Adobe Inc. is an American multinational computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California. It has focused upon the creation of multimedia and creativity software products, with a more recent foray towards digital marketing software. Adobe is best known for its Adobe Flash web software ecosystem, Photoshop image editing software, Acrobat Reader, the Portable Document Format, Adobe Creative Suite, as well as its successor Adobe Creative Cloud. Adobe was founded in December 1982 by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell the PostScript page description language. In 1985, Apple Computer licensed PostScript for use in its LaserWriter printers, which helped spark the desktop publishing revolution; as of 2018, Adobe has about 19,000 employees worldwide, about 40% of whom work in San Jose. Adobe has major development operations in Newton, Massachusetts, it has major development operations in Noida and Bangalore in India The company was started in John Warnock's garage.
The name of the company, comes from Adobe Creek in Los Altos, which ran behind Warnock's house. Adobe's corporate logo features a stylized "A" and was designed by Marva Warnock, graphic designer and John Warnock's wife. Steve Jobs asked to buy the company for five million dollars in 1982, but Warnock and Geschke refused, their investors urged them to work something out with Jobs, so they agreed to sell him shares worth 19 percent of the company, for which Jobs paid a five-times multiple of their company's valuation at the time, plus a five-year license fee for PostScript, in advance. The purchase and advance made Adobe the first company in the history of Silicon Valley to become profitable in its first year. Warnock and Geschke considered various business options including a copy-service business and a turnkey system for office printing, they chose to focus on developing specialized printing software, created the Adobe PostScript page description language. PostScript was the first international standard for computer printing as it included algorithms describing the letter-forms of many languages.
Adobe added kanji printer products in 1988. Warnock and Geschke were able to bolster the credibility of Postscript by connecting with a typesetting manufacturer, they weren't able to work with Compugraphic, but worked with Linotype to license the Helvetica and Times Roman fonts. By 1987, PostScript had become the industry-standard printer language with more than 400 third-party software programs and licensing agreements with 19 printer companies. Warnock described the language as "extensible", in its ability to apply graphic arts standards to office printing. Adobe's first products after PostScript were digital fonts, which they released in a proprietary format called Type 1. Apple subsequently developed a competing standard, TrueType, which provided full scalability and precise control of the pixel pattern created by the font's outlines, licensed it to Microsoft. In the mid-1980s, Adobe entered the consumer software market with Illustrator, a vector-based drawing program for the Apple Macintosh.
Illustrator, which grew from the firm's in-house font-development software, helped popularize PostScript-enabled laser printers. Adobe entered NASDAQ in August 1986, its revenue has grown from $1 billion in 1999 to $4 billion in 2012. Adobe's fiscal years run from December to November. For example, the 2007 fiscal year ended on November 30, 2007. In 1989, Adobe introduced what was to become its flagship product, a graphics editing program for the Macintosh called Photoshop. Stable and full-featured, Photoshop 1.0 was ably soon dominated the market. In 1993, Adobe introduced PDF, the Portable Document Format, its Adobe Acrobat and Reader software. PDF is now an International Standard: ISO 32000-1:2008. In December 1991, Adobe released Adobe Premiere, which Adobe rebranded as Adobe Premiere Pro in 2003. In 1992, Adobe acquired Inc.. In 1994, Adobe acquired Aldus and added PageMaker and After Effects to its product line in the year. In the same year, Adobe acquired Compution Inc.. In 1995, Adobe added FrameMaker, the long-document DTP application, to its product line after Adobe acquired Frame Technology Corp.
In 1996, Adobe Inc added Ares Software Corp. In 2002, Adobe acquired Canadian company Accelio. On December 12, 2005, Adobe acquired its main rival, Macromedia, in a stock swap valued at about $3.4 billion, adding ColdFusion, Captivate, Adobe Connect, Dreamweaver, Flash, FlashPaper, FreeHand, HomeSite, JRun and Authorware to Adobe's product line. Adobe released Adobe Media Player in April 2008. On April 27, Adobe discontinued development and sales of its older HTML/web development software, GoLive in favor of Dreamweaver. Adobe offered a discount on Dreamweaver for GoLive users and supports those who still use GoLive with online tutorials and migration assistance. On June 1, Adobe launched a series of web applications geared for collaborative work. Creative Suite 4, which includes Design, Production Premium, Master Collection came out in October 2008 in six configurations at prices from about US$1,700 to $2,500 or by individual application; the Windows version of Photoshop includes 64-bit processing.
On December 3, 2008, Adobe laid off 600 of its employees citing the weak economic environment. On November 10, 2009, the company laid off a further 680 emplo
Kommersant is a nationally distributed daily newspaper published in Russia devoted to politics and business. It is a leading liberal business broadsheet; the TNS Media and NRS Russia certified July 2013 circulation of the daily was 120,000-130,000. The newspaper was published in 1909, it was closed down following the Bolshevik seizure of power and the introduction of censorship in 1917. In 1989, with the onset of press freedom in Russia, Kommersant was re-established under the ownership of businessman and publicist Vladimir Yakovlev. To make the point that the publication had outlasted the Soviet regime, "Kommersant" is spelled in Russian with a terminal hard sign – a letter, silent at the end of a word in modern Russian, was thus abolished by the post-revolution Russian spelling reform; this is played up in the Kommersant logo, which features a script hard sign at the end of somewhat more formal font. The newspaper refers to itself or its redaction as “Ъ”. In 1997, business mogul Boris Berezovsky – a member of the former President Boris Yeltsin's'family' – bought the Kommersant publishing house, which included Kommersant-daily, two serious weekly magazines (the political Kommersant-vlast and the financial Kommersant Dengi – as well as entertainment magazines Domovoi and Avtopilot and Molotok, a teen magazine, which incurred the authorities' wrath.
Berezovsky sacked Kommersant's director-general, Andrei Vassiliev, editor-in-chief, Alexander Stukalin, on 14 July 2005 in a move seen as preparation for the 2008 Russian presidential elections. In January 2005, Kommersant published blank pages as a protest at a court ruling ordering it to publish a denial of a story about a crisis at Alfa-Bank; the sole article in the paper was this one, published upside down, on the front page. The headline of the article was "Full Plaintiff" which has little meaning, but rhymes with a Russian swear word, meaning "complete disaster"; the English version of the article was headed "Alfa-d Up". Berezovsky sold the Kommersant publishing house to an old friend and business partner, Georgian fruit canner and opposition television station owner Badri Patarkatsishvili, chairman of the Kommersant company's board. In August 2006, Patarkatsishvili sold his 100% stake in the Kommersant publishing house to Alisher Usmanov, head of Gazprom's Gazprominvestholding subsidiary.
After clashing with Usmanov, Kommersant editor-in-chief Vladislav Borodulin left the paper. " decision to resign was not forced, but evidently they expressed different views on how the publishing house should be developed," said the group's commercial director. Andrei Vasilyev, appointed for a second stint at the helm of the daily – after a long run from 1999 to 2005– said Kommersant-daily had no intention of following any imposed policy, added that the edition would carry articles that might not please the owner. On 9 December 2008 the publication of articles in English ceased, the Kommersant website has no English version. Since February 2009 Kommersant newspaper is distributed in the United Kingdom. In 2015, the paper began hosting US-Russia Crosstalk, a joint initiative between Kommersant and the Valdai Club in Russia, The Washington Times and the Center for the National Interest in the United States, featuring foreign policy related discussion regarding relations between the two countries.
In January 2000 Kommersant was found guilty of libel against Russian entrepreneur Alex Konanykhin and ordered to pay compensation of US$3,000,000. In May 2009 a Russian MP and prominent businessman Oleg Mikheyev sued the Kommersant for $217 million, claiming that one of the newspaper's articles "spoiled of his bank so badly it had to be sold at disadvantageous price"; the court dismissed the judicial proceeding due to jurisdictional issues. Kommersant FM a Russian news-radio station KommersantЪ, English version online BBC news reporting on Kommersant's protest Photo gallery celebrating Kommersant's 15th anniversary Story in the St. Petersburg Times about the sale of Kommersant
Pearson College London
Pearson College London is a British private academic degree provider based in London owned by Pearson plc. It was founded in 2012, is the only FTSE 100 company in the UK to design and deliver degrees; the institution is separated into two subdivisions - Pearson Business School, which offers business-related degrees and degree apprenticeships, Escape Studios, a visual effects academy Pearson plc acquired in 2013 which offers degrees and short courses in the creative arts ranging from Game Art to Animation. The creation of Pearson College London was announced in July 2011. Pearson College London launched its first degree programme in September 2012. In August 2013 it was announced that Pearson College London would begin offering business degrees validated by Ashridge Business School, whilst continuing with its partnership with Royal Holloway. In October 2013 Pearson College London acquired Europe's leading VFX academy. Escape Studios now offers courses in VFX, Games and Animation at undergraduate and short course levels.
Students of Pearson College London study at Pearson's offices in London at 190 High Holborn. Residential courses within the Business School have previously been delivered at Royal Holloway, University of London's campus in Egham, Surrey. Entry requirements vary depending upon the chosen level of study. Applicants are required to attend a workshop day including an interview and an aptitude test. Pearson College London offers a range of short courses; the courses cover Accounting, Enterprise, Computer Animation, Video Games and Visual Effects. Courses can be studied part-time or online, depending on which course is chosen; the degree programmes are validated by the University of Kent. All of the degrees are designed and delivered with industry partners including Unilever, Direct Line Group, Sony Pictures Entertainment, WPP plc, Lotus F1, BT Group, Lloyd's of London, Savills and L'Oreal. Industry partners within VFX, Games and Animation include Framestore, The Mill, Moving Picture Company, BlueBolt, Electric Theatre and Jellyfish Pictures.
Official Pearson College website
The Vedomosti was the first newspaper printed in Russia. It was established by Peter the Great's ukase dated 16 December 1702; the first issue appeared on 2 January 1703. Following along the lines of the 17th-century handwritten Kuranty, Peter's newspaper contained little other than reports of military victories and diplomatic relations, either composed by the tsar himself or translated from Dutch newspapers according to his choice; the newspaper was published at the Print Yard in Kitai-gorod, Moscow. In 1710, engravings were introduced by way of decoration, they represented the Peter and Paul Fortress or the Neva River, thus reflecting the growing importance of Saint Petersburg. From 1711, most issues were printed in the Northern capital. Peter's Vedomosti was published quite irregularly, as important news arrived — sometimes as many as seventy issues appeared annually, sometimes only one; the circulation fluctuated from several dozen copies to four thousand. In 1719, the newspaper contained 22 pages.
These early issues of the Vedomosti — of which only a fraction survives — were reprinted in 1855. With Peter's death in 1725, the newspaper lost its most precious contributor; as Russia offered no choice of journalists who could carry on his project, ownership of the paper was transferred to the Russian Academy of Sciences, which renamed it Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti in 1727. In the course of the 18th century, the academics issued the newspaper twice a week, supplementing it with extensive scholarly "commentaries", whose editors included Fedor Polikarpov-Orlov, Gerhardt Friedrich Müller, Mikhail Lomonosov, Ippolit Bogdanovich. Since 1800, the Saint Petersburg Vedomosti was published daily. Controlled editorially by the liberal journalist Evgeny Korsh since 1863, the Vedomosti was brought to the forefront of the country's political life, as it campaigned for Europeanizing reforms and opposed the conservative stance of the semi-official Moskovskie Vedomosti. Korsh clashed with censors over his liberal views until 1875, when he was dismissed from the editorial staff and the paper was taken over by the Imperial Ministry of Education.
After that, the newspaper's circulation and influence declined and it took the Octobrist editorial stance. The Russian Revolution brought about its closure in 1917, it was not until 1991 that the former Communist Party daily Leningradskaya Pravda was rebranded as the revived Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti. The first issue of the new Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti was published on 1 September 1991, it is published five times a week with a circulation of 190,000. There is a business daily, the Vedomosti, introduced in 1999. On December 28th 1995, the newspaper was reorganized by the St. Petersburg Mayor Office as a joint stock company, it belongs to the JSC Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti Editorial House. Vladimir Putin was the first Chairman of the newspapers's Advisory Board until June 1997. In 2005 the Russia bank, a co-founder of the JSC and had owned 20% share of the newspaper, acquired blocking share of 35 percent. Томсинский С. М. Первая печатная газета России, Пермь, 1959. Official site of Sankt-Peterburgskie Vedomosti
Dow Jones & Company
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm, owned by News Corp. since 2007. The company was best known for the publication of the Dow Jones Industrial Average and related market statistics, Dow Jones Newswire and a number of financial publications. In 2010 the Dow Jones Indexes subsidiary was sold to the CME Group and the company focused on financial news publications, including its flagship publication The Wall Street Journal and providing financial news and information tools to financial companies; the company was led by the Bancroft family, which held 64% of voting stock, from the 1920s until 2007 when an extended takeover battle saw News Corp take control of the company. The company was founded in 1882 by three reporters: Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser. Dow Jones was acquired in 1902 by Clarence Barron, the leading financial journalist of the day, after the death of co-founder Charles Dow. Upon Barron's death in 1928, control of the company passed to his stepdaughters Jane and Martha Bancroft.
The company was led by the Bancroft family, which controlled 64% of all voting stock, until 2007 when an extended takeover battle saw News Corporation acquire the business. The company became a subsidiary of News Corporation, it was reported on August 1, 2007, that the bid had been successful after an extended period of uncertainty about shareholder agreement. The transaction was completed on December 13, 2007, it was worth US$5 billion or $60 a share, giving News Corp control of The Wall Street Journal and ending the Bancroft family's 105 years of ownership. In 2010, the company sold 90% of Dow Jones Indexes to the CME Group, including the Dow Jones Industrial Average, its flagship publication, The Wall Street Journal, is a daily newspaper in print and online covering business, financial national and international news and issues around the globe. It began publishing on July 8, 1889. There are 12 versions of the Journal in nine languages, including English, Japanese, Spanish, Bahasa and Korean.
The Journal holds 35 Pulitzer Prizes for outstanding journalism. Other consumer-oriented publications of Dow Jones include Barron's Magazine, a weekly overview of the world economy and markets and MarketWatch, the online financial news site. Financial News provides news on investment banking and asset management. BigCharts, provided by MarketWatch's Virtual Stock Exchange Games, includes stock charts, interactive charting, research tools. Professor Journal, is a "Journal" in education program for professors to integrate into curriculum. In 2017, Dow Jones launched Moneyish, a lifestyle and personal finance website aimed at millennial readers. Dow Jones published Heat Street, an online news and opinion website launched in February 2016, folded into MarketWatch; the monthly journal Far Eastern Economic Review closed in September 2009. Dow Jones serves corporate markets and financial markets clients with financial news and information products and services, its products combine technology tools to help drive decisions.
Dow Jones owns more than 20 products that combine content and technology to help drive decisions which include. Dow Jones FX Select, delivers real-time, breaking global FX news, expert trend analysis and in-depth policy commentary in 13 languages, it provides data on venture-backed companies, including their investors and executives, in every region and stage of development throughout the world. Private Equity Analyst, timely news and critical analysis of private equity and venture capital activity. Offers exclusive insight and breaking news on developments in fund-raising, deal finance, returns, executive moves and more. Dow Jones Risk & Compliance, on risk management, regulatory compliance or corporate governance content for Anti-Corruption, Anti-Money Laundering, Payments & Sanctions and more. Dow Jones Newswires is the real-time financial news organization founded in 1882, its primary competitors are Bloomberg L. P. and Thomson Reuters. The company reports more than 600,000 subscribers — including brokers, analysts, world leaders, finance officials and fund managers — as of July 2011.
In 2009 Dow Jones Ventures launched FINS.com, a standalone resource for financial professionals with information about finance careers and the finance industry. In broadcasting, Dow Jones provides news content to CNBC in the U. S, it produced two shows for commercial radio, The Wall Street Journal Report on the Wall Street Journal Radio Network and The Dow Jones Report. The network was shut down in 2014. Dow Jones launched WSJ Live an interactive video website that provides live and on demand videos from The Wall Street Journal Video Network. Programs include "News Hub", "MoneyBeat", "Lunch Break" among others. WSJ Live was shut down in 2017. Dow Jones sold a 90% stake in its Index business for $607.5M to Chicago-based CME Group, which owns the Chicago Mercantile Exchange, in February 2010. A few of the most used include: Dow Jones Industrial Average Dow Jones Transportation Average Dow Jones Utility Average Dow Jones Composite Average The Global Dow Dow Jones Global Titans 50 Index Dow Jones Total Stock Market Index Dow Jones Sustainability Indexes Dow Jones-UBS Commodity Indexes Dow Jones Target Date Indexes In March 2017, Dow Jones and NewsPicks Inc. a Ja
The Moscow Times
The Moscow Times is an English-language weekly newspaper published in Moscow, with a circulation of 55,000 copies. It is distributed free of charge at places frequented by English-speaking tourists and expatriates such as hotels, cafés, airlines, is available by subscription; the newspaper is popular among foreign citizens residing in English-speaking Russians. In November 2015 the newspaper changed its design and type from daily to weekly and increased the number of pages to 24; the newspaper publishes articles by prominent Russian journalists such as Yulia Latynina and Ivan Nechepurenko. Some foreign correspondents started their careers here, including Ellen Barry, who became the New York Times Moscow bureau chief and won a Pulitzer Prize. Derk Sauer, a Dutch publisher who came to Moscow in 1989, made plans to turn his small, twice-weekly paper called the Moscow Guardian into a world-class daily newspaper. Sauer brought in Meg Bortin as its first editor in May 1992, the team used a room at the Radisson Slavyanskaya Hotel as its headquarters.
The first edition of The Moscow Times was published in March 1992. It was the first Western daily to be published in Russia, became "a primary source of news and opinion" quoted in both Russia and the West, it "played an important role by giving space to Russian commentators". For example, in the fall of 1993, it was able to play a role in defeating the censors: "when anti-Yeltsin forces occupied the Russian Parliament and censorship was revived. Russian newspapers came out with large blank spaces on their front pages where articles critical of the authorities had been suppressed; the writers of those articles came to see us. Published the next day in English in The Moscow Times, their articles were picked up and beamed back in Russian by the BBC and other foreign radios, defeating the censors."From the mid 1990s until 2000, it was based in the old headquarters of Pravda. In 1997, the website moscowtimes.ru was registered. In 2003–04, the newspaper added Jobs & Careers and Real Estate appendices, in 2005 the Moscow Guide appendix, featuring high culture.
The annual Moscow Dining Guide was launched in 2005. Until 2005, the paper was owned by Independent Media, a Moscow-registered publishing house that prints a Russian-language daily newspaper, The St. Petersburg Times and Russian-language versions of popular glossy magazines such as FHM, Men's Health and Cosmopolitan Russia; that year, Independent Media was acquired by the Finnish publishing group Sanoma. In 2006, the paper began its alliance with the International Herald Tribune, while 2009 saw the launch of the themoscowtimes.com website. The first color issue was published in 2010. In 2009, it published Russia for Beginners: A Foreigner's Guide to Russia, written by foreign authors who offer advice based on their own experiences of living in Russia; the paper celebrated its 20th anniversary in 2012 with a gala dinner at the Hotel Baltschug Kempinski in Moscow. In January 2014, malicious ads on the newspaper's website redirected visitors to an exploit kit landing page. In December 2014, The Moscow Times was forced offline for two days by a distributed denial of service attack.
It was forced offline a second time in February 2015 for unknown reasons. In April 2014 longtime editor-in-chief Andrew McChesney stepped down and was replaced by Nabi Abdullaev, a former Moscow Times reporter, news editor, managing editor, deputy editor-in-chief who had left in 2011 to head RIA Novosti's foreign-language news service. Shortly after his appointment, Abdullaev argued in The Guardian that the west's "biased journalism...robs the west of its moral authority". In Autumn 2015 Abdullaev was replaced by Mikhail Fishman. In the aftermath of the Ukrainian crisis, The Moscow Times was criticized by a number of journalists including Izvestia columnist Israel Shamir, who in December 2014 called it a "militant anti-Putin paper, a digest of the Western press with extreme bias in covering events in Russia". In October 2014 The Moscow Times made the decision to suspend online comments after an increase in offensive comments; the paper said it disabled comments for two reasons—it was an inconvenience for its readers as well as being a legal liability, because under Russian law websites are liable for all content, including user-generated content like comments.
In 2014, sister publication The St. Petersburg Times ceased publication. In 2015, Sanoma sold MoscowTimes LLC to a former director of Kommersant. In 2017 The paper version stopped; the last paper number appeared on July 6.. In July 2017 the operation of the paper changed to a foundation based in the Netherlands; the ownership of the paper is split between Vladimir Jao, the CEO of an airline catering company, with 51%, Svetlana Korshunova, general director of the paper with 30%, Sauer with 19%. This is to comply with a Russian law mandating no more than 20% of media companies in Russia can be owned by foreigners. Online, it has PDF issues that go back to 2001, its archive contains nearly 130,000 articles dating back to 1994. International Herald Tribune – international news every day Inter-country annexes The Moscow Times – Russia-France, Russia-Finland, Russia-UK, etc; these editions are dedicated to bilateral issues of cooperation and promote establishing of business and investment programs of interaction between two countries.
They focus on economic and investment, as well as inter-culture project, tourism issues. Real Estate Catalog and Real Estate Quarterly – regular specialized business editions about the real estate market The Moscow Times Guide – Russia for Beginners, Russia for the Advanced, Dining Guide
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo