Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, from hide and fur clothing from bison, angora from rabbits, other types of wool from camelids. Wool consists of protein together with a few percent lipids. In this regard it is chemically quite distinct from the more dominant textile, cellulose. Wool is produced by follicles; these follicles are located in the upper layer of the skin called the epidermis and push down into the second skin layer called the dermis as the wool fibers grow. Follicles can be classed as either secondary follicles. Primary follicles produce three types of fiber: kemp, medullated fibers, true wool fibers. Secondary follicles only produce true wool fibers. Medullated fibers share nearly identical characteristics to hair and are long but lack crimp and elasticity. Kemp fibers are coarse and shed out. Wool's scaling and crimp make it easier to spin the fleece by helping the individual fibers attach to each other, so they stay together.
Because of the crimp, wool fabrics have greater bulk than other textiles, they hold air, which causes the fabric to retain heat. Wool has a high specific thermal resistance, so it impedes heat transfer in general; this effect has benefited desert peoples, as Tuaregs use wool clothes for insulation. Felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation as the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibers hook together. Wool has several qualities that distinguish it from hair/fur: it is crimped and elastic; the amount of crimp corresponds to the fineness of the wool fibers. A fine wool like Merino may have up to 100 crimps per inch, while coarser wool like karakul may have as few as one or two. In contrast, hair has little if any scale and no crimp, little ability to bind into yarn. On sheep, the hair part of the fleece is called kemp; the relative amounts of kemp to wool vary from breed to breed and make some fleeces more desirable for spinning, felting, or carding into batts for quilts or other insulating products, including the famous tweed cloth of Scotland.
Wool fibers absorb moisture, but are not hollow. Wool can absorb one-third of its own weight in water. Wool absorbs sound like many other fabrics, it is a creamy white color, although some breeds of sheep produce natural colors, such as black, brown and random mixes. Wool ignites at a higher temperature than some synthetic fibers, it has a lower rate of flame spread, a lower rate of heat release, a lower heat of combustion, does not melt or drip. Wool carpets are specified for high safety environments, such as trains and aircraft. Wool is specified for garments for firefighters and others in occupations where they are exposed to the likelihood of fire. Wool causes an allergic reaction in some people. Sheep shearing is the process. After shearing, the wool is separated into four main categories: fleece, broken and locks; the quality of fleeces is determined by a technique known as wool classing, whereby a qualified person, called a wool classer, groups wools of similar gradings together to maximize the return for the farmer or sheep owner.
In Australia before being auctioned, all Merino fleece wool is objectively measured for micron, staple length, staple strength, sometimes color and comfort factor. Wool straight off a sheep, known as "greasy wool" or "wool in the grease", contains a high level of valuable lanolin, as well as the sheep's dead skin and sweat residue, also contains pesticides and vegetable matter from the animal's environment. Before the wool can be used for commercial purposes, it must be scoured, a process of cleaning the greasy wool. Scouring may be as simple as a bath in warm water or as complicated as an industrial process using detergent and alkali in specialized equipment. In north west England, special potash pits were constructed to produce potash used in the manufacture of a soft soap for scouring locally produced white wool. In commercial wool, vegetable matter is removed by chemical carbonization. In less-processed wools, vegetable matter may be removed by hand and some of the lanolin left intact through the use of gentler detergents.
This semigrease wool can be worked into yarn and knitted into water-resistant mittens or sweaters, such as those of the Aran Island fishermen. Lanolin removed from wool is used in cosmetic products, such as hand creams. Raw wool has many impurities; the sheep's body yields many types of wool with differing strengths, length of staple and impurities. The raw wool is processed into'top'.'Worsted top' requires strong straight and parallel fibres. The quality of wool is determined by its fiber diameter, yield and staple strength. Fiber diameter is the single most important wool characteristic determining price. Merino wool is 3–5 inches in length and is fine; the finest and most valuable wool comes from Merino hoggets. Wool taken from sheep produced for meat is more coarse, has fibers 1.5 to 6 in in length. Damage or breaks in the wool can occur if the sheep is stressed whil
Beta cloth is a type of fireproof silica fiber cloth used in the manufacture of Apollo/Skylab A7L space suits, the Apollo Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, the McDivitt Purse, in other specialized applications. Beta cloth consists of fine woven silica fiber, similar to fiberglass; the resulting fabric will not burn, will melt only at temperatures exceeding 650 °C. To reduce its tendency to crease or tear when manipulated, to increase durability, the fibers are coated with Teflon. A tight weave of Beta cloth makes it more durable against atomic oxygen exposure, its ability to resist atomic oxygen exposure makes it used as the outer-most layer in multi-layer insulation for space, it was used on the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. It was implemented in NASA space suits after the deadly 1967 Apollo 1 launch pad fire, in which the astronauts' nylon suits burned through. After the fire, NASA demanded any flammable materials were to be removed from both the spacecraft and space suits.
Beta cloth was developed by a Manned Spacecraft Center team led by Frederick S. Dawn and including Matthew I. Radnofsky working with the Owens-Corning and DuPont companies. Where additional wear resistance was needed, external patches of Chromel-R metallic cloth were used. Beta cloth was used as the material for the Skylab shower enclosure; the interior of the Space Shuttle payload bay was completely covered with Beta cloth. This helps protect; some Beta cloth is used on MSL's rover Curiosity. Multi-layer insulation Materials for use in vacuum NASA - Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines
Tannins are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids. The term tannin refers to the use of oak and other bark in tanning animal hides into leather. By extension, the term tannin is applied to any large polyphenolic compound containing sufficient hydroxyls and other suitable groups to form strong complexes with various macromolecules; the tannin compounds are distributed in many species of plants, where they play a role in protection from predation and might help in regulating plant growth. The astringency from the tannins is what causes the dry and puckery feeling in the mouth following the consumption of unripened fruit, red wine or tea; the destruction or modification of tannins with time plays an important role when determining harvesting times. Tannins have molecular weights ranging from 500 to over 3,000 and up to 20,000. There are three major classes of tannins: Shown below are the base unit or monomer of the tannin.
In the flavone-derived tannins, the base shown must be hydroxylated and polymerized in order to give the high molecular weight polyphenol motif that characterizes tannins. Tannin molecules require at least 12 hydroxyl groups and at least five phenyl groups to function as protein binders. Oligostilbenoids constitute a class of tannins. Pseudo tannins are low molecular weight compounds associated with other compounds, they do not change color during the Goldbeater's skin test, unlike hydrolysable and condensed tannins, cannot be used as tanning compounds. Some examples of pseudo tannins and their sources are: Ellagic acid, gallic acid, pyrogallic acid were first discovered by chemist Henri Braconnot in 1831. Julius Löwe was the first person to synthesize ellagic acid by heating gallic acid with arsenic acid or silver oxide. Maximilian Nierenstein studied natural tannins found in different plant species. Working with Arthur George Perkin, he prepared ellagic acid from algarobilla and certain other fruits in 1905.
He suggested its formation from galloyl-glycine by Penicillium in 1915. Tannase is an enzyme, he proved the presence of catechin in cocoa beans in 1931. He showed in 1945 that luteic acid, a molecule present in the myrobalanitannin, a tannin found in the fruit of Terminalia chebula, is an intermediary compound in the synthesis of ellagic acid. At these times, molecule formulas were determined through combustion analysis; the discovery in 1943 by Martin and Synge of paper chromatography provided for the first time the means of surveying the phenolic constituents of plants and for their separation and identification. There was an explosion of activity in this field after 1945, including prominent work by Edgar Charles Bate-Smith and Tony Swain at Cambridge University. In 1966, Edwin Haslam proposed a first comprehensive definition of plant polyphenols based on the earlier proposals of Bate-Smith and Theodore White, which includes specific structural characteristics common to all phenolics having a tanning property.
It is referred to as the White–Bate-Smith–Swain–Haslam definition. Tannins are distributed in species throughout the plant kingdom, they are found in both gymnosperms as well as angiosperms. Mole studied the distribution of tannin in 180 families of dicotyledons and 44 families of monocotyledons. Most families of dicot contain tannin-free species; the best known families of which all species tested contain tannin are: Aceraceae, Anacardiaceae, Burseraceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Grossulariaceae, Myricaceae for dicot and Najadaceae and Typhaceae in Monocot. To the family of the oak, Fagaceae, 73% of the species tested contain tannin. For those of acacias, only 39% of the species tested contain tannin, among Solanaceae rate drops to 6% and 4% for the Asteraceae; some families like the Boraginaceae, Papaveraceae contain no tannin-rich species. The most abundant polyphenols are the condensed tannins, found in all families of plants, comprising up to 50% of the dry weight of leaves. Tannins of tropical woods tend to be of a cathetic nature rather than of the gallic type present in temperate woods.
There may be a loss in the bio-availability of still other tannins in plants due to birds and other pathogens. Tannins are found in leaf, seed and stem tissues. An example of the location of the tannins in stem tissue is that they are found in the growth areas of trees, such as the secondary phloem and xylem and the layer between the cortex and epidermis. Tannins may help regulate the growth of these tissues. In all vascular plants studied so far, tannins are manufactured by a chloroplast-derived organelle, the tannosome. Tannins are physically located in the vacuoles or surface wax of plants; these storage sites keep tannins active against plant predators, but keep some tannins from affecting plant metabolism while the plant tissue is alive. Tannins are classified as ergastic substances, i.e. non-protoplasm materials found in cells. Tannins, by definition, precipitate proteins. In this condition, they must be stored in organelles able to withstand the protein precipitation process. Idioblasts are isolated plant cells which differ from neighbo
Bengaline is a woven silk-and-cotton material which became fashionable for women and children to wear in the 1880s and 1890s. It was made with lesser amounts of silk than cotton. Lizzie Borden stated at her December 1892 inquest that she was wearing a dress made of bengaline silk on the morning she was accused of murdering her father and stepmother; the fabric went out of fashion when smooth-surfaced materials became popular. Piqué, coachman's whipcord, diagonal serge, surah are similar to bengaline silk. Surah was once known in France as silk serge. Bengaline silk sold for $2.50 per yard in 1889 but was sometimes discounted to sell for $1.25 per yard. A heavy lined, long cloak for infants, with deep bengaline silk embroidery, retailed for $7.98 at a Manhattan, New York clothing shop, in 1893. Diagonal striped dresses featuring the fabric were popular in the spring of 1912
Bunting is any festive decorations made of fabric, or of plastic, paper or cardboard in imitation of fabric. Typical forms of bunting are strings of colorful triangular flags and lengths of fabric in the colors of national flags gathered and draped into swags or pleated into fan shapes. Bunting was a specific type of lightweight worsted wool fabric generically known as tammy, manufactured from the turn of the 17th century, used for making ribbons and flags, including signal flags for the Royal Navy. Amongst other properties that made the fabric suitable for ribbons and flags was its high glaze, achieved by a process including hot-pressing; the origin of the word is uncertain. But bunt means colourful in German; the term bunting is used to refer to a collection of flags, those of a ship. The officer responsible for raising signals using flags is known as bunts, a term still used for a ship's communications officer. Papel picado Kerridge, Eric. Textile manufactures in early modern England. Manchester University Press.
ISBN 978-0-7190-1767-4. Scargill, D. I.. Wakefield: A Study of Arrested Urban Development. 36. The Town Planning Review. Pp. 101–110. Media related to Bunting at Wikimedia Commons
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae. The fiber is pure cellulose. Under natural conditions, the cotton bolls will increase the dispersal of the seeds; the plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa and India. The greatest diversity of wild cotton species is found followed by Australia and Africa. Cotton was independently domesticated in the New Worlds; the fiber is most spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times. Although cultivated since antiquity, it was the invention of the cotton gin that lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, it is the most used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes or 110 million bales annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land.
China is the world's largest producer of cotton. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years. In the United States, cotton is measured in bales, which measure 0.48 cubic meters and weigh 226.8 kilograms. There are four commercially grown species of cotton, all domesticated in antiquity: Gossypium hirsutum – upland cotton, native to Central America, the Caribbean and southern Florida Gossypium barbadense – known as extra-long staple cotton, native to tropical South America Gossypium arboreum – tree cotton, native to India and Pakistan Gossypium herbaceum – Levant cotton, native to southern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula The two New World cotton species account for the vast majority of modern cotton production, but the two Old World species were used before the 1900s. While cotton fibers occur in colors of white, brown and green, fears of contaminating the genetics of white cotton have led many cotton-growing locations to ban the growing of colored cotton varieties; the word "cotton" has Arabic origins, derived from the Arabic word قطن.
This was the usual word for cotton in medieval Arabic. The word entered the Romance languages in the mid-12th century, English a century later. Cotton fabric was known to the ancient Romans as an import but cotton was rare in the Romance-speaking lands until imports from the Arabic-speaking lands in the medieval era at transformatively lower prices; the earliest evidence of cotton use in the Indian subcontinent has been found at the site of Mehrgarh and Rakhigarhi where cotton threads have been found preserved in copper beads. Cotton cultivation in the region is dated to the Indus Valley Civilization, which covered parts of modern eastern Pakistan and northwestern India between 3300 and 1300 BC; the Indus cotton industry was well-developed and some methods used in cotton spinning and fabrication continued to be used until the industrialization of India. Between 2000 and 1000 BC cotton became widespread across much of India. For example, it has been found at the site of Hallus in Karnataka dating from around 1000 BC.
Cotton bolls discovered in a cave near Tehuacán, have been dated to as early as 5500 BC, but this date has been challenged. More securely dated is the domestication of Gossypium hirsutum in Mexico between around 3400 and 2300 BC. In Peru, cultivation of the indigenous cotton species Gossypium barbadense has been dated, from a find in Ancon, to c. 4200 BC, was the backbone of the development of coastal cultures such as the Norte Chico and Nazca. Cotton was grown upriver, made into nets, traded with fishing villages along the coast for large supplies of fish; the Spanish who came to Mexico and Peru in the early 16th century found the people growing cotton and wearing clothing made of it. The Greeks and the Arabs were not familiar with cotton until the Wars of Alexander the Great, as his contemporary Megasthenes told Seleucus I Nicator of "there being trees on which wool grows" in "Indica"; this may be a reference to "tree cotton", Gossypium arboreum, a native of the Indian subcontinent. According to the Columbia Encyclopedia: Cotton has been spun and dyed since prehistoric times.
It clothed the people of ancient India and China. Hundreds of years before the Christian era, cotton textiles were woven in India with matchless skill, their use spread to the Mediterranean countries. In Iran, the history of cotton dates back to the Achaemenid era; the planting of cotton was common in Merv and Pars of Iran. In Persian poets' poems Ferdowsi's Shahname, there are references to cotton. Marco Polo refers to the major products including cotton. John Chardin, a French traveler of the 17th century who visited Safavid Persia, spoke approvingly of the vast cotton farms of Persia. During the Han dynasty, cotton was grown by Chinese peoples in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan. Egyptians spun cotton in the first seven centuries of the Christian era. Handheld roller cotton gins had been used in India since the 6th century, was introduced to other countries from there. Between the 12th and 14th centuries, dual-roller gins appeared in China; the Indian version of the dual-roller gin was preval
Spinning is the twisting together of drawn-out strands of fibers to form yarn, is a major part of the textile industry. The yarn is used to create textiles, which are used to make clothing and many other products. There are several industrial processes available to spin yarn, as well as hand-spinning techniques where the fiber is drawn out and wound onto a bobbin; the yarn issuing from the drafting rollers passes through a thread-guide, round a traveller, free to rotate around a ring, onto a tube or bobbin, carried on a spindle, the axis of which passes through a center of the ring. The spindle is driven and the traveller is dragged around a ring by the loop of yarn passing round it. If the drafting rollers were stationary, the angular velocity of the traveller would be the same as that of the spindle and each revolution of the spindle would cause one turn of twist to be inserted in the loop of yarn betweem the roller nip and the traveller. In spinning, however the yarn is continually issuing from the rollers of the drafting system and, under these cirmunstances, the angular velocity of the traveller is less than that of the spindle by an amount, just sufficientto allow the yarn to be wound onto the bobbin at the same rate as that at which it issues from the drafting rollers.
Each revolution of the traveller now inserts one turn of twist into the loop of yarn between the roller nip and the traveller but, in equilibrium, the number of turns of twist in the loop of yarn remains constant as twisted yarn is passing through the traveller at a corresponding rate. Artificial fibres are made by extruding a polymer through a spinneret into a medium where it hardens. Wet spinning uses a coagulating medium. In dry spinning, the polymer is contained in a solvent. In melt spinning the extruded polymer sets. All these fibres will be of great length kilometers long. Natural fibres are from minerals, or plants; these vegetable fibres can come from the stem or the leaf. Without exception, many processes are needed before a clean staple is obtained. With the exception of silk, each of these fibres is short, being only centimetres in length, each has a rough surface that enables it to bond with similar staples. Artificial fibres can be processed as long fibres or batched and cut so they can be processed like a natural fibre.
Ring spinning is one of the most common spinning methods in the world. Other systems include air-jet and open-end spinning, a technique where the staple fiber is blown by air into a rotor and attaches to the tail of formed yarn, continually being drawn out of the chamber. Other methods of break spinning use electrostatic forces; the processes to make short-staple yarn are blending, carding, pin-drafting, spinning, and—if desired—plying and dyeing. In long staple spinning, the process may start with stretch-break of tow, a continuous "rope" of synthetic fiber. In open-end and air-jet spinning, the roving operation is eliminated; the spinning frame winds yarn around a bobbin. After this step the yarn is wound to a cone for knitting or weaving. In a spinning mule, the roving is pulled off bobbins and sequentially fed through rollers operating at several different speeds, thinning the roving at a consistent rate; the yarn is twisted through the spinning of the bobbin as the carriage moves out, is rolled onto a cop as the carriage returns.
Mule spinning produces a finer thread than ring spinning. Spinning by the mule machine is an intermittent process as the frame advances and returns, it is the descendant of a device invented in 1779 by Samuel Crompton, produces a softer, less twisted thread, favored for fines and for weft. The ring was a descendant of the Arkwright water frame of 1769 and creates yarn in a continuous process; the yarn is coarser, has a greater twist, is stronger, making it more suitable for warp. Ring spinning is slow due to the distance. Similar methods have improved on this including bobbin and cap spinning; the pre-industrial techniques of hand spinning with spindle or spinning wheel continue to be practiced as a handicraft or hobby, enable wool or unusual vegetable and animal staples to be used. Hand spinning was an important cottage industry in medieval Europe, where the wool spinners would provide enough yarn to service the needs of the men who operated the looms, or to sell on in the putting-out system.
After the invention of the spinning jenny water frame the demand was reduced by mechanisation. Its technology was specialised and costly, employed water as motive power. Spinning and weaving as cottage industries were displaced by dedicated manufactories, developed by industrialists and their investors; the British government was protective of the technology and restricted its export. After World War I the colonies where the cotton was grown started to purchase and manufacture significant quantities of cotton spinning machinery; the next breakthrough was with the move over to break or open-end spinning, the adoption of artificial fibres. By most production had moved to Asia. During the Industrial Revolution, spinners and sweepers were e