The Cucurbitaceae called cucurbits and the gourd family, are a plant family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 genera, the most important of which are: Cucurbita – squash, zucchini, some gourds Lagenaria – calabash, others that are inedible Citrullus – watermelon and others Cucumis – cucumber, various melons Luffa – the common name is luffa, sometimes spelled loofah The plants in this family are grown around the tropics and in temperate areas, where those with edible fruits were among the earliest cultivated plants in both the Old and New Worlds. The Cucurbitaceae family ranks among the highest of plant families for number and percentage of species used as human food; the Cucurbitaceae consist of 98 proposed genera with 975 species in regions tropical and subtropical. All species are sensitive to frost. Most of the plants in this family are annual vines, but some are woody lianas, thorny shrubs, or trees. Many species have yellow or white flowers; the stems are pentangular. Tendrils are present at 90° to the leaf petioles at nodes.
Leaves are palmately compound. The flowers are unisexual, on the same plant; the female flowers have inferior ovaries. The fruit is a kind of modified berry called a pepo. One of the oldest fossil cucurbits so far is †Cucurbitaciphyllum lobatum from the Paleocene epoch, found at Shirley Canal, Montana, it was described for the first time in 1924 by the paleobotanist Frank Hall Knowlton. The fossil leaf is palmate, trilobed with an entire or serrate margin, it has a leaf pattern similar to the members of the genera Kedrostis and Zehneria. The most recent classification of Cucurbitaceae delineates 15 tribes: Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships: Six cucurbit crops are represented in 23 Byzantine-era mosaics from Israel, these being round melons, sponge gourds, snake melons, adzhur melons, bottle gourds. Cucurbits are represented in 23 of the 134 mosaics containing images of crop plants, a high frequency of 17%. Several of the cucurbit images have not been found elsewhere, suggesting a diverse and developed local horticulture of cucurbits in Israel during the Byzantine era.
Representations of mature sponge gourds are found in widespread localities, suggestive of the high value accorded to cleanliness and hygiene. The name Cucurbitaceae comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Cucurbita, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy; the genus name comes from the Classical Latin word cucurbita, "gourd". Bates D, Robinson R, Jeffrey C, eds.. Biology and Utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0-8014-1670-5. Jeffrey C.. "A new system of Cucurbitaceae". Bot. Zhurn. 90: 332–335. Cucurbitaceae in T. C. Andres. Cucurbitaceae in L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz; the families of flowering plants: descriptions, identification, information retrieval. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070103200438/http://delta-intkey.com/
The pea is most the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum. Each pod contains several peas, which can be yellow. Pea pods are botanically fruit, since they develop from the ovary of a flower; the name is used to describe other edible seeds from the Fabaceae such as the pigeon pea, the cowpea, the seeds from several species of Lathyrus. P. sativum is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. It is a cool-season crop grown in many parts of the world; the average pea weighs between 0.36 gram. The immature peas are used as a vegetable, frozen or canned; these are the basis of staples of medieval cuisine. The wild pea is restricted to the Near East; the earliest archaeological finds of peas date from the late neolithic era of current Greece, Syria and Jordan. In Egypt, early finds date from c. 4800–4400 BC in the Nile delta area, from c. 3800–3600 BC in Upper Egypt. The pea was present in Georgia in the 5th millennium BC. Farther east, the finds are younger. Peas were present in Afghanistan c. 2000 BC.
In the second half of the 2nd millennium BC, this pulse crop appears in the Ganges Basin and southern India. A pea is a most green golden yellow, or infrequently purple pod-shaped vegetable grown as a cool season vegetable crop; the seeds may be planted as soon as the soil temperature reaches 10 °C, with the plants growing best at temperatures of 13 to 18 °C. They do not thrive in the summer heat of warmer temperate and lowland tropical climates, but do grow well in cooler, high altitude, tropical areas. Many cultivars reach maturity about 60 days after planting. Peas have vining cultivars; the vining cultivars grow thin tendrils from leaves that coil around any available support and can climb to be 1–2 m high. A traditional approach to supporting climbing peas is to thrust branches pruned from trees or other woody plants upright into the soil, providing a lattice for the peas to climb. Branches used in this fashion are sometimes called pea brush. Metal fences, twine, or netting supported by a frame are used for the same purpose.
In dense plantings, peas give each other some measure of mutual support. Pea plants can self-pollinate. In early times, peas were grown for their dry seeds. From plants growing wild in the Mediterranean basin, constant selection since the Neolithic dawn of agriculture improved their yield. In the early 3rd century BC Theophrastus mentions peas among the pulses that are sown late in the winter because of their tenderness. In the first century AD, Columella mentions them in De re rustica, when Roman legionaries still gathered wild peas from the sandy soils of Numidia and Judea to supplement their rations. In the Middle Ages, field peas are mentioned, as they were the staple that kept famine at bay, as Charles the Good, count of Flanders, noted explicitly in 1124. Green "garden" peas, eaten immature and fresh, were an innovative luxury of Early Modern Europe. In England, the distinction between field peas and garden peas dates from the early 17th century: John Gerard and John Parkinson both mention garden peas.
Sugar peas, which the French soon called mange-tout, for they were consumed pods and all, were introduced to France from the market gardens of Holland in the time of Henri IV, through the French ambassador. Green peas were introduced from Genoa to the court of Louis XIV of France in January 1660, with some staged fanfare. Established and grown for earliness warmed with manure and protected under glass, they were still a luxurious delicacy in 1696, when Mme de Maintenon and Mme de Sevigné each reported that they were "a fashion, a fury."Modern split peas, with their indigestible skins rubbed off, are a development of the 19th century. In modern times peas are boiled or steamed, which breaks down the cell walls and makes the taste sweeter and the nutrients more bioavailable. Along with broad beans and lentils, these formed an important part of the diet of most people in the Middle East, North Africa and Europe during the Middle Ages. By the 17th and 18th centuries, it had become popular to eat peas "green", that is, while they are immature and right after they are picked.
New cultivars of peas were developed by the English during this time, which became known as "garden" or "English" peas. The popularity of green peas spread to North America. Thomas Jefferson grew more than 30 cultivars of peas on his estate. With the invention of canning and freezing of foods, green peas became available year-round, not just in the spring as before. Fresh peas are eaten boiled and flavored with butter and/or spearmint as a side dish vegetable. Salt and pepper are commonly added to peas when served. Fresh peas are used in pot pies and casseroles. Pod peas are used in stir-fried dishes those in A
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo. Trucks vary in size and configuration. Commercial trucks can be large and powerful, may be configured to mount specialized equipment, such as in the case of fire trucks, concrete mixers, suction excavators. Modern trucks are powered by diesel engines, although small to medium size trucks with gasoline engines exist in the US, Mexico. In the European Union, vehicles with a gross combination mass of up to 3.5 t are known as light commercial vehicles, those over as large goods vehicles. Trucks and cars have a common ancestor: the steam-powered fardier Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built in 1769. However, steam wagons were not common until the mid-1800s; the roads of the time, built for horse and carriages, limited these vehicles to short hauls from a factory to the nearest railway station. The first semi-trailer appeared in 1881, towed by a steam tractor manufactured by De Dion-Bouton. Steam-powered wagons were sold in France and the United States until the eve of World War I, 1935 in the United Kingdom, when a change in road tax rules made them uneconomic against the new diesel lorries.
In 1895 Karl Benz designed and built the first truck in history using the internal combustion engine. That year some of Benz's trucks were modified to become the first bus by the Netphener, the first motorbus company in history. A year in 1896, another internal combustion engine truck was built by Gottlieb Daimler. Other companies, such as Peugeot, Renault and Büssing built their own versions; the first truck in the United States was built by Autocar in 1899 and was available with optional 5 or 8 horsepower motors. Trucks of the era used two-cylinder engines and had a carrying capacity of 3,300 to 4,400 lb. In 1904, 700 heavy trucks were built in the United States, 1000 in 1907, 6000 in 1910, 25000 in 1914. After World War I, several advances were made: pneumatic tires replaced the common full rubber versions. Electric starters, power brakes, 4, 6, 8 cylinder engines, closed cabs, electric lighting followed; the first modern semi-trailer trucks appeared. Touring car builders such as Ford and Renault entered the heavy truck market.
Although it had been invented in 1897, the diesel engine did not appear in production trucks until Benz introduced it in 1923. The diesel engine was not common in trucks in Europe until the 1930s. In the United States, Autocar introduced engines for heavy applications in the mid-1930s. Demand was high enough Autocar launched the "DC" model in 1939. However, it took much longer for diesel engines to be broadly accepted in the US: gasoline engines were still in use on heavy trucks in the 1970s. Truck is used in American English, is common in Canada, New Zealand, Puerto Rico and South Africa, while lorry is the equivalent in British English, is the usual term in countries like the United Kingdom, Malaysia and India; the word "truck" might come from a back-formation of "truckle", meaning "small wheel" or "pulley", from Middle English trokell, in turn from Latin trochlea. Another possible source is the Latin trochus, meaning "iron hoop". In turn, both sources emanate from trekhein; the first known usage of "truck" was in 1611, when it referred to the small strong wheels on ships' cannon carriages.
In its extended usage it came to refer to carts for carrying heavy loads, a meaning known since 1771. Its expanded application to "motor-powered load carrier" has been in usage since 1930, shortened from "motor truck", which dates back to 1901."Lorry" has a more uncertain origin, but has its roots in the rail transport industry, where the word is known to have been used in 1838 to refer to a type of truck a large flat wagon. It derives from the verb lurry of uncertain origin, its expanded meaning, "self-propelled vehicle for carrying goods", has been in usage since 1911. Before that, the word "lorry" was used for a sort of big horse-drawn goods wagon. In the United States and the Philippines "truck" is reserved for commercial vehicles larger than normal cars, includes pickups and other vehicles having an open load bed. In Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, the word "truck" is reserved for larger vehicles. In the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore and Hong Kong lorry is used instead of truck, but only for the medium and heavy types.
Produced as variations of golf cars, with internal combustion or battery electric drive, these are used for off-highway use on estates, golf courses, parks. While not suitable for highway use some variations may be licensed as slow speed vehicles for operation on streets as a body variation of a neighborhood electric vehicle. A few manufactures produce specialized chassis for this type of vehicle, while Zap Motors markets a version of their xebra electric tricycle. Popular in Europe and Asia, many mini trucks are factory redesigns of light automobiles with monocoque bodies. Specialized designs with substantial frames such as the Italian Piaggio shown here are based upon Japanese designs and are popular for use in "old town" sections of European cities that have narrow alleyways. Regardless of name, these smal
The leek is a vegetable, a cultivar of Allium ampeloprasum, the broadleaf wild leek. The edible part of the plant is a bundle of leaf sheaths, sometimes erroneously called a stem or stalk; the genus Allium contains the onion, shallot, scallion and Chinese onion. Many scientific names were used for leeks, but they are now all treated as cultivars of A. ampeloprasum. The name'leek' developed from the Old English word leac, from which the modern English name of garlic derives. Three related vegetables, elephant garlic and Persian leek or tareh, are cultivars of A. ampeloprasum, although different in their uses as food. Rather than forming a tight bulb like the onion, the leek produces a long cylinder of bundled leaf sheaths that are blanched by pushing soil around them, they are sold as small seedlings in flats that are started off early in greenhouses, to be planted out as weather permits. Once established in the garden, leeks are hardy. Leek cultivars may be treated as a single cultivar group, e.g. as A. ampeloprasum'Leek Group'.
The cultivars can be subdivided in several ways, but the most common types are "summer leeks", intended for harvest in the season when planted, overwintering leeks, meant to be harvested in the spring of the year following planting. Summer leek types are smaller than overwintering types. Cultivars include'King Richard' and'Tadorna Blue'. Leeks are easy to grow from seed and tolerate standing in the field for an extended harvest, which takes place up to 6 months from planting; the soil in which it is grown has to be loose and drained well. Leeks reach maturity in the autumn months. Leeks can be bunched and harvested early when they are about the size of a finger or pencil, or they can be thinned and allowed to grow to a much larger mature size. Hilling leeks can produce better specimens. Leeks suffer from insect pests including the leek moth. Leeks are susceptible to leek rust. Leeks have a onion-like taste. In its raw state, the vegetable is firm; the edible portions of the leek are the white base of the leaves, the light green parts, to a lesser extent the dark green parts of the leaves.
The dark green portion is discarded because it has a tough texture, but it can be sautéed, or more added to stock for flavor. A few leaves are sometimes tied with other herbs to form a bouquet garni. Leeks are chopped into slices 5–10 mm thick; the slices have a tendency to fall apart, due to the layered structure of the leek. The different ways of preparing the vegetable are: Boiling turns it soft and mild in taste. Frying preserves the taste. Raw leeks can be used in salads, doing well when they are the prime ingredient. In Turkish cuisine, leeks are chopped into thick slices boiled and separated into leaves, filled with a filling containing rice, herbs and black pepper. For sarma with olive oil, pine nuts, cinnamon are added, for sarma with meat, minced meat is added to the filling. In Turkey zeytinyağlı pırasa, ekşili pırasa, etli pırasa, pırasa musakka, pırasalı börek, pırasa köftesi leek meatball are cooked. Leeks are an ingredient of cock-a-leekie soup and potato soup, vichyssoise, as well as plain leek soup.
Because of their symbolism in Wales, they have come to be used extensively in that country’s cuisine. Elsewhere in Britain, leeks have come back into favor only in the last 50 years or so, having been overlooked for several centuries; the Hebrew Bible talks of חציר, identified by commentators as leek, says it is abundant in Egypt. Dried specimens from archaeological sites in ancient Egypt, as well as wall carvings and drawings, indicate that the leek was a part of the Egyptian diet from at least the second millennium BCE. Texts show that it was grown in Mesopotamia from the beginning of the second millennium BCE; the leek was the favorite vegetable of the Emperor Nero, who consumed it in soup or in oil, believing it beneficial to the quality of his voice. The leek is one of the national emblems of Wales, it or the Daffodil is worn on St. David's Day. According to one legend, King Cadwaladr of Gwynedd ordered his soldiers to identify themselves by wearing the vegetable on their helmets in an ancient battle against the Saxons that took place in a leek field.
The Elizabethan poet Michael Drayton stated, in contrast, that the tradition was a tribute to Saint David, who ate only leeks when he was fasting. Whatever the case, the leek has been known to be a symbol of Wales for a long time. In the play, Henry tells the Welsh officer Fluellen that he, too, is wearing a leek “for I am Welsh, you know, good countryman.” The 1985 and 1990 British one pound coins bear the design of a leek in a coronet, representing Wales. Alongside the other national floral emblems of countries and in the Commonwealth or part of the United Kingdom (including the English Tudor Rose, Scottish thistle, Irish shamrock, Canadian maple leaf, Ind
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging. Hunter-gatherer societies stand in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was humanity's first and most successful adaptation, occupying at least 90 percent of human history. Following the invention of agriculture, hunter-gatherers who did not change have been displaced or conquered by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world. In West Eurasia, agriculture lead to widespread genetic changes when older hunter-gatherer populations were replaced by Middle Eastern farmers during the Neolithic who in turn were overrun by Indo-Europeans during the Bronze Age. Only a few contemporary societies are classified as hunter-gatherers, many supplement their foraging activity with horticulture or pastoralism. During the 1970s, Lewis Binford suggested that early humans were obtaining food via scavenging, not hunting. Early humans in the Lower Paleolithic lived in forests and woodlands, which allowed them to collect seafood, eggs and fruits besides scavenging.
Rather than killing large animals for meat, according to this view, they used carcasses of such animals that had either been killed by predators or that had died of natural causes. Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic hunter-gatherers survived in sparsely wooded areas and dispersed through areas of high primary productivity while avoiding dense forest cover. According to the endurance running hypothesis, long-distance running as in persistence hunting, a method still practiced by some hunter-gatherer groups in modern times, was the driving evolutionary force leading to the evolution of certain human characteristics; this hypothesis does not contradict the scavenging hypothesis: both subsistence strategies could have been in use – sequentially, alternating or simultaneously. Hunting and gathering was the subsistence strategy employed by human societies beginning some 1.8 million years ago, by Homo erectus, from its appearance some 0.2 million years ago by Homo sapiens.
Prehistoric hunter-gatherers lived in groups that consisted of several families resulting in a size of a few dozen people. It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago, after this was replaced only with the spread of the Neolithic Revolution. Starting at the transition between the Middle to Upper Paleolithic period, some 80,000 to 70,000 years ago, some hunter-gatherers bands began to specialize, concentrating on hunting a smaller selection of game and gathering a smaller selection of food; this specialization of work involved creating specialized tools such as fishing nets and bone harpoons. The transition into the subsequent Neolithic period is chiefly defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated as early as 12,000 years ago in the Middle East, independently originated in many other areas including Southeast Asia, parts of Africa and the Andes. Forest gardening was being used as a food production system in various parts of the world over this period.
Forest gardens originated in prehistoric times along jungle-clad river banks and in the wet foothills of monsoon regions. In the gradual process of families improving their immediate environment, useful tree and vine species were identified and improved, whilst undesirable species were eliminated. Superior introduced species were selected and incorporated into the gardens. Many groups continued their hunter-gatherer ways of life, although their numbers have continually declined as a result of pressure from growing agricultural and pastoral communities. Many of them reside in arid regions or tropical forests. Areas that were available to hunter-gatherers were—and continue to be—encroached upon by the settlements of agriculturalists. In the resulting competition for land use, hunter-gatherer societies either adopted these practices or moved to other areas. In addition, Jared Diamond has blamed a decline in the availability of wild foods animal resources. In North and South America, for example, most large mammal species had gone extinct by the end of the Pleistocene—according to Diamond, because of overexploitation by humans, one of several explanations offered for the Quaternary extinction event there.
As the number and size of agricultural societies increased, they expanded into lands traditionally used by hunter-gatherers. This process of agriculture-driven expansion led to the development of the first forms of government in agricultural centers, such as the Fertile Crescent, Ancient India, Ancient China, Sub-Saharan Africa and Norte Chico; as a result of the now near-universal human reliance upon agriculture, the few contemporary hunter-gatherer cultures live in areas unsuitable for agricultural use. Archaeologists can use evidence such as stone tool use to track hunter-gatherer activities, including mobility. Most hunter-gatherers are semi-nomadic and live in temporary settlements. Mobile communities construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available; some hunter-gatherer cultures, such as the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and the Yakuts, lived in rich environments that allowed them to be sedentary or semi-sedentary.
Hunter-gatherers tend to have an egalitarian social ethos, although settled hunter-gatherers are an exception to this rule. Nearly
The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are an economically important family of flowering plants. The family ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, epiphytes and trees, includes a number of important agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices and ornamentals. Many members of the family contain potent alkaloids, some are toxic, but many—including tomatoes, eggplant and chili peppers, tobacco—are used; the family belongs in the asterid group and class Magnoliopsida. The Solanaceae consists of about 98 genera and some 2,700 species, with a great diversity of habitats and ecology; the name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum, "the nightshade plant". The etymology of the Latin word is unclear; the name may come from a perceived resemblance of certain solanaceous flowers to the sun and its rays. At least one species of Solanum is known as the "sunberry". Alternatively, the name could originate from the Latin verb solare, meaning "to soothe" referring to the soothing pharmacological properties of some of the psychoactive species of the family.
The family has a worldwide distribution. The greatest diversity in species is found in Central America. In 2017, scientists reported on their discovery and analysis of a fossil tomatillo found in the Patagonian region of Argentina, dated to 52 million years B. P; the finding has pushed back the earliest appearance of the plant family Solanaceae. As tomatillos developed than other nightshades, this may mean that the Solanaceae may have first developed during the Mesozoic Era; the Solanaceae include a number of collected or cultivated species. The most economically important genus of the family is Solanum, which contains the potato, the tomato, the eggplant or aubergine. Another important genus, produces both chili peppers and bell peppers; the genus Physalis produces the so-called groundcherries, as well as the tomatillo, the Cape gooseberry and the Chinese lantern. The genus Lycium contains the wolfberry Lycium barbarum. Nicotiana contains, among other species, tobacco; some other important members of Solanaceae include a number of ornamental plants such as Petunia and Lycianthes, sources of psychoactive alkaloids, Datura and Atropa belladonna.
Certain species are known for their medicinal uses, their psychotropic effects, or for being poisonous. Most of the economically important genera are contained in the subfamily Solanoideae, with the exceptions of tobacco and petunia. Many of the Solanaceae, such as tobacco and petunia, are used as model organisms in the investigation of fundamental biological questions at the cellular and genetic levels; the name "Solanaceae" comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Solanum, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy. The genus name comes from the Classical Latin word solanum, referring to nightshades, "probably from sol,'sun', + -anum, neuter of -anus." Plants in the Solanaceae can take the form of herbs, trees and lianas, sometimes epiphytes. They can be biennials, or perennials, upright or decumbent; some have subterranean tubers. They do not have coloured saps, they can have neither of these types. The leaves are alternate or alternate to opposed.
The leaves transformed into spines. The leaves are petiolate or subsessile sessile, they are inodorous, but on occasions, they are aromatic or fetid. The foliar lamina can be either simple or compound, the latter can be either pinnatifid or ternate; the leaves lack a basal meristem. The laminae are dorsiventral and lack secretory cavities; the stomata are confined to one of a leaf's two sides. The flowers are hermaphrodites, although some are monoecious, andromonoecious, or dioecious species. Pollination is entomophilous; the flowers can be grouped into terminal, cymose, or axillary inflorescences. The flowers are medium-sized, fetid, or inodorous; the flowers are actinomorphic zygomorphic, or markedly zygomorphic. The irregularities in symmetry can be due to the androecium, to the perianth, or both at the same time. In the great majority of species, the flowers have a differentiated perianth with a calyx and corolla an androecium with five stamens and two carpels forming a gynoecium with a superior ovary.
The stamens are epipetalous and are present in multiples of four or five, most four or eight. They have a hypogynous disk; the calyx is gamosepalous, with the 5 segments equal, it has five lobes, with the lobes shorter than the tube, it is persistent and accrescent. The corolla has five petals that are joined together forming a tube. Flower shapes are rotate (wheel-shap
Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea in the genus Brassica, in the family Brassicaceae. It is an annual plant that reproduces by seed. Only the head is eaten – the edible white flesh sometimes called "curd"; the cauliflower head is composed of a white inflorescence meristem. Cauliflower heads resemble those in broccoli, which differs in having flower buds as the edible portion. Brassica oleracea includes broccoli, brussels sprouts, collard greens, kale, collectively called "cole" crops, though they are of different cultivar groups. In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex omnibus brassicae generibus suavissima est cyma,". Pliny's descriptions refer to the flowering heads of an earlier cultivated variety of Brassica oleracea, but comes close to describing modern cauliflower. In the Middle Ages early forms of cauliflower were associated with the island of Cyprus, with the Arab botanists Ibn al-'Awwam and Ibn al-Baitar, in the 12th and 13th centuries claiming its origins were Cyprus.
This association continued into Western Europe, where cauliflowers were sometimes known as Cyprus colewart, there was extensive trade in western Europe in cauliflower seeds from Cyprus, under the French Lusignan rulers of the island, until well into the sixteenth century. François Pierre La Varenne employed chouxfleurs in Le cuisinier françois, they were introduced to France from Genoa in the 16th century, are featured in Olivier de Serres' Théâtre de l'agriculture, as cauli-fiori "as the Italians call it, which are still rather rare in France. It was introduced to India in 1822 from England by the British; the word "cauliflower" derives from the Italian cavolfiore, meaning "cabbage flower". The ultimate origin of the name is from the Latin words caulis and flōs. Cauliflower is difficult to grow compared to cabbage, with common problems such as an underdeveloped head and poor curd quality; as weather is a limiting factor for producing cauliflower, the plant grows best in cool daytime temperatures 70–85 °F, with plentiful sun, moist soil conditions high in organic matter and sandy soils.
The earliest maturity possible for cauliflower is 7 to 12 weeks from transplanting. In the northern hemisphere, fall season plantings in July may enable harvesting before autumn frost. Long periods of sun exposure in hot summer weather may cause cauliflower heads to discolor with a red-purple hue. Transplantable cauliflowers can be produced in containers as flats, hotbeds, or in the field. In soil, loose, well-drained and fertile, field seedlings are shallow-planted 0.5 inches and thinned by ample space (about 12 plants per 1 foot. Ideal growing temperatures are about 65 °F when seedlings are 25 to 35 days old. Applications of fertilizer to developing seedlings begin when leaves appear with a starter solution weekly. Transplanting to the field begins late spring and may continue until mid-summer. Row spacing is about 15–18 inches. Rapid vegetative growth after transplanting may benefit from such procedures as avoiding spring frosts, using starter solutions high in phosphorus, irrigating weekly, applying fertilizer.
The most important disorders affecting cauliflower quality are a hollow stem, stunted head growth or buttoning, ricing and leaf-tip burn. Among major pests affecting cauliflower are aphids, root maggots, cutworms and flea beetles; the plant is susceptible to black rot, black leg, club root, black leaf spot, downy mildew. When cauliflower is mature, heads appear as clear white, 6–8 inches in diameter, should be cooled shortly after harvest. Forced air cooling to remove heat from the field during hot weather may be needed for optimal preservation. Short-term storage is possible using cool, high-humidity storage conditions. There are four major groups of cauliflower. Italian This specimen is diverse in appearance and annual in type; this group includes white, various brown, green and yellow cultivars. This type is the ancestral form from which the others were derived. Northern European annuals Used in Europe and North America for summer and fall harvest, it was developed in Germany in the 18th century, includes the old cultivars Erfurt and Snowball.
Northwest European biennial Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 19th century, includes the old cultivars Angers and Roscoff. Asian A tropical cauliflower used in China and India, it was developed in India during the 19th century from the now-abandoned Cornish type, includes old varieties Early Benaras and Early Patna. There are hundreds of historic and current commercial varieties used around the world. A comprehensive list of about 80 North American varieties is maintained at North Carolina State University. White White cauliflower is the most common color of cauliflower having a contrasting white head surrounded by green leaves. Orange Orange cauliflower contains beta-carotene as the orange pigment, a provitamin A compound; this orange trait originated from a natural mutant found in a cauliflower field in Canada. Cultivars include'Cheddar' and'Orange Bouquet'. Green Green cauliflower, of the B. oleracea botrytis group, is sometimes called broccoflower.
It is available in the normal curd shape and with a fractal spiral curd cal