Vault (architecture)

In architecture, a vault is a self-supporting arched form of stone or brick, serving to cover a space with a ceiling or roof. The simplest kind of vault is the barrel vault, semicircular in shape; the barrel vault is the length being greater than its diameter. As in building an arch, a temporary support is needed while rings of voussoirs are constructed and the rings placed in position; until the topmost voussoir, the keystone, is positioned, the vault is not self-supporting. Where timber is obtained, this temporary support is provided by centering consisting of a framed truss with a semicircular or segmental head, which supports the voussoirs until the ring of the whole arch is completed. With a barrel vault, the centering can be shifted on to support the next rings; the parts of a vault exert lateral thrust. When vaults are built underground, the ground gives all the resistance required. However, when the vault is built above ground, various replacements are employed to supply the needed resistance.

An example is the thicker walls used in the case of barrel or continuous vaults. Buttresses are used to supply resistance. Amongst the earliest known examples of any form of vaulting is to be found in the neolithic village of Khirokitia on Cyprus. Dating from ca. 6000 BCE, the circular buildings supported beehive shaped corbel domed vaults of unfired mud-bricks and represent the first evidence for settlements with an upper floor. Similar beehive tombs, called tholoi, exist in Northern Iraq, their construction differs from that at Khirokitia in that most appear buried and make provision for a dromos entry. The inclusion of domes, represents a wider sense of the word vault; the distinction between the two is that a vault is an arch, extruded into the third dimension, whereas a dome is an arch revolved around its vertical axis. Pitched-brick vaults are named for their construction, the bricks are installed vertically and are leaning at an angle: This allows their construction to be completed without the use of centering.

Examples have been found in archaeological excavations in Mesopotamia dating to the 2nd and 3rd millennium BC, which were set in gypsum mortar. A barrel vault is the simplest form of a vault and resembles a barrel or tunnel cut lengthwise in half; the effect is that of a structure composed of continuous pointed sections. The earliest known examples of barrel vaults were built by the Sumerians under the ziggurat at Nippur in Babylonia, built of fired bricks cemented with clay mortar; the earliest barrel vaults in ancient Egypt are thought to be those in the granaries built by the 19th dynasty Pharaoh Ramesses II, the ruins of which are behind the Ramesseum, at Thebes. The span was 12 feet and the lower part of the arch was built in horizontal courses, up to about one-third of the height, the rings above were inclined back at a slight angle, so that the bricks of each ring, laid flatwise, adhered till the ring was completed, no centering of any kind being required. A similar system of construction was employed for the vault over the great hall at Ctesiphon, where the material employed was fired bricks or tiles of great dimensions, cemented with mortar.

Assyrian palaces used pitched-brick vaults, made with sun-dried mudbricks, for gates, subterranean graves and drains. During the reign of king Sennacherib they were used to construct aqueducts, such as those at Jerwan. In the provincial city Dūr-Katlimmu they were used to created vaulted platforms; the tradition of their erection, would seem to have been handed down to their successors in Mesopotamia, viz. to the Sassanians, who in their palaces in Sarvestan and Firouzabad built domes of similar form to those shown in the Nimrud sculptures, the chief difference being that, constructed in rubble stone and cemented with mortar, they still exist, though abandoned on the Islamic invasion in the 7th century. In all the instances above quoted in Sumer and Egypt the bricks, whether burnt or sun-dried, were of the description to which the term "tile" would now be given; the earliest Egyptian examples of regular voussoirs in stone belong to the XXVIth Dynasty in the additions made to the temple of Medinet Habu, here it is probable that centering of some kind was provided, as the vaults are built in rings, so that the same centering could be shifted on after the completion of each ring.

The earliest example of shaped voussoirs, of about the same date, is found in the cloaca at Graviscae in Etruria, with a span of about 14 feet, the voussoirs of which are from 5 to 6 feet long. The cloaca maxima in Rome, built by Lucius Tarquinius Priscus to drain the marshy ground between the Palatine and the Capitoline Hills, was according to Commendatore Boni vaulted over in the 1st century B. C. the vault being over 800 feet long, 10 feet in span, with three concentric rings of voussoirs. The enormous Eyvan-e Khosro at Ctesiphon was built over 1,500 years ago during the Persian Sasanian period as a throne room; the arch is abou


Mount Duida frogs, is a genus of craugastorid frogs endemic to the tepuis of southern Venezuela. The scientific name is derived from the Greek dischidos, meaning divided, dactylos, meaning finger or toe, in reference to the divided ungual flap. Placement of Dischidodactylus in the subfamily Ceuthomantinae, family Craugastoridae, is based on morphology because no DNA sequence data are available. Dischidodactylus is related to Ceuthomantis, with which they share a synapomorphy: or completely divided ungual flaps. Both genera have dorsal skin composed of small, pliable warts, lack nuptial pads in adult males, they differ in that Dischidodactylus possess a dentigerous process of the vomer, in that Ceuthomantis lack basal toe webbing. However, the AmphibiaWeb places Dischidodactylus in an different family, implying a distant relationship with Ceuthomantis. Dischidodactylus are smallish frogs -- vent length of 43 mm in females, their head is not as wide as body. Tympanic membrane is not differentiated and tympanic annulus is visible below skin.

Cranial crests are absent. Vomers have oblique dentigerous processes. Terminal discs are expanded and bifurcate. Dorsum is granular and venter is areolate; the genus contains two species: Dischidodactylus colonnelloi Ayarzagüena, 1985 Dischidodactylus duidensis

Organizational retaliatory behavior

Organizational retaliatory behavior is a form of workplace deviance. ORB is defined in the bottom up sense as an employee's reacting against a perceived injustice from their employer. ORB is a top down issue occurring when an employee speaks out or acts in an unfavorable way against the employer; the International Journal of Conflict Management divides ORB into four different conceptual indicators. All of these are forms of Workplace Deviance. ORB is the result of perceived injustices in the workplace, can be categorised into the three following groups: Interactional justice: An employee's evaluation of the perceived fairness of interpersonal treatment from his or her own superiors, includes an organization's leaders treating employees with respect, dignity and sincerity. Procedural justice: An employee's evaluation of the perceived fairness of rules and processes used by the organization to distribute outcomes to all employees within the organization. Distributive justice: An employee's perception of the fairness of his or her own outcomes such as pay.

Employees who feel they are being treated are more to be loyal to their companies, have higher morale and increased helping behaviors. Employees who feel they are being treated unfairly tend to have lower morale, higher turnover rates and are more to exhibit ORB and another forms of workplace deviance including theft and/or sabotage in attempts to get with their wrongdoer; the main reason for top down ORB is whistleblowing, it differs from that of employees. Whilst employees will act out against the organization, employers will act out against the whistle blower by excluding them from meetings, eliminate their perquisites, assignment to less desirable work or to a heavier work load, more harsh criticism, in certain cases, pressure to drop their lawsuit altogether; these are all forms of punishment to the whistle blower meant to encourage employee silence and to discourage future whistle blowing. Employers will not waste resources retaliating with employees that are young and have no public credibility.

Retaliation occurs against employees with credibility in their field that have stated their claims against the organization publicly. Workplace or employment retaliation is an offense under laws which address employment discrimination such as the California Fair Employment and Housing Act which provides: Employment discrimination based on gender: 12940, it is an unlawful employment practice, unless based upon a bona fide occupational qualification, or, except where based upon applicable security regulations established by the United States or the State of California: For an employer, because of the race, religious creed, national origin, physical disability, mental disability, medical condition, genetic information, marital status, gender, gender identity, gender expression, sexual orientation, or military and veteran status of any person, to refuse to hire or employ the person or to refuse to select the person for a training program leading to employment, or to bar or to discharge the person from employment or from a training program leading to employment, or to discriminate against the person in compensation or in terms, conditions, or privileges of employment.

Workplace retaliation: For any employer, labor organization, employment agency, or person to discharge, expel, or otherwise discriminate against any person because the person has opposed any practices forbidden under this part or because the person has filed a complaint, testified, or assisted in any proceeding under this part. The test of whether workplace retaliation has occurred is whether the action would deter a reasonable person in the situation of the employee from making a complaint; the "situation" of the employee includes the granular circumstances of the employee and their particular job, such as child care and scheduling issues. Witnesses and persons who cooperate with investigations of discrimination may be protected. Section 704 of Title VII, 42 U. S. C. § 2000e-3: Discrimination for making charges, assisting, or participating in enforcement proceedings It shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer to discriminate against any of his employees or applicants for employment, for an employment agency, or joint labor-management committee controlling apprenticeship or other training or retraining, including on-the-job training programs, to discriminate against any individual, or for a labor organization to discriminate against any member thereof or applicant for membership, because he has opposed any practice made an unlawful employment practice by this subchapter, or because he has made a charge, assisted, or participated in any manner in an investigation, proceeding, or hearing under this subchapter.

Statistics are showing an increase in retaliatory-based lawsuits, nearly doubling since 1992 according to Zink and Gutman. This is believed to be because employers are beginning to understand the full financial costs of employee retaliatory behaviors. Another theory as to why lawsuits are increasing is employees are reporting cases of top down retaliation more due to an increased understanding of employee rights. Retaliation claims are standardized by the adverse employment clause while states “any action that materially changes the terms and privileges or employment”. Validity of retaliation lawsuits are based on the ‘reasonable person deterrence’ standard from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission compliance manual that states “actions employer behavior is any actions reasonably to deter the charging party from engaging in