27 the Russian fleet under the command of Lefort blocked Azov. On June 14 the Turkish fleet appeared at the mouth of the Don. However, it left after having lost two ships in combat. After massive bombardment from land and sea and seizure of the external rampart of the fortress by the Ukrainian and Don Cossacks on July 17, the Azov garrison surrendered on July 19.
The Azov campaigns demonstrated the significance of having a fleet and marked the beginning of Russia's becoming a maritime power. Russia's success at Azov strengthened its positions during the Karlowitz Congress of 1698–1699 and favored the signing of the Treaty of Constantinople in 1700; as Azov's harbor was not convenient for the military fleet, the Tsar selected another more appropriate site on July 27, 1696, on the cape Tagan-Rog. On September 12, 1698, Taganrog was founded there, which became the first military base of the Russian Navy. Although the campaign was a success, it was evident to Peter I of Russia that he achieved only partial results, since his fleet was bottled up in the Sea of Azov due to Crimean and Ottoman control of the Strait of Kerch. A regular navy and specialists who could build and navigate military ships were necessary for resisting the Ottoman attacks. On October 20, 1696, the Boyar Duma decreed the creation of the regular Imperial Russian Navy; the first shipbuilding program consisted of 52 vessels.
In 1697, a Russian ambassador present at the Safavid court raised an issue by handing over a note which stipulated that "Lezgi and other Caucasian tribesmen, ostensibly Persian subjects", had provided assistance to the Ottomans during the Azov campaigns. The report included the request to declare war on the Ottomans, as well as to repay some 300,000 tomans to the Russians, which the report asserted were owed to the Tsar "since the days of shah Safi". Brian L. Davies: Warfare and Society on the Black Sea Steppe 1500-1700, Oxon 2007. Google-Books-Link Sicker, Martin; the Islamic World in Decline: From the Treaty of Karlowitz to the Disintegration of the Ottoman Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0275968915
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII, sometimes Carl or Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles was the only surviving son of Ulrika Eleonora the Elder, he assumed power, at the age of fifteen. In 1700, a triple alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony–Poland–Lithuania and Russia launched a threefold attack on the Swedish protectorate of Holstein-Gottorp and provinces of Livonia and Ingria, aiming to draw advantage as the Swedish Empire was unaligned and ruled by a young and inexperienced king, thus initiating the Great Northern War. Leading the Swedish army against the alliance Charles won multiple victories despite being significantly outnumbered. A major victory over a Russian army some three times the size in 1700 at the Battle of Narva compelled Peter the Great to sue for peace which Charles rejected. By 1706 Charles, now 24 years old, had forced all of his foes into submission including, in that year, a decisively devastating victory by Swedish forces under general Carl Gustav Rehnskiöld over a combined army of Saxony and Russia at the Battle of Fraustadt.
Russia was now the sole remaining hostile power. Charles' subsequent march on Moscow met with initial success as victory followed victory, the most significant of, the Battle of Holowczyn where the smaller Swedish army routed a Russian army twice the size; the campaign ended with disaster when the Swedish army suffered heavy losses to a Russian force more than twice its size at Poltava. Charles had been incapacitated by a wound prior to the battle; the defeat was followed by the Surrender at Perevolochna. Charles spent the following years in exile in the Ottoman Empire before returning to lead an assault on Norway, trying to evict the Danish king from the war once more in order to aim all his forces at the Russians. Two campaigns met with frustration and ultimate failure, concluding with his death at the Siege of Fredriksten in 1718. At the time, most of the Swedish Empire was under foreign military occupation, though Sweden itself was still free; this situation was formalized, albeit moderated in the subsequent Treaty of Nystad.
The result was the end of the Swedish Empire, of its organized absolute monarchy and war machine, commencing a parliamentary government unique for continental Europe, which would last for half a century until royal autocracy was restored by Gustav III. Charles was an exceptionally skilled military leader and tactician as well as an able politician, credited with introducing important tax and legal reforms; as for his famous reluctance towards peace efforts, he is quoted by Voltaire as saying upon the outbreak of the war. With the war consuming more than half his life and nearly all his reign, he never married and fathered no children, he was succeeded by his sister Ulrika Eleonora, who in turn was coerced to hand over all substantial powers to the Riksdag of the Estates and opted to surrender the throne to her husband, who became King Frederick I of Sweden. Charles, like all kings, was styled by a royal title, which combined all his titles into one single phrase; this was: We Charles, by the Grace of God King of Sweden, the Goths and the Vends, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Scania, Estonia and Karelia, Lord of Ingria, Duke of Bremen and Pomerania, Prince of Rügen and Lord of Wismar, Count Palatine by the Rhine, Duke in Bavaria, Count of Zweibrücken–Kleeburg, as well as Duke of Jülich and Berg, Count of Veldenz and Ravensberg and Lord of Ravenstein.
The fact that Charles was crowned as Charles XII does not mean that he was the 12th king of Sweden by that name. Swedish kings Erik XIV and Charles IX gave themselves numerals after studying a mythological history of Sweden, he was the 6th King Charles. The non-mathematical numbering tradition continues with the current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, being counted as the equivalent of Charles XVI. Around 1700, the monarchs of Denmark–Norway and Russia united in an alliance against Sweden through the efforts of Johann Reinhold Patkul, a Livonian nobleman who turned traitor when the "great reduction" of Charles XI in 1680 stripped much of the nobility of lands and properties. In late 1699 Charles sent a minor detachment to reinforce his brother-in-law Duke Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp, attacked by Danish forces the following year. A Saxon army invaded Swedish Livonia and in February 1700 invested Riga, the most populous city of the Swedish Empire. Russia declared war, but stopped short of an attack on Swedish Ingria until September 1700.
Charles's first campaign was against Denmark–Norway, ruled by his cousin Frederick IV of Denmark, For this campaign Charles secured the support of England and the Netherlands, both maritime powers concerned with Denmark's threats to close the Sound. Leading a force of 8,000 and 43 ships in an invasion of Zealand, Charles compelled the Danes to submit to the Peace of Travendal in August 1700, which indemnified Holstein. Having forced Denmark–Norway to make peace within months, King Charles turned his attention upon the two other powerful neighbors, King August II and Peter the Great of Russia, who had entered the war against him on the same day that Denmark came to terms. Russia had opened their part of the war by inv
Stanisław I Leszczyński was King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania, Duke of Lorraine and a count of the Holy Roman Empire. Stanisław was born into a powerful magnate family of Greater Poland, he had the opportunity to travel to western Europe in his youth. In 1702 King Charles XII of Sweden marched into the country as part of a continuing series of conflicts between the powers of northern Europe. Charles forced the Polish nobility to depose Poland’s king, Augustus II the Strong, placed Stanisław on the throne; the early 18th century was turmoil for Poland. In 1709 Charles was defeated by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava and fled to exile in the Ottoman Empire, leaving Stanisław without any real and stable support. Augustus II regained the Polish throne, Stanisław left the country to settle in the French province of Alsace. In 1725 Stanisław’s daughter Marie Leszczyńska married Louis XV of France When Augustus died in 1733, Stanisław sought to regain the Polish throne with the help of French support for his candidacy.
After travelling to Warsaw in disguise, he was elected king of Poland by an overwhelming majority of the Diet. However, before his coronation and Austria, fearing Stanisław would unite Poland in the Swedish-French alliance, invaded the country to annul his election. Stanisław was once more deposed, under Russian pressure, a small minority in the Diet elected the Saxon elector Frederick Augustus II to the Polish throne as Augustus III. Stanisław retreated to the city of Danzig to wait for French assistance. Fleeing before the city fell to its Russian besiegers, he journeyed to Königsberg in Prussia, where he directed guerrilla warfare against the new king and his Russian supporters; the Peace of Vienna in 1738 recognised Augustus III as king of Poland but allowed Stanisław to keep his royal titles while granting him the provinces of Lorraine and Bar for life. In Lorraine, Stanisław promoted economic development, his court at Lunéville became famous as a cultural centre, he founded an academy of science at Nancy and a military college.
In 1749 he published a book entitled Free Voice to Make Freedom Safe, an outline of his proposed changes in the Polish constitution. Editions of his letters to his daughter Marie, to the kings of Prussia, to Jacques Hulin, his minister at Versailles, have been published. In Nancy, Place Stanislas was named in his honour. Born in Lwów in 1677, he was the son of Rafał Leszczyński, voivode of Poznań Voivodeship, Anna Katarzyna Jabłonowska, he married Katarzyna Opalińska, by whom he had a daughter, who became Queen of France as wife of Louis XV. In 1697, as Cup-bearer of Poland, he signed the confirmation of the articles of election of August II the Strong. In 1703 he joined the Lithuanian Confederation, which the Sapiehas with the aid of Sweden had formed against August; the following year, Stanisław was selected by Charles XII of Sweden after a successful Swedish invasion of Poland, to supersede Augustus II, hostile towards the Swedes. Leszczyński was a young man of blameless antecedents, respectable talents, came from an ancient family, but without sufficient force of character or political influence to sustain himself on so unstable a throne.
With the assistance of a bribing fund and an army corps, the Swedes succeeded in procuring his election by a scratch assembly of half a dozen castellans and a few score of gentlemen on 12 July 1704. A few months Stanisław was forced by a sudden inroad of Augustus II to seek refuge in the Swedish camp, but on 24 September 1705, he was crowned king with great splendor. Charles himself supplied his nominee with a new crown and scepter in lieu of the ancient Polish regalia, carried off to Saxony by August. During this time the King of Sweden sent Peter Estenberg to King Stanislaw to act as an ambassador and correspondence secretary; the Polish king's first act was to cement an alliance with Charles XII whereby the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth engaged to assist Sweden against the Russian tsar. Stanisław did. Thus, he induced Ivan Mazepa, the Cossack hetman, to desert Peter the Great at the most critical period of the Great Northern War between Russia and Sweden, Stanisław placed a small army corps at the disposal of the Swedes.
But Stanisław depended so on the success of Charles' arms that after the Battle of Poltava Stanisław's authority vanished as a dream at the first touch of reality. During this period Stanisław resided in the town of Rydzyna; the vast majority of Poles hastened to make their peace with August. Henceforth a mere pensioner of Charles XII, Stanisław accompanied Krassow's army corps in its retreat to Swedish Pomerania. On the restoration of Augustus, Stanisław resigned the Polish Crown in exchange for the little principality of Zweibrücken. In 1716, an assassination was attempted by a Saxon officer, but Stanisław was saved by Stanisław Poniatowski, father of the future king. Stanisław Leszczyński resided at Wissembourg in Alsace. In 1725, he had the satisfaction of seeing his daughter Maria become queen consort of Louis XV of France. From 1725 to 1733, Stanisław lived at the Château de Chambord. Stanislaw's son-in-law Louis XV supported his claims to the Polish throne after the death of August II the Strong in 1733, which led to the War of the Polish Succession.
In September 1733, Stanisław himself arrived at Warsaw, hav