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Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit was an ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European languages. It is attested in the Vedas, texts compiled over the period of the mid-2nd to mid-1st millennium BCE, it was orally preserved. Extensive ancient literature in the Vedic Sanskrit language has survived into the modern era, this has been a major source of information for reconstructing Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Indo-Iranian history. Quite early in the pre-historic era, Sanskrit separated from the Avestan language, an Eastern Iranian language; the exact century of separation is unknown, but this separation of Sanskrit and Avestan occurred before 1800 BCE. The Avestan language developed in ancient Persia, was the language of Zoroastrianism, but was a dead language in the Sasanian period. Vedic Sanskrit developed independently in ancient India, evolved into classical Sanskrit after the grammar and linguistic treatise of Pāṇini, into many related Indian subcontinent languages in which are found the voluminous ancient and medieval literature of Buddhism and Jainism.

The separation of proto-Indo-Iranian language into Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit is estimated, on linguistic grounds, to have occurred around or before 1800 BCE. The date of composition of the oldest hymns of the Rigveda is vague at best estimated to 1500 BCE. Both Asko Parpola and J. P. Mallory place the locus of the division of Indo-Aryan from Iranian in the Bronze Age culture of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex. Parpola elaborates the model and has "Proto-Rigvedic" Indo-Aryans intrude the BMAC around 1700 BCE, he assumes early Indo-Aryan presence in the Late Harappan horizon from about 1900 BCE, "Proto-Rigvedic" intrusion to the Punjab as corresponding to the Gandhara grave culture from about 1700 BCE. According to this model, Rigvedic within the larger Indo-Aryan group is the direct ancestor of the Dardic languages; the early Vedic Sanskrit language was far less homogenous, it evolved over time into a more structured and homogeneous language. The language in the early Upanishads of Hinduism and the late Vedic literature approaches Classical Sanskrit, states Gombrich.

The formalization of the late Vedic Sanskrit language into the Classical Sanskrit form is credited to Pāṇini, along with Patanjali's Mahabhasya and Katyayana's commentary that preceded Patanjali's work. According to Michael Witzel, five chronologically distinct strata can be identified within the Vedic language: Rigvedic - Many words in the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda have cognates or direct correspondences with the ancient Avestan language, but these do not appear in post-Rigvedic Indian texts; the Rigveda must have been complete by around the 12th century BCE. The pre-1200 BCE layers mark a gradual change in Vedic Sanskrit, but there is disappearance of these archaic correspondences and linguistics in the post-Rigvedic period. Mantra language - This period includes both the mantra and prose language of the Atharvaveda, the Rigveda Khilani, the Samaveda Samhita, the mantras of the Yajurveda; these texts are derived from the Rigveda, but have undergone certain changes, both by linguistic change and by reinterpretation.

For example, the more ancient injunctive verb system is no longer in use. Samhita prose - An important linguistic change is the disappearance of the injunctive, optative, imperative. New innovation in Vedic Sanskrit appear such as the development of periphrastic aorist forms; this must have occurred before the time of Pāṇini because Panini makes a list of those from northwestern region of India who knew these older rules of Vedic Sanskrit. Brahmana prose - In this layer of Vedic literature, the archaic Vedic Sanskrit verb system has been abandoned, a prototype of pre-Panini Vedic Sanskrit structure emerges; the Yajñagāthās texts provide a probable link between Vedic Sanskrit, Classical Sanskrit and languages of the Epics. Complex meters such as Anuṣṭubh and rules of Sanskrit prosody had been or were being innovated by this time, but parts of the Brahmana layers show the language is still close to Vedic Sanskrit. Sutra language - This is the last stratum of Vedic literature, comprising the bulk of the Śrautasūtras and Gṛhyasūtras and some Upanishads such as the Katha Upanishad and Maitrayaniya Upanishad.

Vedic differs from Classical Sanskrit to an extent comparable to the difference between Homeric Greek and Classical Greek. Tiwari lists the following principal differences between the two: Vedic had a voiceless bilabial fricative and a voiceless velar fricative —which used to occur as allophones of visarga appeared before voiceless labial and velar consonants respectively. Both of them were lost in Classical Sanskrit to give way to the simple visarga. Upadhmānīya occurs before jihvāmūlīya before k and kh. Vedic had a retroflex lateral approximant as well as its breathy-voiced counterpart, which were lost in Classical Sanskrit, to be replaced with the corresponding plosives and. (Varies by region. Vedic had a separate symbol ळ for retroflex l, an intervocalic allophone of ḍ, transliterated as ḷ or ḷh. In order to disambiguate vocalic l from retroflex l, vocalic l is sometimes transliterated with a ring below the letter, l̥.

John Loprieno

John A. Loprieno is an American actor and writer, he has had appearances on the soap operas Search for Tomorrow and As the World Turns, is best known for his role as Cord Roberts on the ABC soap opera, One Life to Live. Loprieno was born in Chicago and attended Lewis University, he portrayed Cord Roberts on One Life to Live from 1986 through 1992, from 1993 to 1997. He returned in 2004, again on August 16 and August 17, 2007, for One Life to Live's 9,999th and 10,000th episodes, he reappeared on July 2008, during one of the show's 40th anniversary episodes. And again starting August 11, 2008. Loprieno once again reprised his role as Cord Roberts on September 29, 2011, with his former onscreen counterpart Tina, who arrived on September 27, 2011. Loprieno has been an adjunct faculty member at Harper College, he is teaching acting at Moorpark College in Southern California. John Loprieno on IMDb Official website

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