Plant cream is cream derived from a plant source. Common varieties are soy coconut cream. There are a variety of reasons for consuming plant cream, including conditions such as PKU, making digestion of animal proteins difficult or impossible, lactose intolerance and milk allergy, Jewish Kashrut, veganism or ovo-vegetarianism, the avoidance of dairy products, considered unappealing by some people. Soy-free and gluten-free plant creams are marketed towards people with multiple food allergies and coeliac disease. Plant milk may be considered by many Westerners as a substitute for dairy milk, but plant milks are manufactured and used in places where cow's milk is unknown or unavailable in large quantities, or is unpopular because of cost. Almond milk Coconut cream Coconut milk Plant milk Soy yogurt Tofu
Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
Environmental vegetarianism is the practice of vegetarianism or eating a plant-based diet, based on the indications that animal-based industries are environmentally destructive or unsustainable. The primary environmental concerns with animal products are pollution—including greenhouse gas emissions —deforestation, the use of resources such as fossil fuels and land. Four-fifths of agricultural emissions arise from the livestock sector. Estimates on greenhouse gas emissions attributable to animal products range from 18% to 51% of total global emissions. However, a PNAS model showed that if animals were removed from U. S. agriculture and diets, U. S. GHG emissions would be decreased by 2.6% only. This conclusion is on the basis that, in the absence of animal manure from animal agriculture, synthetic fertilizers would have to be produced, in order to meet a plant based global food demand, which releases GHG emissions; the study contributes this to the disposal of byproducts, which would otherwise be used as domesticated animal feed, emissions from growing crops on land used to rear agricultural animals.
Moreover, it is suggested that a conversion of the global population to a plant based diet may increase rates of nutrient deficiencies in the US, because the types of crops suitable to be grown on US climate and soils may not be sufficient for a balanced diet. A 2017 study published in the journal Carbon Balance and Management found animal agriculture's global methane emissions are 11% higher than previous estimates, based on data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. According to a 2019 report in The Lancet, global meat consumption needs to be reduced by 50 percent to mitigate for climate change. A study in Climate Change concluded "if... average diets among UK adults conformed to WHO recommendations, their associated GHG emissions would be reduced by 17 %. Further GHG emission reductions of around 40% could be achieved by making realistic modifications to diets so that they contain fewer animal products and processed snacks and more fruit and cereals."According to the 2006 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations report Livestock's Long Shadow, animal agriculture contributes on a "massive scale" to global warming, air pollution, land degradation, energy use and biodiversity decline.
The FAO report estimates that the livestock sector contributes about 18 percent of global GHG emissions expressed as 100-year CO2 equivalents. This estimate was based on life-cycle analysis, including feed production, land use changes, etc. and used GWP of 23 for methane and 296 for nitrous oxide, to convert emissions of these gases to 100-year CO2 equivalents. The FAO report concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global"; some sources disagree with some of the figures used in arriving at the FAO estimate of 18 percent. For example, the FAO report estimates that 37 percent of global anthropogenic methane emissions are attributable to the livestock sector, a NASA summary indicates about 30 percent; because of the GWP multiplier used, such a difference between estimates will have a large effect on an estimate of GHG CO2 equivalents contributed by the livestock sector.
Livestock sources account for about 3.1 percent of US anthropogenic GHG emissions expressed as CO2 equivalents. This estimate is based on methodologies agreed to by the Conference of Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A 2010 report from the United Nations Environment Programme's International Panel of Sustainable Resource Management stated: Impacts from agriculture are expected to increase due to population growth and increasing consumption of animal products. Unlike fossil fuels, it is difficult to look for alternatives: people have to eat. A substantial reduction of impacts would only be possible with a substantial worldwide diet change, away from animal products. According to Cornell University scientists: "The heavy dependence on fossil energy suggests that the US food system, whether meat-based or plant-based, is not sustainable". However, they write: "The meat-based food system requires more energy and water resources than the lactoovovegetarian diet.
In this limited sense, the lactoovovegetarian diet is more sustainable than the average American meat-based diet." One of these Cornell scientists has advised that the US could feed 800 million people with grain that livestock eat. He "depicted grain-fed livestock farming as a costly and nonsustainable way to produce animal protein", but "distinguished grain-fed meat production from pasture-raised livestock, calling cattle-grazing a more reasonable use of marginal land". According to a 2002 paper: The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel and topsoil at unsustainable rates, it contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat—instead of feeding it directly to humans—involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource intensive than other forms of food production....
One personal act that can have a profound impact on these issues is reducing meat consumption. To produce 1 pound of feedlot beef requires about 2,400 gallons of water and 7 pounds of grain
Vienna is the federal capital and largest city of Austria, one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, its cultural and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union; until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC; the city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of the Czech Republic and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.
Apart from being regarded as the City of Music because of its musical legacy, Vienna is said to be "The City of Dreams" because it was home to the world's first psychoanalyst – Sigmund Freud. The city's roots lie in early Celtic and Roman settlements that transformed into a Medieval and Baroque city, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is well known for having played an essential role as a leading European music centre, from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century. The historic centre of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including Baroque castles and gardens, the late-19th-century Ringstraße lined with grand buildings and parks. Vienna is known for its high quality of life. In a 2005 study of 127 world cities, the Economist Intelligence Unit ranked the city first for the world's most liveable cities. Between 2011 and 2015, Vienna was ranked second, behind Melbourne. In 2018, it replaced Melbourne as the number one spot. For ten consecutive years, the human-resource-consulting firm Mercer ranked Vienna first in its annual "Quality of Living" survey of hundreds of cities around the world.
Monocle's 2015 "Quality of Life Survey" ranked Vienna second on a list of the top 25 cities in the world "to make a base within."The UN-Habitat classified Vienna as the most prosperous city in the world in 2012/2013. The city was ranked 1st globally for its culture of innovation in 2007 and 2008, sixth globally in the 2014 Innovation Cities Index, which analyzed 162 indicators in covering three areas: culture and markets. Vienna hosts urban planning conferences and is used as a case study by urban planners. Between 2005 and 2010, Vienna was the world's number-one destination for international congresses and conventions, it attracts over 6.8 million tourists a year. The English name Vienna is borrowed from the homonymous Italian version of the city's name or the French Vienne; the etymology of the city's name is still subject to scholarly dispute. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently produced the Old High German Uuenia, the New High German Wien and its dialectal variant Wean.
Others believe that the name comes from the Roman settlement name of Celtic extraction Vindobona meaning "fair village, white settlement" from Celtic roots, vindo-, meaning "bright" or "fair" – as in the Irish fionn and the Welsh gwyn –, -bona "village, settlement". The Celtic word Vindos may reflect a widespread prehistorical cult of a Celtic God. A variant of this Celtic name could be preserved in the Czech and Polish names of the city and in that of the city's district Wieden; the name of the city in Hungarian, Serbo-Croatian and Ottoman Turkish has a different Slavonic origin, referred to an Avar fort in the area. Slovene-speakers call the city Dunaj, which in other Central European Slavic languages means the Danube River, on which the city stands. Evidence has been found of continuous habitation in the Vienna area since 500 BC, when Celts settled the site on the Danube River. In 15 BC the Romans fortified the frontier city they called Vindobona to guard the empire against Germanic tribes to the north.
Close ties with other Celtic peoples continued through the ages. The Irish monk Saint Colman is buried in Melk Abbey and Saint Fergil served as Bishop of Salzburg for forty years. Irish Benedictines founded twelfth-century monastic settlements. Evidence of these ties persists in the form of Vienna's great Schottenstift monastery, once home to many Irish monks. In 976 Leopold I of Babenberg became count of the Eastern March, a 60-mile district centering on the Danube on the eastern frontier of Bavaria; this initial district grew into the duchy of Austria. Each succeeding Babenberg ruler expanded the march east along the Danube encompassing Vienna and the lands east. In 1145 Duke Henry II Jasomirgott moved the Babenberg family residence from Klosterneuburg in Lower Austria to Vienna. From that time, Vienna remained the center of the Babenberg dynasty. In 1440 Vienna became the resident city of the Habsburg dynasty, it grew to become the de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire in 1437 and a cultural centre for arts and science and fine cuisine.
Hungary occupied the city between 1485 and 1490. In the 16th and 1
Vegetarian nutrition is the set of health-related challenges and advantages of vegetarian diets. If well-planned and fortified to balance possible deficiencies, vegetarian diets can become nutritionally adequate and can be appropriate for all stages of the human life cycle, including during pregnancy, infancy and adolescence; when fortified, a vegetarian diet can provide adequate protein, zinc, vitamin B12, calcium intake. However, in non-fortified vegetarian diets, or when not enough calories are consumed, these nutrients can be dangerously low and may compromise children's health and development. Evidence suggests that vegetarians have lower rates of coronary heart disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis. Vegetarian diets tend to be rich in carbohydrates, omega-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, potassium and magnesium, they are low in saturated fat and animal protein. The Oxford Vegetarian Study showed that the health of vegetarians compares favourably with those who eat meat.
British vegetarians have lower death rates than those who eat meat, although this is at least due to lifestyle factors beyond diet, such as a low prevalence of smoking, the high socioeconomic status of vegetarians, or to certain aspects of the diet other than the specific avoidance of meat and fish. The School of Public Health at Loma Linda University has conducted three cohort studies that identify the health benefits of a vegetarian diet; the University is a Seventh-day Adventist health science institution. The first study, funded by the US Public Health Service in 1958 and limited to Adventists in California, included many vegetarians; the next cohort of California Adventists, the Adventist Health Study-1, collected data from 1974 to 1976. From 2002 to 2007, the Adventist Health Study-2 collected dietary data from 96,000 church members from the United States and Canada. Many scientific articles have been published on the health and nutrition properties of a vegetarian diet from these cohort studies.
The most recent AHS-2 study includes findings on metabolic syndrome, Vitamin D absorption, type-2 diabetes. The 2010 version of Dietary Guidelines for Americans, a report issued by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services every five years, states that: In prospective studies of adults, compared to non-vegetarian eating patterns, vegetarian-style eating patterns have been associated with improved health outcomes – lower levels of obesity, a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, lower total mortality. Several clinical trials have documented. On average, vegetarians consume a lower proportion of calories from fat. Vegetarians have a lower body mass index; these characteristics and other lifestyle factors associated with a vegetarian diet may contribute to the positive health outcomes that have been identified among vegetarians. Vegetarians may avoid the negative health effects of red meat in the form of processed meats: A 1999 meta-study of five studies comparing vegetarian and non-vegetarian mortality rates in Western countries found that, in comparison with regular meat eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 34% lower in people who ate fish but not meat, 34% lower in ovo-lacto vegetarians, 26% lower in vegans, 20% lower in occasional meat eaters.
A 2010 study found. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. There is, evidence that vegetarians tend to have some positive health attributes: a lower body mass index, lower risk of obesity, lower blood cholesterol levels, lower homocysteine levels, lower risk of high blood pressure, lower risk of type 2 diabetes. Despite the long-standing, widespread belief that vegetarians must consume grains and beans within a short time to make a complete protein that contains all 9 essential amino acids that must be supplied through diet, this has never been substantiated by research; the protein-combining theory was brought to popular attention after being promoted in Frances Moore Lappé's 1971 bestselling book Diet for a Small Planet. In editions of the book, starting in 1981, Lappé withdrew her contention that protein combining is necessary. Plant foods rich in protein include soy beans and soy products such as tofu, veggie burgers, soy milk.
Vitamin B12 deficiency can be serious and lead to megaloblastic anemia, nerve degeneration and irreversible neurological damage. Vegetarians may get vitamin B12 from eggs and dairy products. More broadly, according to the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics the form of vitamin B12 sourced from animal products is protein-bound and not as digested as supplements as people age, therefore B12 supplementation is recommended for everyone over the age of 50. Pregnant and lactating vegetarian mothers—and breastfed infants if the vegetarian mother's diet is not supplemented—should use supplements, whether B12-pills, B12-injections, or B12-fortified foods, if they don't get adequate vitamin B12 from animal products like eggs or dairy. Humans need 2.4 to 3 micrograms of vitamin B12 each day. Although some argue that developing a disease from B12 deficiency by following a sensible diet is rare
Vegan studies is the study, within the humanities and social sciences, of veganism as an identity and ideology, the exploration of its depiction in literature, the arts, popular culture, the media. In a narrower use of the term, it seeks to establish veganism as a "mode of thinking and writing", a "means of critique", "a new lens for ecocritical textual analysis". Vegan studies is related to critical animal studies. Working within a variety of disciplines, scholars in the field discuss issues such as the commodity status of animals; because the field is new, its parameters are unclear. Donald Watson, secretary of the British Vegetarian Society's Leicester branch, coined the term vegan in 1944, when he created the Vegan News for strict vegetarians who would not eat any animal products. Several works of philosophy and ecofeminism in the 1970s and 1980s—including Peter Singer's Animal Liberation; the period led to the development of human–animal studies, the study of how humans and nonhumans interact, how humans have classified other animals, what that social construction means.
It led, in the early 2000s, to the development of critical animal studies, an academic field dedicated to studying and ending the exploitation of animals. Named in 2007, CAS grew directly out of the animal liberation movement, linking "activism and animal suffering". Veganism is described as "a baseline for CAS praxis". Criticizing human–animal studies as anthropocentric, aiming for "total liberation", CAS scholars declared themselves committed to the "abolition of animal and ecological exploitation". In the 1990s and 2000s, several works informed the development of vegan studies. Described as one of the field's foundational texts, Carol J. Adams's The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist-Vegetarian Critical Theory linked vegetarianism directly to feminism, she argued that "the killing of animals for food is a feminist issue that feminists have failed to claim". Other works that influenced vegan studies include Nick Fiddes's Meat: A Natural Symbol. In December 2013, in the journal PhaenEx, media scholar Eva Giraud discussed the relationship of veganism to animal studies and posthumanism.
Academic work on veganism appeared in Nick Taylor and Richard Twine's 2014 collection, The Rise of Critical Animal Studies, in December that year, Emilia Quinn and Benjamin Westwood addressed a workshop at the University of York, organized by the art historian Jason Edwards, to discuss "the fast developing field of vegan theory". Quinn and Westwood write that veganism's "entry into the academy" began around 2010. Shortly after the publication that year of her collection Sistah Vegan, A. Breeze Harper announced a new "critical race and veg*n studies intersect" research group on her website, The Sistah Vegan Project, was working on "applications of critical race and black feminist studies to vegan studies in the US". In 2010, the Journal for Critical Animal Studies published an edition devoted to the perspectives of women of color, "eerily absent from critical animal studies and vegan studies in general", they included an essay by Harper, "Race as a'Feeble Matter' in Veganism". Vegan studies was proposed as a new academic field by Laura Wright, professor of English at Western Carolina University, in October 2015 in her book The Vegan Studies Project: Food and Gender in the Age of Terror, described as the "first major academic monograph in the humanities focused on veganism".
Wright's work was prompted by research for her doctoral dissertation into J. M. Coetzee's Disgrace and The Lives of Animals, was further influenced by Adams's The Sexual Politics of Meat. Wright frames vegan studies according to Caitlin E. Stobie. In 2016 the French scholar Renan Larue, author of Le végétarisme et ses ennemis: Vingt-cinq siècles de débats, began teaching a vegan studies course at the University of California, Santa Barbara; the first such course in the United States, it has explored animal ethics, Melanie Joy's concept of carnism, Peter Singer's utilitarianism, Tom Regan's and Gary Francione's rights-based approach, Marti Kheel's ecofeminism, Carol J. Adams's ethics of care. In May 2016 Quinn and Westwood organized a conference at Wolfson College, Towards a Vegan Theory, at which Wright gave the keynote address. Other works in vegan studies followed, including a 2016 collection, Critical Perspectives on Veganism, published by Palgrave Macmillan and edited by Jodey Castricano and Rasmus R. Simonsen.
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons