The Auckland Council is the local government council for the Auckland Region in New Zealand. The governing body consists of 20 councillors, elected from 13 wards. There are 149 members of 21 local boards who make decisions on matters local to their communities, it is the largest council in Oceania, with a $3 billion annual budget, $29 billion of ratepayer equity, 9,870 full-time staff as of 30 June 2016. The council began operating on 1 November 2010, combining the functions of the previous regional council and the region's seven city and district councils into one "super council" or "super city"; the Council was established by a number of Acts of Parliament, an Auckland Transition Agency created by the central government. Both the means by which the Council was established and its structure came under repeated criticism from a broad spectrum during the establishment period; the initial Council elections in October 2010 returned a centre-left council with Len Brown as mayor. Brown was re-elected in October 2013, again with a supportive council.
The 2016 mayoral election was won by Labour MP Phil Goff, who had a landslide victory with his nearest rivals, Victoria Crone in second place, followed by Chlöe Swarbrick. The Auckland Council took over the functions of the Auckland Regional Council and the region's seven city and district councils: Auckland City Council, Manukau City Council, Waitakere City Council, North Shore City Council, Papakura District Council, Rodney District Council and most of Franklin District Council; the Auckland Regional Council was formed in 1989. One of the mainstays of its work was expanding the parks network, it brought into the Auckland Council 26 regional parks with more than 40,000 hectares, including many restored natural habitats and sanctuaries developed in co-operation with the Department of Conservation and volunteers. A variety of public transport-focused projects like the Northern Busway as well as significant rail and public transport investments were realised through the Auckland Regional Transport Authority, much of it supported by retaining Ports of Auckland in public hands to fund the improvements with the dividends.
Until 2010, the Auckland Region had seven "City/District" authorities, plus one "Regional" authority. In the late 2000s, New Zealand's central government and parts of Auckland's society felt that this large number of Councils, the lack of strong regional government were hindering Auckland's progress, that a form of stronger regional government, or an amalgamation under one local council, would be beneficial. Others pointed to the fact that a previous integration of the many much smaller Borough Councils did not bring the promised advantages either, reduced local participation in politics, with editorialists pointing out that the proponents of the'super city' have not made any promises of savings in light of past rises in rates and utilities bills. In 2007, the government set up a Royal Commission on Auckland Governance to report on what restructuring should be done; the report was released on 27 March 2009 and the government subsequently announced that a "super city" would be set up to include the full metropolitan area under an Auckland Council with a single mayor and 20–30 local boards, by the time of the local body elections in 2010, though it changed some key recommendations of the Royal Commission.
Some recommendations of the Royal Commission which have not been adopted or implemented: 6A The Auckland Council should include a vision for the region in its spatial plan. 6B The Mayor of Auckland's annual "State of the Region" address should describe progress towards the attainment of the vision. 19C: "Leadership support and development programmes for elected councillors should be strengthened." 21D: Auckland Council CCOs and their statements of intent should be subject to performance review by the proposed Auckland Services Performance Auditor. 21A 22A Two Māori members should be elected to the Auckland Council by voters who are on the parliamentary Māori Electoral Roll. 22B There should be a Mana Whenua Forum, the members of which will be appointed by mana whenua from the district of the Auckland Council. 22D The Auckland Council should ensure that each local council has adequate structures in place to enable proper engagement with Māori and consideration of their views in the local councils’ decision-making processes.
Where appropriate, current structures and/or memoranda of understanding should be transferred to local councils. 24F Auckland Council should consider creating an Urban Development Agency, to operate at the direction of the Auckland Council, with compulsory acquisition powers. The Auckland Council should determine the extent to which responsibilities for the delivery of stormwater services are shared between local councils and Watercare Services Limited. 26I Watercare Services Limited should be required by legislation to promote demand management. 26M Watercare Services Limited should be required to prepare a stormwater action plan. 27D The Auckland Council should prepare an e-government strategy as an intrinsic part of its proposed unified service delivery and information systems plan. 28A The Auckland Council should work with consumers, the industry, central government agencies to develop a climate change and energy strategy for the region, including monitoring and reviewing electricity security of supply performance, industry planning and regulation impacting the Auckland region.
30A The Auckland Council should develop a Regional Waste Management Strategy, including strategies for management of organic waste and integration o
Auckland is a city in the North Island of New Zealand. Auckland is the largest urban area in the country, with an urban population of around 1,628,900, it is located in the Auckland Region—the area governed by Auckland Council—which includes outlying rural areas and the islands of the Hauraki Gulf, resulting in a total population of 1,695,900. A diverse and multicultural city, Auckland is home to the largest Polynesian population in the world; the Māori-language name for Auckland is Tāmaki or Tāmaki-makau-rau, meaning "Tāmaki with a hundred lovers", in reference to the desirability of its fertile land at the hub of waterways in all directions. The Auckland urban area ranges to Waiwera in the north, Kumeu in the north-west, Runciman in the south. Auckland lies between the Hauraki Gulf of the Pacific Ocean to the east, the low Hunua Ranges to the south-east, the Manukau Harbour to the south-west, the Waitakere Ranges and smaller ranges to the west and north-west; the surrounding hills are covered in rainforest and the landscape is dotted with dozens of dormant volcanic cones.
The central part of the urban area occupies a narrow isthmus between the Manukau Harbour on the Tasman Sea and the Waitematā Harbour on the Pacific Ocean. Auckland is one of the few cities in the world to have a harbour on each of two separate major bodies of water; the isthmus on which Auckland resides was first settled around 1350 and was valued for its rich and fertile land. The Māori population in the area is estimated to have peaked at 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. After a British colony was established in 1840, William Hobson Lieutenant-Governor of New Zealand, chose the area as his new capital, he named the area for Earl of Auckland, British First Lord of the Admiralty. It was replaced as the capital in 1865 by Wellington, but immigration to Auckland stayed strong, it has remained the country's most populous city. Today, Auckland's central business district is the major financial centre of New Zealand. Auckland is classified as a Beta + World City because of its importance in commerce, the arts, education.
The University of Auckland, established in 1883, is the largest university in New Zealand. Landmarks such as the Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki, the Harbour Bridge, the Sky Tower, many museums, parks and theatres are among the city's significant tourist attractions. Auckland Airport handles around one million international passengers a month. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, Auckland is ranked third on the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey, making it one of the most liveable cities; the isthmus was settled by Māori circa 1350, was valued for its rich and fertile land. Many pā were created on the volcanic peaks; the Māori population in the area is estimated to have been about 20,000 before the arrival of Europeans. The introduction of firearms at the end of the eighteenth century, which began in Northland, upset the balance of power and led to devastating intertribal warfare beginning in 1807, causing iwi who lacked the new weapons to seek refuge in areas less exposed to coastal raids.
As a result, the region had low numbers of Māori when European settlement of New Zealand began. On 27 January 1832, Joseph Brooks Weller, eldest of the Weller brothers of Otago and Sydney, bought land including the site of the modern city of Auckland, the North Shore, part of Rodney District for "one large cask of powder" from "Cohi Rangatira". After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi in February 1840, the new Governor of New Zealand, William Hobson, chose the area as his new capital and named it for George Eden, Earl of Auckland Viceroy of India; the land that Auckland was established on was given to the Governor by a local iwi, Ngāti Whātua, as a sign of goodwill and in the hope that the building of a city would attract commercial and political opportunities for iwi. Auckland was declared New Zealand's capital in 1841, the transfer of the administration from Russell in the Bay of Islands was completed in 1842; however in 1840 Port Nicholson was seen as a better choice for an administrative capital because of its proximity to the South Island, Wellington became the capital in 1865.
After losing its status as capital, Auckland remained the principal city of the Auckland Province until the provincial system was abolished in 1876. In response to the ongoing rebellion by Hone Heke in the mid-1840s, the government encouraged retired but fit British soldiers and their families to migrate to Auckland to form a defence line around the port settlement as garrison soldiers. By the time the first Fencibles arrived in 1848, the rebels in the north had been defeated. Outlying defensive towns were constructed to the south, stretching in a line from the port village of Onehunga in the west to Howick in the east; each of the four settlements had about 800 settlers. In the early 1860s, Auckland became a base against the Māori King Movement, the 12,000 Imperial soldiers stationed there led to a strong boost to local commerce. This, continued road building towards the south into the Waikato, enabled Pākehā influence to spread from Auckland; the city's population grew rapidly, from 1,500 in 1841 to 3,635 in 1845 to 12,423 by 1864.
The growth occurred to other mercantile-dominated cities around the port and with problems of overcrowding and pollution. Auckland's population of ex-soldiers was far greater than that of other settlements: about 50 percent of the popula
North Shore, New Zealand
The North Shore is part of the urban area of Auckland, New Zealand, located to the north of the Waitematā Harbour. The North Shore was North Shore City, a distinct territorial authority district, governed by the North Shore City Council from 1989 until 2010, when it was incorporated into Auckland Council; the city had an estimated population of 229,000 at 30 June 2010, making it the fourth most populous city in New Zealand prior to the November 2010 reorganisation. The former city was the country's fourth largest city in land, with an area of 129.81 square kilometres and a coastline of 141 kilometres. It was the most densely populated city in the country because, unlike other New Zealand cities, most of the city's area was urban or suburban in character; the North Shore comprises a large suburban area to the north of downtown Auckland. The North Shore has been administered by various councils over the years, in the most recent past the North Shore City Council. On 1 November 2010, North Shore City Council and the six other local councils and Auckland Regional Council merged to create Auckland Council.
Today, the entire area has been divided among four local boards of the amalgamated Auckland Council: Devonport-Takapuna, Upper Harbour and Hibiscus and Bays. The administrative area of North Shore City Council was bounded by Rodney District to the north, Waitematā Harbour to the south and the Rangitoto Channel of the Hauraki Gulf to the east; the seat of the council was in Takapuna. North Shore City was divided into the following wards, which each ward was further divided into two community boards. Albany Community Board: Albany2, Albany Heights, Fairview Heights, Greenhithe2, Lucas Heights, Paremoremo, Rosedale, Schnapper Rock, Unsworth Heights, Windsor Park; the European history of the North Shore was dominated by rural settlement, with people from the "main" Auckland venturing there only during weekends, when the beaches and many coastal settlements were favourite daytripper goals reached by the ferries connecting the North Shore to Auckland. By the 1950s, only about 50,000 people lived on the Shore, its growth rate was still about half that of the areas south of the Waitemata because few jobs were on offer.
This changed with the construction of the Auckland Harbour Bridge in 1959, which opened up the Shore for Auckland expansion – vehicle volumes on the bridge became three times the forecast volume within the first decade – and began turning parts of it into a dormitory town for people working in the Auckland CBD or further south. The growth became significant enough for the North Shore to be considered a city in its own right, though densities remained still below what is typical south of the Harbour. On 1 November 2010 the North Shore boundaries were amalgamated with the rest of the entire Auckland Region, the North Shore City Council was abolished and replaced by a single unitary city authority. All council services and facilities are now under authority of the Auckland Council. Commuting within the North Shore itself can be done easily, but those who commute to Auckland City and need to cross the Auckland Harbour Bridge face severe traffic congestion; the alternative route through western suburbs is prone to nose-to-tail traffic at peak times.
As with the greater Auckland area, there has been much discussion regarding the problem at both national and local government levels, but little concrete action related to the high cost and difficulty of providing additional crossings over the Waitematā Harbour. Several options for new bridges and tunnels have been studied in depth, but at the moment, the official position is to mitigate congestion effects instead of providing new infrastructure; the Northern Busway running alongside the Northern Motorway, together with park and ride or drop-off areas at most of its stations, serves as the spine of a bus-based rapid transit system for North Shore and Hibiscus Coast citizens. The busway was operational between Constellation and Akoranga in February 2008. A number of North Shore suburbs have a regular ferry service to Auckland City, including Devonport, Stanley Bay, Birkenhead. Others are planned for Takapuna and Browns Bay. A plan in the mid-2000s to turn North Shore streets into a venue for a three-day V8 supercar race generated controversy.
The city was run by a 15-member council and mayor, democratically elected every three years using the First Past The Post voting system. The
Cheltenham, New Zealand
Cheltenham is a North-Eastern suburb of Auckland, New Zealand. It gets its name from the English town of Cheltenham, provides a view of Rangitoto Island from its beachfront areas; the suburb is in the North Shore ward, one of the thirteen administrative divisions of Auckland Council. The area includes North Head, Cheltenham Beach, Balmain Reserve. Photographs of Cheltenham held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections
Vauxhall Gardens was a pleasure garden in Kennington on the south bank of the River Thames and accessed by boat from London until the erection of Vauxhall Bridge in the 1810s. The wider area was absorbed into the metropolis as the city expanded in the early to mid-19th century, it was one of the leading venues for public entertainment in London, from the mid-17th century to the mid-19th century. Known as'New Spring Gardens', the site is believed to have opened before the Restoration of 1660, the first known mention being made by Samuel Pepys in 1662; the Gardens consisted of several acres of shrubs with attractive walks. Entrance was free, with food and drink being sold to support the venture; the site became Vauxhall Gardens in admission was charged for its many attractions. The Gardens drew all manner of people and supported enormous crowds, with its paths being noted for romantic assignations. Tightrope walkers, hot-air balloon ascents and fireworks provided entertainment; the rococo "Turkish tent" became one of the Gardens' structures, the interior of the Rotunda became one of Vauxhall's most viewed attractions, the chinoiserie style was a feature of several buildings.
A statue depicting George Frideric Handel, erected in the Gardens found its way to Westminster Abbey. In 1817 the Battle of Waterloo was re-enacted, with 1,000 soldiers participating, it closed in 1840 after its owners suffered bankruptcy, but re-opened in 1841. It changed hands in 1842, was permanently closed in 1859; the land was redeveloped in the following decades, but slum clearance in the late 20th century saw part of the original site opened up as a public park. This was called Spring Gardens and renamed in 2012 as Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens, it is managed as a public park by the London Borough of Lambeth. Vauxhall Gardens is depicted in a tile motif at Vauxhall tube station, done in about 1971 by George Smith. Eminent 18th-century scholar John Barrell, writing in the Times Literary Supplement, brings out Vauxhall's significance. "Vauxhall pleasure gardens, on the south bank of the Thames, entertained Londoners and visitors to London for 200 years. From 1729, under the management of Jonathan Tyers, property developer, patron of the arts, the gardens grew into an extraordinary business, a cradle of modern painting and architecture, and... music....
A pioneer of mass entertainment, Tyers had to become a pioneer of mass catering, of outdoor lighting, of advertising, of all the logistics involved in running one of the most complex and profitable business ventures of the eighteenth century in Britain." References to Vauxhall are, for 150 years, as ubiquitous as references to "Broadway" would be. The Gardens are believed to have opened just before the Restoration of 1660, on property owned by Jane Fauxe, or Vaux, widow, in 1615. Whereas John Nichols in his History of Lambeth Parish conjectures that she was the widow of Guy Fawkes, executed in 1606, John Timbs in his 1867 Curiosities of London states for a fact that there was no such connection, that the Vaux name derives from one Falkes de Breauté, a mercenary working for King John who acquired the land by marriage. Jane is stated to be the widow of a vintner; the earliest record is Samuel Pepys' description of a visit he made to the New Spring Gardens on 29 May 1662. The name distinguished the gardens from the Old Spring Gardens at Charing Cross.
The Gardens consisted of several acres laid out with walks. Admission was free, the proprietors making money by selling food and drink. John Evelyn described "the New Spring Garden at Lambeth" as a "very pretty contrived plantation" in 1661. John Aubrey, in his Antiquities of Surrey gives the following account: At Vauxhall, Sir Samuel Morland built a fine room, anno 1667, the inside all of looking-glass, fountains pleasant to behold, much visited by strangers: it stands in the middle of the garden, covered with Cornish slate, on the point of which he placed a punchinello well carved, which held a dial, but the winds have demolished it. A plan of 1681 shows the circular central feature planted with trees and shrubs, the formal allées that were to remain a feature as long as the Gardens lasted. Sir John Hawkins, in his General History of Music, says: The house seems to have been rebuilt since the time that Sir Samuel Morland dwelt in it. About the year 1730, Mr. Jonathan Tyers became the occupier of it, there being a large garden belonging to it, planted with a great number of stately trees, laid out in shady walks, it obtained the name of Spring Gardens.
Mr. Tyers opened it with an advertisement of a Ridotto al Fresco, a term which the people of this country had till that time been strangers to; these entertainments were repeated in the course of the summer, numbers resorted to partake of them. This encouraged the proprietor to make his garden a place of musical entertainment, for every evening during the summer season. To this end he was at great expense in decorating the gardens with paintings; the ` supposed' last night of the gardens was on 5 September 1839. Vauxhall was sold at auction on 9 September 1841 for £20,000, following bankruptcy
A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city. In most English-speaking countries, suburban areas are defined in contrast to central or inner-city areas, but in Australian English and South African English, suburb has become synonymous with what is called a "neighborhood" in other countries and the term extends to inner-city areas. In some areas, such as Australia, China, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, a few U. S. states, new suburbs are annexed by adjacent cities. In others, such as Saudi Arabia, Canada and much of the United States, many suburbs remain separate municipalities or are governed as part of a larger local government area such as a county. Suburbs first emerged on a large scale in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of improved rail and road transport, which led to an increase in commuting. In general, they have lower population densities than inner city neighborhoods within a metropolitan area, most residents commute to central cities or other business districts.
Suburbs tend to proliferate around cities that have an abundance of adjacent flat land. The English word is derived from the Old French subburbe, in turn derived from the Latin suburbium, formed from sub and urbs; the first recorded usage of the term in English, was made by John Wycliffe in 1380, where the form subarbis was used, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. In Australia and New Zealand, suburbs have become formalised as geographic subdivisions of a city and are used by postal services in addressing. In rural areas in both countries, their equivalents are called localities; the terms inner suburb and outer suburb are used to differentiate between the higher-density areas in proximity to the city center, the lower-density suburbs on the outskirts of the urban area. The term'middle suburbs' is used. Inner suburbs, such as Te Aro in Wellington, Eden Terrace in Auckland, Prahran in Melbourne and Ultimo in Sydney, are characterised by higher density apartment housing and greater integration between commercial and residential areas.
In New Zealand, most suburbs are not defined which can lead to confusion as to where they may begin and end. Although there is a geospatial file defining suburbs for use by emergency services developed and maintained by Fire and Emergency New Zealand, in collaboration with other government agencies, to date this file has not been released publicly. New Zealand company Koordinates Limited requested access to the geospatial file under the Official Information Act 1982 but this request was rejected by the New Zealand Fire Service on the basis that it would prejudice the health & safety of, or cause material loss, to the public. In September 2014 a decision was made by the Ombudsman of New Zealand ruling that the New Zealand Fire Service refusal to release the geospatial file without agreeing to terms which included, among other restrictions, a prohibition on redistribution of the geospatial file, was reasonable. In the United Kingdom and in Ireland, suburb refers to a residential area outside the city centre, regardless of administrative boundaries.
Suburbs, in this sense, can range from areas that seem more like residential areas of a city proper to areas separated by open countryside from the city centre. In large cities such as London and Leeds, suburbs include separate towns and villages that have been absorbed during a city's growth and expansion, such as Ealing and Guiseley. In the United States and Canada, suburb can refer either to an outlying residential area of a city or town or to a separate municipality or unincorporated area outside a town or city; the earliest appearance of suburbs coincided with the spread of the first urban settlements. Large walled towns tended to be the focus around which smaller villages grew up in a symbiotic relationship with the market town; the word'suburbani' was first used by the Roman statesman Cicero in reference to the large villas and estates built by the wealthy patricians of Rome on the city's outskirts. Towards the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the capital, was occupied by the emperor and important officials.
As populations grew during the Early Modern Period in Europe, urban towns swelled with a steady influx of people from the countryside. In some places, nearby settlements were swallowed up as the main city expanded; the peripheral areas on the outskirts of the city were inhabited by the poorest. Due to the rapid migration of the rural poor to the industrialising cities of England in the late 18th century, a trend in the opposite direction began to develop; this trend accelerated through the 19th century in cities like London and Manchester that were growing and the first suburban districts sprung up around the city centres to accommodate those who wanted to escape the squalid conditions of the industrial towns. Toward the end of the century, with the development of public transit systems such as the underground railways and buses, it became possible for the majority of the city's population to reside outside the city and to commute into the
Mount Victoria (Auckland)
Takarunga / Mount Victoria is the highest volcano on Auckland's North Shore, rising to 87 m. Its age is unknown, its lava flows now line much of Devonport's waterfront. An important pa once occupied its slopes, some of the pa's earthworks can still be seen. A scoria mound known as Duders Hill, on Takarunga / Mount Victoria's southern slopes was quarried away; the name Mount Victoria comes from Queen Victoria and the name Takarunga means "the hill standing above". Jules Dumont d'Urville climbed the hill in 1827; the hill provides panoramic views of the inner Hauraki Gulf. Over the years the peak and upper slopes have housed a signal station for shipping, artillery emplacements and various concrete army bunkers, some from as early as the 1870s. One bunker now serves as the venue for the Devonport Folk Music Club; the slopes of Takarunga / Mount Victoria are home to Devonport Primary School, Takarunga Playcentre, a tennis court, a cemetery, a water reservoir which maintains supply to the area, a scenic lookout.
The old Signalman's House is now home to the Michael King Writers Centre which provides writers-in-residence programmes, hosting for visiting writers, residential workshops for experienced writers, a series of workshops for young poets and emerging writers. The writer-in-residence programmes are supported by Creative New Zealand and the University of Auckland. In the 2014 Treaty of Waitangi settlement with the Tamaki Makaurau Collective of 13 Auckland iwi, the volcano was named Takarunga / Mount Victoria and ownership was vested to the collective, it is now co-governed by the collective and Auckland Council in common benefit of the iwi "and all other people of Auckland". Bruce W. Hayward, Graeme Murdoch and Gordon Maitland. Volcanoes of Auckland: The Essential guide. Auckland University Press, Auckland. ISBN 9781869404796. Ewen Cameron, Bruce Hayward and Graeme Murdoch. A Field Guide to Auckland: Exploring the Region's Natural and Historic Heritage. Godwit Publishing Ltd, Auckland. ISBN 1-86962-014-3.
Lloyd Homer, Phil Moore and Les Kermode. Lava and Strata: A guide to the volcanoes and rock formations of Auckland. Landscape Publications Ltd, Wellington in association with the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt. ISBN 0-908800-02-9. Ernest J. Searle, revised by Ronald D. Mayhill. City of Volcanoes: A geology of Auckland. Longman Paul Ltd, Auckland. ISBN 0-582-71784-1. Michael King Writers' Centre Devonport Folk Music Club Media related to Mount Victoria, Auckland at Wikimedia Commons Photographs of Mount Victoria held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections