Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope

The 1.8 meter Alice P. Lennon Telescope and its Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility, known together as the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, is a Gregorian telescope observing in the optical and infrared situated on Mount Graham in southeast Arizona, United States, it achieved its first light in 1993. VATT is part of the Mount Graham International Observatory and is operated by the Vatican Observatory, one of the oldest astronomical research institutions in the world, in partnership with The University of Arizona; the heart of the telescope is borosilicate primary mirror. The VATT's mirror is unusually'fast' at f/1, which means that its focal distance is equal to its diameter; because it has such a short focal length, a Gregorian design could be employed which uses a concave secondary mirror at a point beyond the primary focus. The unusual optical design and novel mirror fabrication techniques mean that both the primary and secondary mirrors are among the most exact surfaces made for a ground-based telescope.

In addition, the skies above Mount Graham are among the most clear and dark in the continental North America. Seeing of better than one arc-second without adaptive optics can be achieved on a regular basis; the primary mirror was manufactured at The University of Arizona's Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory, which pioneered both the spin-casting and the stressed-lap polishing techniques which are being used for telescope mirrors that include the 6.5 meter aperture MMT and Magellan telescopes, the two 8.4 meter mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope. Given its excellent optical qualities, the telescope has been used for imaging and photometric work, in which it outperforms much larger telescopes located elsewhere. Among the results from this telescope have been the discovery of MACHOs in the Andromeda Galaxy; the government of the Vatican City State supports the Vatican Observatory staff and regular research costs, but the cost to build and maintain the VATT itself has come from private donors: the major donors supporting the construction of the VATT were Fred and Alice P. Lennon and Thomas J. Bannan.

Benefactors to the Vatican Observatory Foundation continue to support the operating costs of the VATT. Large Binocular Telescope Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope Catholic Church and science#Vatican Observatory Index of Vatican City-related articles List of astronomical observatories Mount Graham International Observatory Safford, Arizona Sabino Maffeo: The Vatican Observatory. In the Service of Nine Popes, Vatican Observatory Publications, 2001. Official website Eastern Arizona College's Discovery Park Campus - Guided MGIO tours for the public

2011 AFL Under 18 Championships

The 2011 NAB AFL Under 18 Championships were the 16th edition of the AFL Under 18 Championships. Eight teams competed in the championships: Vic Metro, Vic Country, South Australia and Western Australia in Division 1, New South Wales/Australian Capital Territory, Northern Territory and Tasmania in Division 2. Vic Metro were the Division One champions and Tasmania were the Division Two champions; the Larke Medal was awarded to Western Australia's Stephen Coniglio, the Hunter Harrison Medal was won by Tasmania's John McKenzie. The format used for the 2011 championships differed from the format used in 2009 and 2010; the two-division format used since 1992 was continued, with each team playing five matches: three against the opponents from their own division, two from the other division. The cross-divisional matches were played in the first two rounds, did not count for points or percentage; the 2011 Under 18 All-Australian team was named on 9 July 2011


Nordvargr is the most used name for Swedish musician Henrik Nordvargr Björkk. In the late seventies Björkk became aware of music recorded by bands such as Kiss. After this he began buying music on a regular basis, staying true to the metal scene throughout his early teens, his taste and thoughts changed when he heard the German band Kraftwerk with their electronic sound and cold drum rhythms. When he was 16 he bought a Roland SH-101 synthesiser and began working on music inspired by bands such as DAF and Front 242; this led to Björkk recording with friends producing what would be the band Pouppée Fabrikk. In 1988 Nordvargr became part of the influential black industrial combo Maschinenzimmer 412; the first album, was released in 1989 on the Cold Meat Industry label. This first album was limited to seven hundred copies. Since he has systematically explored the broad field of post-industrial music, releasing solo records covering noise, power electronics, dark ambient, blackened noise and avant garde.

In parallel to his band activities, he has pursued a solo career with a vast amount of record releases. In 2009 Nordvargr collaborated with Tim Bertilsson to produce the new project titled All Hail The Transcending Ghost; the album of the same name was released by Cold Spring. Nordvargr's early work was characterised by The Wire as "cultish Dark Ambient", but became more experimental, he has made industrial music, ambient black metal. Nordvargr's homepage Discography from Nordvargr's page on Virb