Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Adelaide Park Lands
The Adelaide Park Lands are the figure-eight of land spanning both banks of the River Torrens between Hackney and Thebarton and separating the City of Adelaide from the surrounding suburbia of greater Metropolitan Adelaide, the capital city of South Australia. They were laid out by Colonel William Light in his design for the city, consisted of 2,300 acres "exclusive of 32 acres for a public cemetery". One copy of Light's plan shows areas for a cemetery and a Post and Telegraph Store on West Tce, a small Government Domain and Barracks on the central part of North Tce, a hospital on East Tce, a Botanical Garden on the River Torrens west of North Adelaide, a school and a storehouse southwest of North Adelaide. Over the years there has been constant encroachment on the park lands by the state government and others. Soon after their declaration in 1837, 370 acres "were lost to'Government Reserves'". In 1902, The Herald noted. In 2018, the loss is about 230 hectares; the part of the Park Lands not in the'Government Reserves' have been managed and maintained by the Adelaide City Council since 1852, since February 2007, the Adelaide Park Lands Authority has advised council and government.
On 7 November 2008 the Federal Minister for Environment and the Arts, Peter Garrett, announced that the Adelaide Park Lands had been entered in the Australian National Heritage List as "an enduring treasure for the people of South Australia and the nation as a whole". In fact, large areas of the Adelaide Park Lands along the north side of the complete length of North Tce, along the north side of Port Road from West Tce to the Thebarton Police Barracks, the rail reserves, were excluded from the "Adelaide Park Lands and City Layout National Heritage Place" listing. Adelaide is a planned city, the Adelaide Park Lands are an integral part of Colonel William Light's 1837 plan. Light chose a site spanning the River Torrens, planned the city to fit the topography of the landscape,'on rising ground'; the Emigration Regulations appearing in the South Australian Gazette and Colonial Register published in London on 18 June 1836 instructed that the site of the first town be divided into 1,000 sections of an acre each.
In early 1837, William Light proposed to the Resident Commissioner James Hurtle Fisher that the figure-eight of open space, which Light referred to as'Adelaide Park', be reserved as'Park grounds'. Despite superficial similarities between Adelaide and William Penn's design of Philadelphia, there is no evidence that Light was influenced by, or knew of, the plan of Philadelphia. Light drew up a plan that included 700 "town acres" south of the River Torrens and 342 in North Adelaide. In addition, he included 38 acres of city squares: Hindmarsh, Light and Wellington Squares, Victoria Square, four one-acre Public Reserves, 2,300 acres for the Adelaide Park Lands. In 1838 the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia authorised South Australia's Resident Commissioner to purchase the Adelaide Park Lands, these instructions were carried out in South Australia in 1839. By 1839 the Park Lands were threatened by extensive timber cutting, rubbish dumping, brick-making, quarrying and grazing. To check this, a body of special constables was instituted on 9 October 1839 by George Gawler and Superintendent Henry Inman.
Inman appointed Nick Boys Bull a police sub-inspector, as Keeper of the Park Lands. Bull led an initial team of six park rangers, most being convalescent migrants thrown on government support; this dropped to two by 1840 back to four by June 1841. Pay and rations were provided by the police department. Since 1852, the areas of the Park Lands placed in the custodianship of the municipal corporation have been managed and maintained by the Adelaide City Council. Public use of the Park Lands was controlled by a ranger who patrolled the parks, regulating sporting and recreational activities in the parks and supervising the depasturing of stock grazing there; the Park Lands saw development during the 19th Century, for example the Adelaide Botanic Garden, South Australian Institute, Adelaide Oval, Victoria Park Racecourse. Extensive felling of trees and dumping of rubbish continued, which combined to give the Park Lands an unsightly appearance. In the late 19th century John Ednie Brown, the government's Conservator of Forests, was commissioned by the City Council to prepare a blueprint for the beautification of the Park Lands.
Brown presented his Report in 1880, but it was not acted upon until the turn of the 20th century when A. W. Pelzer became the City Gardener. Major progress was made in planting and landscaping the Park Lands during his tenure and further improvements such as creation of new gardens and boating lakes were carried under the authority of W. C. D. Veale, the Town Clerk. In the 2010s, about 25% of the Park Lands are the location of government and cultural buildings. Of the remaining 700 hectares, many parts have been sculpted into planned gardens and playing fields; some of the remainder is remnant or regenerated Adelaide Plains grasslands or grassy woodlands, of which 230 hectares have been deignated and developed by the city council as areas for native fauna and flora. Developments in the early 2000s focused on maintenance and upgrading of recreational facilities, removal of remnant grasslands and open grassy woodlands through urbanisation and the Greening of Adelaide tree planting and replac
W. C. D. Veale
Brigadier William Charles Douglas Veale known as W. C. D. Veale, was an Australian engineer and soldier, he is best known as the longtime town clerk of the Adelaide City Council, had significant influence in the development and change of character of the City of Adelaide during that period. For example, in conjunction with four-time Lord Mayor of Adelaide, Arthur Campbell Rymill, Veale was responsible for significant improvements to the Adelaide Park Lands, he was a senior soldier and military engineer who served in both the First and Second World Wars, is notable for his involvement in the Battle of Timor and during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies. Veale Gardens in Adelaide's South Parklands is named in his honour. Veale was born in Bendigo on 16 May 1895, educated locally, he was apprenticed to an engineer at the Whittlesea Council in Morang, Victoria. Veale enlisted in the Australian Imperial Force on 14 February 1916. In October 1917, while he was one of a party marking out an assembly position, the party came under fire and several of the party were wounded.
While under continuous shell fire, Veale attended to all of their wounds, got them to safety and successfully marked out the assembly position. "For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty", he was awarded the Distinguished Conduct Medal. Veale was commissioned lieutenant in May 1918. While on operations in the Somme, France, in August 1918, in a single night when under enemy shelling, he supervised the construction of two bridges required for use by the infantry next morning, without alerting the enemy. For this deed he was awarded the Military Cross. After a period working at Stoke-on-Trent and the Ministry of Transport in London, Veale returned to Victoria, serving as engineer to the Shire of Kowree Council at Edenhope, he married Eileen Guest at All Saints' Church of England, Bright, on 12 February 1923. On 8 October 1923 Veale became Assistant City Engineer and Surveyor to the City of Adelaide at an annual salary of A£450. In 1926 he became Deputy City Engineer, City Engineer in 1929. During this period he served with the Citizens Military Force.
Prior to and during the Second World War, Veale held the following positions and commands: Veale was appointed town clerk in January 1947, retired in November 1965. He aged 76, in North Adelaide and was cremated. Commander of the Order of the British Empire – 10 June 1954 Military Cross – 1 February 1919 Distinguished Conduct Medal – 1918 Efficiency Decoration Fellow of the Royal Australian Planning Institute, he was federal president. Fellow of the Institute of Municipal Administration William Charles Douglas Veale, CBE, MC, DCM, adelaidia.sa.gov.au Temporary Brigadier W C D Veale, www.awm.gov.au William Charles Douglas VEALE MC DCM, RSL Virtual War Memorial