O'Reilly Media is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics. Their distinctive brand features a woodcut of an animal on many of their book covers; the company began in 1978 as a private consulting firm doing technical writing, based in the Cambridge, Massachusetts area. In 1984, it began to retain publishing rights on manuals created for Unix vendors. A few 70-page "Nutshell Handbooks" were well-received, but the focus remained on the consulting business until 1988. After a conference displaying O'Reilly's preliminary Xlib manuals attracted significant attention, the company began increasing production of manuals and books; the original cover art consisted of animal designs developed by Edie Freedman because she thought that Unix program names sounded like "weird animals". In 1993 O'Reilly Media created the first web portal, when they launched one of the first Web-based resources, Global Network Navigator.
GNN was sold to AOL in one of the first large transactions of the dot-com bubble. GNN was the first site on the World Wide Web to feature paid advertising. Although O'Reilly Media got its start in publishing two decades after its genesis the company expanded into event production. In 1997, O'Reilly launched The Perl Conference to cross-promote its books on the Perl programming language. Many of the company's other software bestsellers were on topics that were off the radar of the commercial software industry. In 1998, O'Reilly invited many of the leaders of software projects to a meeting. Called the freeware summit, the meeting became known as the Open Source Summit; the O'Reilly Open Source Convention is now one of O'Reilly's flagship events. Other key events include the Strata Conference on big data, the Velocity Conference on Web Performance and Operations, FOO Camp. Past events of note include the Web 2.0 Summit. Overall, O'Reilly describes its business not as publishing or conferences, but as "changing the world by spreading the knowledge of innovators."Today, the company offers over one dozen conferences: Strata + Hadoop World OSCON Fluent Velocity The Next:Economy Summit The Next:Money Summit The Solid Conference The O'Reilly Software Architecture Conference The O'Reilly Design Conference O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference Tools of Change Conference Web 2.0 Summit Web 2.0 Expo MySQL Conference and Expo RailsConf Where 2.0 Money:Tech Gov 2.0 Expo and Gov 2.0 Summit O'Reilly school of technology will be discontinued as of January 6, 2016, new enrollments are no longer accepted.
In the late 1990s, O'Reilly founded the O'Reilly Network, which grew to include sites such as: LinuxDevCenter.com MacDevCenter.com WindowsDevCenter.com ONLamp.com O'Reilly RadarIn 2008 the company revised its online model and stopped publishing on several of its sites. The company produced dev2dev in association with BEA and java.net in association with Sun Microsystems and CollabNet. In 2001, O'Reilly launched Safari Books Online, a subscription-based service providing access to ebooks as a joint venture with the Pearson Technology Group. Safari Books Online includes books and video from Adobe Press, Alpha Books, Cisco Press, FT Press, Microsoft Press, New Riders Publishing, O'Reilly, Peachpit Press, Prentice Hall, Prentice Hall PTR, Que and Sams Publishing. In 2014, O'Reilly Media acquired Pearson's stake, making Safari Books Online a wholly owned subsidiary of O'Reilly Media. O'Reilly did a redesign of the site and has some success in the attempt to expand beyond Safari's core B2C market into the B2B Enterprise market.
In 2017, O'Reilly Media announced they were no longer selling books including eBooks. Instead, everyone was encouraged to sign up to Safari. In 2003, after the dot com bust, O'Reilly's corporate goal was to reignite enthusiasm in the computer industry. To do this, Dale Dougherty and Tim O'Reilly decided to use the term "Web 2.0" coined in January 1999 by Darcy DiNucci. The term was used for the Web 2.0 Summit run by O'Reilly TechWeb. CMP registered Web 2.0 as a Service Mark "for arranging and conducting live events, namely trade shows, business conferences and educational conferences in various fields of computers and information technology." Web 2.0 framed what distinguished the companies that survived the dot com bust from those that died, identified key drivers of future success, including what is now called “cloud computing,” big data, new approaches to iterative, data-driven software development. In May 2006 CMP Media learned of an impending event called the "Web 2.0 Half day conference."
Concerned over their obligation to take reasonable means to enforce their trade and service marks CMP sent a cease and desist letter to the non-profit Irish organizers of the event. This attempt to restrict through legal mechanisms the use of the term was criticized by some; the legal issue was resolved by O'Reilly's apologizing for the early and aggressive involvement of attorneys, rather than calling the organizers, allowing them to use the service mark for this single event. In January 2005 the compan
Jordan Mechner is an American video game designer, author and filmmaker. He is best known for designing and programming the Broderbund Apple II games Karateka and Prince of Persia in the 1980s, the latter of which grew into a multi-platform franchise. Mechner was born in New York City, into a family of European Jewish immigrants, his father is psychologist Francis Mechner, he attended Yale University in the 1980s. While at Yale, Mechner wrote several Apple II games that he submitted for publication, but which were rejected. Asteroid Blaster, an Asteroids clone, was submitted to Hayden Software and abstract arcade game Deathbounce to Brøderbund, he spent two years at Yale writing his first published game, which went to number one on the Billboard software chart. His second game, Prince of Persia, was released in 1989 after more than three years of work, he wrote both games in 6502 assembly language for the Apple II, though that system was in decline through the late 1980s and little new software was released by 1989.
Prince of Persia sold poorly, but as it was ported to other systems sales increased. It was adapted for nearly every computer and console platform. Following the completion of Prince of Persia Mechner took several years off from the gaming industry, during which he attended film school, wrote an unproduced screenplay, traveled Europe for two years. Mechner designed and directed the first sequel, Prince of Persia 2: The Shadow and the Flame, released in 1993. By he was focused on game design and story mechanics and was no longer programming. Mechner founded independent developer Smoking Car Productions in 1993, where he led the production of the CD-ROM adventure game The Last Express. Smoking Car grew to sixty people, a huge game development team for the mid-1990s, the game took longer to finish than anticipated; when released in 1997, it was positively reviewed but sold poorly. The Last Express was re-released in 2012 by French publisher DotEmu for other platforms. Mechner's first four games were all published by Brøderbund.
In 2001, Mechner worked with Ubisoft to reboot Prince of Persia. Developed at Ubisoft Montreal with Mechner as game designer and creative consultant, Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time was released in 2003, it received 8 awards at the Interactive Achievement Awards. Ubisoft has since published four more Prince of several spinoffs. Mechner became one of the few video game creators to adapt his own creation as a feature film with Disney's Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, directed by Mike Newell, starring Jake Gyllenhaal, Gemma Arterton, Ben Kingsley, Alfred Molina. Disney released Prince of Persia movie on May 28, 2010. Mechner is an executive producer of the film. In 2003, Mechner directed the documentary film, Chavez Ravine: A Los Angeles Story, it won the 2003 IDA award for Best Short Documentary, was short-listed for an Academy Award nomination, received its broadcast premiere on PBS Independent Lens in 2005. Mechner collaborated with a team on the 2008 Prince of Persia graphic novel.
Mechner's original graphic novel Templar was published in July 2013. Templar was nominated for an Eisner award. Mechner wrote the graphic novel, Prince of Persia: Before the Sandstorm, to tie in with the release of the film in 2010. Mechner has written a screenplay for a film adaptation of Michael Turner's Fathom for Fox Studios with actress Megan Fox. Mechner self-published two volumes of his game development journals from the 1980s, one describing the making of Karateka and the other on Prince of Persia. Mechner was able to recover the source code of the Prince of Persia game from found 23-year-old 3.5″ Apple ProDOS floppy disks and posted it online. Waiting for Dark Chavez Ravine: A Los Angeles Story Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time Official website Jordan Mechner at MobyGames Jordan Mechner on IMDb Chavez Ravine: A Los Angeles Story Article written by Mechner for MIT Press
Metaweb Technologies, Inc. was a San Francisco-based company that developed Freebase, described as an "open, shared database of the world's knowledge". The company was co-founded by Danny Hillis, Veda Hlubinka-Cook and John Giannandrea in 2005. Metaweb was acquired by Google in 2010. Google shut down Freebase in 2016. On March 14, 2006, Metaweb received $15 million in funding. Investors included Benchmark Capital, Millennium Technology Ventures, Omidyar Network. On January 15, 2008, Metaweb announced a $42.5 million Series B round led by Goldman Sachs and Benchmark Capital. Kevin Harvey of Benchmark Capital was a member of Metaweb's board of directors. On July 16, 2010, Google acquired Metaweb for an undisclosed sum
Prince of Persia
Prince of Persia is a video game franchise created by Jordan Mechner developed and published by Brøderbund The Learning Company, Ubisoft. The franchise is built around a series of action-adventure games focused on various incarnations of the eponymous prince; the first game in the series was designed by Mechner after the success of his previous game with Brøderbund, Karateka. The original title spawned two sequels; the series has been rebooted twice since its acquisition by Ubisoft, has been made into a film, Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, penned in part by Mechner and released by Walt Disney Pictures in 2010. Since the first remake of Prince of Persia, the series has seen eight sequels on more than 10 different gaming platforms, from the Game Boy Advance to the PlayStation 3. According to some sources, the Assassin's Creed video game series is inspired by Prince of Persia. Mechner has been involved with the series in varying capacities throughout its history; the games have been published by several different companies.
The first two games in the series, Prince of Persia and Prince of Persia 2: The Shadow and the Flame, were published by Brøderbund. Prince of Persia 3D, the first to use 3D computer graphics, was developed by Red Orb Entertainment and published by The Learning Company on PC, developed by Avalanche Software and published by Mattel Interactive on Sega Dreamcast. Ubisoft began publishing the series in 2003 with Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time; the first game in the series titled The Prince, was created by Jordan Mechner after the success of Karateka. Drawing from multiple general sources of inspiration, including the One Thousand and One Nights stories, films like Raiders of the Lost Ark and The Adventures of Robin Hood, the protagonist's character animation was created using a technique called Rotoscope, with Mechner using his brother as the model for the titular prince. Despite the success of the game, Mechner enrolled in New York University's film department, producing an award-winning short film during his time there, before returning to design and direct a sequel to the original game.
The sequel, Prince of Persia 2: The Shadow and the Flame, was developed internally at Broderbund with Mechner's supervision. The game, like its predecessor, received high sales. Broderbund was subsequently purchased by The Learning Company, acquired by US game company Mattel Interactive. In 1999, a new Prince of Persia title, Prince of Persia 3D, was developed and released under Broderbund's Red Orb label. Released for PC only, criticized by many users as being buggy, it was a critical and commercial disappointment; the Broderbund/Learning Company's games division, the assets of which included the Prince of Persia franchise, was subsequently sold to Ubisoft. Mechner, who owned the Prince of Persia IP, was brought in to work with Ubisoft on a reboot of the franchise titled Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, although he was wary after the failure of Prince of Persia 3D; the team they worked with were working on Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: their aim with the new Prince of Persia was to breathe new life into the action-adventure genre.
The Sands of Time was an instant success. Mechner did not take part in the production of the next game, Warrior Within, he commented on finding the dark atmosphere and heightened level of violence unappealing; the changes provoked mixed reactions from critics, but sales were strong and a third game titled The Two Thrones, went into production. For The Two Thrones, the developers and artists tried to strike a balance between the light, cartoon-like tones of Sands of Time, the grittier mediums of Warrior Within. In November 2008, Ubisoft revealed that they were working on a new entry in the franchise, which turned out to be The Forgotten Sands, which filled in some of the narrative gap between Sands of Time and Warrior Within; the game was released in May 2010, timed to tie in with the film adaptation of the first game in the Sands of Time subseries titled The Sands of Time. The Prince of Persia Trilogy is a collection of The Sands of Time trilogy released on PlayStation 2 and subsequently on PlayStation 3 as part of the Classics HD range.
The collection includes The Sands of Time, Warrior Within and The Two Thrones, all released on sixth-generation video game consoles and Microsoft Windows. The games were remastered in HD for the PlayStation 3 with 3D and PlayStation Network Trophy support on one Blu-ray Disc; the PS2 collection was released on October 27, 2006 in Europe, while the remastered collection was released on November 19, 2010 on Blu-ray in PAL regions. The release marks the first Classics HD title to not be published by Sony Computer Entertainment. In North America, the three games were released separately as downloadable only titles on the PlayStation Store; the first, The Sands of Time, was released on November 16, 2010 while the other two games followed in December 2010. The Blu-ray version was to be released in North America on March 22, 2011 but the collection ended up being delayed until April 19, 2011; the first spin-off of the series was developed alongside and released in the same year as The Two Thrones for the Nintendo DS.
It was titled Battles of Prince of Persia, was a real-time strategy game set between Sands of Time and Warrior Within. It received mediocre reviews from critics. In 2006, concept designs surfaced hinting at another entry in the franchise; the game, titled Prince of Persia was officially unveiled in 2008, with Ubisoft marketing it as a reboot of the franchise, with its level and combat design harking back to
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder James Wilson in September 1843. In 2015, its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. Pearson PLC held a 50% shareholding via The Financial Times Limited until August 2015. At that time, Pearson sold their share in the Economist; the Agnelli family's Exor paid £287m to raise their stake from 4.7% to 43.4% while the Economist paid £182m for the balance of 5.04m shares which will be distributed to current shareholders. Aside from the Agnelli family, smaller shareholders in the company include Cadbury, Schroder and other family interests as well as a number of staff and former staff shareholders. A board of trustees formally appoints the editor. Although The Economist has a global emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster.
For the year to March 2016, the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m. The Economist takes an editorial stance of classical and economic liberalism that supports free trade, free immigration and cultural liberalism; the publication has described itself as "a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and David Hume". It targets educated, cultured readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers; the publication's CEO described this recent global change, first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century as a "new age of Mass Intelligence". The Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the Corn Laws, a system of import tariffs. A prospectus for the "newspaper" from 5 August 1843 enumerated thirteen areas of coverage that its editors wanted the publication to focus on: Original leading articles, in which free-trade principles will be most rigidly applied to all the important questions of the day.
Articles relating to some practical, agricultural, or foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties. An article on the elementary principles of political economy, applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices, rent, exchange and taxes. Parliamentary reports, with particular focus on commerce and free trade. Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade. General news from the Court of St. James's, the Metropolis, the Provinces and Ireland. Commercial topics such as changes in fiscal regulations, the state and prospects of the markets and exports, foreign news, the state of the manufacturing districts, notices of important new mechanical improvements, shipping news, the money market, the progress of railways and public companies. Agricultural topics, including the application of geology and chemistry. Colonial and foreign topics, including trade, produce and fiscal changes, other matters, including exposés on the evils of restriction and protection, the advantages of free intercourse and trade.
Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce and agriculture. Books, confined chiefly, but not so to commerce and agriculture, including all treatises on political economy, finance, or taxation. A commercial gazette, with prices and statistics of the week. Correspondence and inquiries from the news magazine's readers. Wilson described it as taking part in "a severe contest between intelligence, which presses forward, an unworthy, timid ignorance obstructing our progress", a phrase which still appears on its masthead as the publication's mission, it has long been respected as "one of the most competent and subtle Western periodicals on public affairs". The publication was a major source of financial and economic information for Karl Marx in the formulation of socialist theory. In January 2012, The Economist launched a new weekly section devoted to China, the first new country section since the introduction of a section about the United States in 1942. In August 2015, The Economist Group bought back 5 million of its shares from Pearson.
Pearson's remaining shares would be sold to Exor. The editors of The Economist have been: James Wilson 1843–1857 Richard Holt Hutton 1857–1861 Walter Bagehot, 1861–1877 Daniel Conner Lathbury, 1877–1881 Robert Harry Inglis Palgrave, 1877–1883 Edward Johnstone, 1883–1907 Francis Wrigley Hirst, 1907–1916 Hartley Withers, 1916–1921 Sir Walter Layton, 1922–1938 Geoffrey Crowther, 1938–1956 Donald Tyerman, 1956–1965 Sir Alastair Burnet, 1965–1974 Andrew Knight, 1974–1986 Rupert Pennant-Rea, 1986–1993 Bill Emmott, 1993–2006 John Micklethwait, 2006–2014 Zanny Minton Beddoes, 2015–present When the news magazine was founded, the term "economism" denoted what would today be termed "economic liberalism"; the Economist supports free trade and free immigration. The activist and journalist George Monbiot has described it as neo-liberal while accepti