Pantalone, spelled Pantaloon in English, is one of the most important principal characters found in commedia dell'arte. With his exceptional greed and status at the top of the social order, Pantalone is "money" in the commedia world, his full name, including family name, is Pantalon de' Bisognosi, Italian for'Pantalone of the Needy'. Pant was the original il Magnifico stock character. Goldoni, in his memoirs, named. Among other things, Pantalone is a character of Venetians. Another theory is. While the theories of the St Pantaleone and the lion of St Mark are common, they are both now considered unlikely origins, the true origin is unknown; the name Pantaloon means "old fool" or "dotard". The role of Pantalone is spoken in the Venetian dialect; the character of Pantalone is based on currency and ego, for he has the highest regard for his intelligence, "but at every step he becomes the butt for every conceivable kind of trick". With little else to occupy his thoughts after a life as a tradesman or merchant, Pantalone is the metaphorical representation of money in the commedia world.
While the social standing of merchants may have changed through many centuries, the intent for Pantalone was to ensure that he had the status that allowed him to meddle in the affairs of others. Pantalone is the father to one of the innamorati, another stock character found in commedia, he is driven to keep his child and their respective lover apart. Pantalone is presented either as a widower or bachelor, despite his age, makes numerous passes at the women within the commedia world, "though he is always rejected". Pantalone never forgets his merit is based on actions, not words, he is described as being petty, he never forgets or forgives the smallest things. Pantalone is characterized as having emotional extremes. With his sinister and inhumane treatment towards his fellows, Pantalone is perceived to be a pivotal part of commedia, his importance is represented in every commedia production. In a commedia drama, many zanni or lazzi routines will begin by an action delivered by Pantalone himself.
Pantalone is described as being too self-absorbed to notice and interact much with the audience, but he is so obvious that it serves the same purpose. The traditional Pantalone stance is that of a hunch-backed old man. While it would be assumed the hunch-backed position may be one of an elderly old man, it is for the protection of his money bag that generates his apparent frailty, he walks with his hips forward. The hunched shape restricts his legs, which turned out at the knees; the feet have the heels together with the toes facing apart. His hands and feet move though his body is stiff, his head is moving; when he walks, his feet should be picked up more. Pantalone is slow moving, he has bouts of agility when there is high emotion, but it is followed by asthmatic breathing and panting. Pantalone is short and skinny. A lot of Pantalone's comedy stems from the fact that his excitable actions contradict the senile position that the actor takes, he falls backwards to bad news related in some way or another to his financials.
When this occurs, he is amusingly "turtle-like" and is stuck in that position until assisted. Pantalone can do all of the movements of the other characters, but they are hindered because of his old age. None of Pantalone's physical actions should look easy, for his is "the oldest of the old." In the well-known "all the world's a stage" speech in Shakespeare's As You Like It, Jaques describes the second-last stage of life as "the lean and slippered pantaloon." Pantalone's costume was designed with the inappropriateness intended to comically entertain. The costume for Pantalone is characterized by the use of red for the entire costume; the characteristics of the costume include a Greek style hat, a jacket, a pair of long trousers or breeches with stockings, a tight jacket, a woollen skullcap and a robe or cape. It includes a black and red robe and yellow Turkish slippers. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a sword or dagger and gold medallion accompanied the purse; the Pantalone mask is a half-mask with accents on bony structure, bushy eyebrows, a long, hooked nose, a mustache, a long, pointed or forked beard.
He is noted as having horn spectacles. He carries a walking stick, but it is used more as an aggravating weapon than an actual walking tool; because of his skinny legs, Pantalone is portrayed wearing trousers rather than knee-breeches. He therefore became the origin of the name of a type of trouser called "pantaloons", shortened to "pants". Angela Carter's The Bloody Chamber gives another representation of Pantalone; the interpretation uses the spelling'Pantaloon', but he follows a similar description and ends up dead. Explanation on site from Roberto Delpiano dedicated to Venice
The word erudition came into Middle English from Latin. A scholar is erudite when instruction and reading followed by digestion and contemplation have effaced all rudeness, to say smoothed away all raw, untrained incivility. Common usage has blurred the distinction from "learned" but the two terms are quite different. Erudition is the depth and breadth that education confers; the Latin word educāre means to train. An erudite person has both deep and broad familiarity with general subjects and is knowledgeable in a particular subject, by virtue of study and extensive reading of the subject's literature. For example, a jurist is learned, knows the law intimately and thoroughly. Thus, an erudite jurist has both deep, specific knowledge of the law, broad knowledge in the form of social and historical context of law. Erudition in a literary work incorporates knowledge and insights spanning many different fields; when such universal scholars are at the forefront of several fields, they are sometimes called polyhistors or polymaths.
The Italian poet Giacomo Leopardi was erudite: he read and studied the classics and was influenced by many philosophers. Other erudite writers include the Roman Marcus Terentius Varro, the English essayist Sir Thomas Browne and the French essayist Michel de Montaigne. In Latin, eruditus cultivated. Enlightenment comes from understanding and not just from learning. Learning Mathematical maturity Polymath Reading "Logical Rudeness"
Gli Innamorati were stock characters within the theatre style known as commedia dell'arte, which appeared in 16th century Italy. In the plays everything revolves around the Lovers in some regard; these characters were present within commedia plays for the sole purpose of being in love with one another, moreover with themselves. Despite facing many obstacles, the Lovers are always united by the end; the name Innamorati is the Italian word for "Lovers". The dramatists of the Italian Renaissance borrowed ideas from early Roman playwrights, such as Plautus and Terence, whom the theater style known as commedia erudita was inspired by; the comedy of the Lovers is that they are ridiculous, over the top about everything, but they are sincere in their emotions. The main function of the Lovers within the play is to be in love, they always involve other commedia characters, such as Zanni characters, to try to figure out how they can be together. This is necessary, because due to their conceited stupidity, lack of experience with the all of the mysteries of love, the sensations and emotions that come with it, they cannot figure it out on their own.
In this regard, the lovers are more impressionable than the other characters. The Lovers tend to be overly dramatic. Separation from their lover leads them to lament and moan their state, once they meet, they are at a loss of words. In order to express what they want to say, they always need the help of a servant to act as a go-between; the Lovers act in a childlike and immature way. When not getting their way, they become devastated, they pout, cry and whine if things do not go according to their wishes. Selfish and self-centered, the Lovers are in their own worlds in which they themselves are the most important subjects. Along with loving themselves, they are in love with the idea of love and what it pertains to; the Lovers are always young in age, possessing courteousness and gallantry. They are educated, but lack life experiences that would have prepared them for the real world, they are attractive, elegant in their appearance overall. The women's dresses were of the finest silks and they wear showy jewelry characteristic of Renaissance style.
The males wear soldier-like attire, while both sexes wear extravagant wigs and change clothes numerous times throughout the length of the production. The costumes of the lovers were the fashion of the day, the extravagance of the Lovers costumes represented the status of the Commedia dell'arte company; the Lovers never wear the masks which are characteristic of most of the other stock characters in the commedia dell'arte. They do, wear a large amount of makeup and apply beauty marks to their faces, their speech is eloquent Tuscan, as they are of high social status. When Commedia dell'Arte is played in England the lovers speak in Received Pronunciation They are well-read in poetry and recite it at length from memory, tend to sing quite often, their language is full of flamboyant and lofty rhetoric so that most of what they say is not taken too by either the audience or the other characters. The Innamorati do everything and strive for perfection, their movements are not to be aimed towards parody.
They do courtly dances using two dance movements called "pas", "swivel". The posture that the Lovers take on is that of strong pride, they point their toes while puff up their chests. Overall, they lack contact with the ground and seem to float across the ground rather than take steps, their hand movements and gestures are very characteristic of the buoyant movements that their feet take on. The physicality of the Lovers should not be done in a way. Following that, they are more consumed with the idea of being in love, they never outwardly communicate with their lover when they are in close contact, due to nerves, therefore, never outwardly express affection toward their beloved. The Lovers fight or bicker. Despite the bitter interactions, the Lovers reconcile their differences by the end of the play and end up together and/or married; the Lovers are the children of either Dottore or Pantalone. The Lovers are aware of the audience's presence, they use the audience as a means to show themselves off and to express their plight at not being able to obtain their love.
In other ways, they may call on an audience member for help or advice, or flirt with someone, watching from their T. V. Alliteration Allusion Antithesis Assonance Hyperbole Interrogation Invocation Irony Metaphor Prosopopoeia Conceit The Lovers use Usite, Chiusette sometimes when entering, exiting; these are rhyming couplets that are said before entering a scene. Since the Lovers are stock characters, the names of both the male and female lovers are used over and over again: Arsenio Aurielo Cinthio Fabrizio Flavio Fedelindo Florindo Flaminio Leandro Lelio Lindoro Mario Ortensio Ottavio Orazio Sireno the son of Pantalone. Silvio Tristano Angelica Aurelia Beatrice Bianchetta Celia Clarice Clori Cinzio Emilia Eularia Flaminia Florinda, famously portrayed by Virginia Ramponi-Andreini who used "La Florinda" as her stage name Filesia Filli daughter of Pantalone. Isabella Lavinia Lidia Ortensia Rosalinda Silvia Turchetta Vittoria
Commedia dell'arte was an early form of professional theatre, originating from Italy, popular in Europe from the 16th to the 18th century. Commedia dell'arte is known as commedia alla maschera, commedia improvviso, commedia dell'arte all'improvviso. Commedia is a form of theatre characterized by masked "types" which began in Italy in the 16th century and was responsible for the advent of actresses and improvised performances based on sketches or scenarios. A commedia, such as The Tooth Puller, is both improvised. Characters' entrances and exits are scripted. A special characteristic of commedia dell'arte are the lazzi. A lazzo is a joke or "something foolish or witty" well known to the performers and to some extent a scripted routine. Another characteristic of commedia dell'arte is pantomime, used by the character Arlecchino; the characters of the commedia represent fixed social types and stock characters, such as foolish old men, devious servants, or military officers full of false bravado. The characters are exaggerated "real characters", such as a know-it-all doctor called Il Dottore, a greedy old man called Pantalone, or a perfect relationship like the Innamorati.
Many troupes were formed to perform commedia dell'arte, including I Gelosi, Confidenti Troupe, Desioi Troupe, Fedeli Troupe. Commedia dell'arte was performed outside on platforms or in popular areas such as a piazza; the form of theatre originated in Italy, but travelled throughout Europe and to Moscow. The commedia genesis may be related to carnival in Venice, where by 1570 the author/actor Andrea Calmo had created the character Il Magnifico, the precursor to the vecchio Pantalone. In the Flaminio Scala scenario for example, Il Magnifico persists and is interchangeable with Pantalone, into the seventeenth century. While Calmo's characters were not masked, it is uncertain at what point the characters donned the mask. However, the connection to carnival would suggest that masking was a convention of carnival and was applied at some point; the tradition in Northern Italy is centered in Mantua and Venice, where the major companies came under the aegis of the various dukes. Concomitantly, a Neapolitan tradition emerged in the south and featured the prominent stage figure Pulcinella.
Pulcinella has been long associated with Naples, derived into various types elsewhere—the most famous as the puppet character Punch in England. Although commedia dell'arte flourished in Italy during the Mannerist period, there has been a long-standing tradition of trying to establish historical antecedents in antiquity. While it is possible to detect formal similarities between the commedia dell'arte and earlier theatrical traditions, there is no way to establish certainty of origin; some date the origins to the period of the Empire. The Atellan Farces of the Roman Empire featured crude "types" wearing masks with grossly exaggerated features and an improvised plot; some historians argue that Atellan stock characters, Maccus+Buccus, Manducus, are the primitive versions of the Commedia characters Pantalone, il Capitano. More recent accounts establish links to the medieval jongleurs, prototypes from medieval moralities, such as Hellequin; the first recorded commedia dell'arte performances came from Rome as early as 1551.
Commedia dell'arte was performed outdoors in temporary venues by professional actors who were costumed and masked, as opposed to commedia erudita, which were written comedies, presented indoors by untrained and unmasked actors. This view may be somewhat romanticized since records describe the Gelosi performing Tasso's Aminta, for example, much was done at court rather than in the street. By the mid-16th century, specific troupes of commedia performers began to coalesce, by 1568 the Gelosi became a distinct company. In keeping with the tradition of the Italian Academies, I Gelosi adopted as their impress the two-faced Roman god Janus. Janus symbolized both the comings and goings of this traveling troupe, the dual nature of the actor who impersonates the "other." The Gelosi performed in Northern Italy and France where they received protection and patronage from the King of France. Despite fluctuations the Gelosi maintained stability for performances with the "usual ten": "two vecchi, four innamorati, two zanni, a captain and a servetta".
It should be noted that commedia performed inside in court theatres or halls, as some fixed theatres such as Teatro Baldrucca in Florence. Flaminio Scala, a minor performer in the Gelosi published the scenarios of the commedia dell'arte around the start of the 17th century in an effort to legitimize the form—and ensure its legacy; these scenari are structured and built around the symmetry of the various types in duet: two zanni, vecchi and inamorati, etc. In commedia dell'arte, female roles were played by women, documented as early as the 1560s. In the 1570s, English theatre critics denigrated the troupes with their female actors. By the end of the 1570s, Italian prelates attempted to ban female performers. T
Zanni, Zani or Zane is a character type of Commedia dell'arte best known as an astute servant and trickster. The Zanni comes from the countryside and is known to be a "dispossessed immigrant worker". Through time, the Zanni grew to be a popular figure, first seen in commedia as early as the 14th century; the English word zany derives from this persona. The name Zanni is a variant of the name Gianni and was common in the Lombard-Venetian countryside which provided most of the servants to the wealthy nobles and merchants of Venice. In Italian it is a name of someone whose identity is not of any importance, it is one of the oldest characters in Commedia dell'arte but over the course of time became subdivided into a number of similar characters with more specific traits. These included Arlecchino, Pulcinella and Truffaldino, as well as Beltrame and Brighella. Arlecchino, for example, was more representative of a jester than an ordinary servant and was depicted as acrobatic. Zanni was shortened to Zan.
For example, Zan Ganassa was the stage name of Alberto Naseli, one of the first actors specializing in Zanni roles to perform outside of Italy. Some characters in Commedia that are associated as Zanni are Arlecchino, Scapino- Mescolino and Mezzettino, Pulcinella, Giangurgolo, Tartaglia and Burratino; the earliest literary evidence portrays Zanni as a servant of Pantalonae. Of all of the'commedia' archetypes, Zanni's survival instinct is the strongest. Zanni is always hungry which leads to a vision of Utopia where “everything is comestible, reminiscent of the followers of gluttony in carnival processions”. A Zanni has an animistic view of the world in that he senses a spirit in everything, so it could be eaten. Zanni is ignorant and has no self-awareness; the simple act of thinking does not seem to be natural to Zanni. He is a faithful individual who prefers to live in the present day. Zanni never looks for a place to sleep it just seems to happen to him in situations where it shouldn't. Lastly, all of his reactions are emotional.
He is a waiter for pantalone. The evolution of the character Zanni was of two distinct types, one of the silly servant and the other of the cunning servant; these two components developed over the course of the history of the commedia dell'arte, players began to specialize in the two types who were called First Zanni and Second Zanni. Examples of the First Zanni are Mezzetino and Brighella, of the Second Zanni — Arlecchino and Pulcinella. A scenario must always have at least two Zanni; the first Zanni is known to be witty. The first Zanni is known as il furbo; the first Zanni can cheat anyone whom they come across. It is a must that they are cynically sharp; the first Zanni is known to be the go-between. The job of the first Zanni is to advance the action and give it some movement, with a cynical twist. In some traditions first Zanni are said to be from Val Brembana in the Bergamo country, in others he is attributed to the upper city of Bergamo; the second Zanni is known as lo stupido. The second Zanni must be foolish and dull.
The second Zanni is unable to tell his right hand from his left hand. He is a dull witted peasant who can be simple and ridiculous. Second Zanni, in particular with Arlecchino, does not so much advance plot as maintain a steady stream of comic relief throughout the scenario. Second Zanni are assumed to be from the lower city of Bergamo. Between the two of them they make up one person of “less than average intelligence”. Before developing this dualistic persona of the two types of clever and silly servant, Zanni was a character in its own right; the performance of a commedia actor relies on the acting itself. A scenario should be playable in different ways and seem different each time the audience sees it; the actors who play Zanni must be clever and talented, because an actor's success relies on his dialogue partner. If the partner does not reply to him at the right moment or interrupts him in the wrong place, the actor's “discourse falters and the liveliness of his wit is extinguished”, he must be acrobatic, able to walk on his hands and on stilts, dance and somersault.
In this respect, the Zanni is one of the most physically demanding of all the Masks. The Zanni's costume consists of white baggy clothing; this was similar to the dress of farmworkers of the time. A specific type of Zanni, wore accents of green to indicate his tricky and devious nature. Arlecchino, was known for his irregular colored patches that became the essence of the entire outfit; the Zanni are known to sport a peaked hat and a wooden sword. The Zanni at first wore a full faced carnival mask, but because of the need for dialogue between Pantalone and the Zanni, the bottom of the mask was hinged and cut away altogether; the longer the nose of the Zanni, the stupider he is said to be. The stance of Zanni has a “lowered centre of gravity” either from the earth or from carrying heavy bags and chairs. Zanni's back is arched when he stands up and his knees are bent and apart with splayed feet; the support knee is bent and the other leg is extended with his toe pointed. He switches his feet a lot while speaking or listening within the same position, without his head moving up and down.
Zanni's elbows are bent and arms half lifted. In commedia, Zanni has a variety of at least six different types of walks; these walks include The Little Zanni, The Big Zanni, Zanni Running, Zanni Jubilant, Vain Zanni, Soldier Zanni. The L
Il Dottore is a commedia dell'arte stock character, one of the vecchi, or "old men", whose function in a scenario is to be an obstacle to the young lovers. Il Dottore and Pantalone are the comic foil of each other, Pantalone being the decadent wealthy merchant, Il Dottore being the decadent erudite, he has been part of the main canon of characters since the mid 1500s. Il Dottore hails from the city of Italy, he is comically inept. He is usally rich, though the needs of the scenario might have things otherwise, pompous, loving the sound of his own voice and spouting ersatz Latin and Greek, his interaction in the play is mostly with Pantalone, either as a friend, mentor or competitor. Il Dottore first originated in the 16th century as the comic foil of Pantalone; the character has his performance origins in the year 1560 with the actor Lucio Burchiella. Since his introduction, he has existed in some form or other due to his popularity and interactions with Pantalone, however his popularity did wane in Italy by the 1800s.
He has gone by many names besides Il Dottore, those being Dottore Gratiano, Dottore Baloardo, Dottore Spaccastrummolo, Dottore Scarpazon, Dottore Forbizone. His many names reflect his buffoonish nature, call attention to his positive traits. Il Dottore migrates to France with the Gelosi troupe during the year 1572, still performed by Lucio Burchiella. Since Commedia dell'Arte performers were itinerant by nature, it is only natural that his character was transplanted to other countries. By the late 17th century, Il Dottore was embedded in the public eye, as evidenced by the playwright Molière's inclusion of a Docteur-style character in his play La Jalousie du Barbouillé. In contemporary media, Il Dottore can be found in many common characters, such as Sheldon from The Big Bang Theory and Dr. Zoidberg from Futurama. Rotund and fond of drink and food but chocolate. Il Dottore is fond of girls however is untruthful and gets caught cheating several times. Il Dottore is representative of the learned intellectual class, as such is meant to playfully parody the educated elite.
He attended the University of Bologna, pretends to be an expert in many subjects, talking but having no idea about that of which he speaks. Depending on the portrayal, however, he can be educated, bore the other players into leaving the stage; the preferred crowd favorite, however, is the Dottore. Il Dottore walks with his chest up, knees bent, with a bouncy movement, taking small steps, he stands in plants himself to make a point. Il Dottore can be the father to one of the innamorati either Columbina or Isabella. There are, existing scenarios in which Dottore is not a father "the Tooth-Puller", or Il Cavadente. There is precedence for Il Dottore to be cuckolded. Unlike the majority of half masks in Commedia dell'Arte, Il Dottore's mask is unique in that it is a one-third mask; the actor's cheeks may sometimes have rouge applied to imply. His costume is all or black and he wears a black felt hat with long, trailing robes. Under his black robes are shorter black robes and black shoes; the ruff around Il Dottore's neck didn't come into play until his popularity in France grew, at which point it was adopted in 1653 by Agostino Lolli.
Giovanni Camillo Canzachi Commedia dell'Arte Goldoni Pantalone Innamorati Stock Character Rudlin, John. Commedia dell'arte. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-20409-5. Retrieved August 4, 2009; the Italian Comedy by Pierre Louis Duchartre Character description of Il Dottore Thinkquest's page on Il Dottore