Celestial eye goldfish or Choutengan is a double-tailed breed of fancy goldfish that has a breed-defining pair of telescope eyes which are turned upwards, pupils gazing skyward. When the fry hatch, the eyes of young Celestials are normal but protrude sideways, as in the Telescope eye goldfish, but unlike the telescope, which has eyes facing outwards on each side, the eyes of the celestial eye turns upwards within a period of six months of development. Celestials first appeared as a direct mutation of the Telescope goldfish in the 18th century. Competing traditions lay claim as to where this happened first, Korea or China; the first documentation that Celestials existed appears on a Chinese scroll of 1772, where a goldfish lacking a dorsal fin and possessing protuberant upturned eyes is depicted. Celestials did not arrive in Japan until 1903 when thirty specimens arrived from China and became the foundation stock for Japanese breeders. Japan became the leading producer of Celestials for export.
This remained so until the outbreak of World War II. Celestials arrived in the United States from Japan in the first decade of the twentieth century and were included in the first edition of William T. Innes's Goldfish Varieties and Tropical Aquarium Fishes in 1917. American fanciers bred the fish and, in turn, exported foundation stock to Great Britain. After World War II, since, the majority of Celestials exported from Asia are of Chinese origin. A Celestial goldfish is depicted on a postage stamp issued in 1960 by the People's Republic of China; the Celestial is a goldfish. Like the Bubble Eye, the Celestial does not have a dorsal fin, their paired fins are of the Ryukin type. The caudal may be half as long, to as long as, the body, they are most seen with metallic scales colored shades of orange, white, or red and white. Celestials with nacreous scales are known but seen. Despite their limited vision and their lack of a dorsal fin, they are agile swimmers, they do require some special attention since, in addition to having damaged upward-oriented eyes, they are sensitive to cold water temperatures.
They are unable to compete with more vigorous goldfish for food. Sharp ornaments and objects in the aquarium are inadvisable, they are best kept with other limited-vision breeds or in a tank of their own.] The original Celestial breed, described above, is still bred and exported by Chinese and Japanese breeders and is commercially available to fanciers, though they are not as stocked by aquarium shops and dealers as some other goldfish varieties. It is this 240+ year old form, described in the American standard adopted by the American Goldfish Association and the Goldfish Society of America. British fanciers prefer their Celestials to have deeper bodies and shorter fins, have selectively bred for these features as required by the British standard. In recent decades, the Chinese have crossed Celestials with several other breeds, most Lionheads and Pompoms, producing much larger fish with short ranchu-like fins and deep, blocky bodies with nasal'bouquets' and rudimentary headgrowths; some of these crosses tend to be less animated swimmers those that possess a short downturned, ranchu-like caudal peduncle with flared and short caudal fins, traits which are otherwise uncharacteristic for the breed.
Such fish can be quite sedentary, spending most of their time near the bottom of the aquarium. These hybrids are not available commercially outside Asia but can be acquired through specialist dealers and importers; the Deme-ranchu, is identical to the Celestial in conformation save for its telescopic eyes which do not turn upward. In any spawning of Celestials, many fry will be found to mature with telescopic eyes that never turn upwards; these fish are identical to deme-ranchu. The Toadhead or Hama-tou in Japanese, is similar to the Celestial in having upward-turned eyes, though they are not protuberant, each supporting a small bubble-like growth sacs beneath it, it is believed to be the ancestor to both bubble eye goldfish. Innes, Dr William T. "The Sacred Fish of Korea," Aquarium Highlights, Innes Publishing Co. Philadelphia, 1951. Innes, Dr. William T. Goldfish Varieties and Tropical Aquarium Fishes, 9th Edition, Innes Publishing Co, Philadelphia, 1926. Matsui, Dr. Yoshiichi, Goldfish Guide, 2nd Edition, TFH Publications, Neptune, N.
J. 1981 Hervey, G. F. & Hems, J. The Goldfish, 1st Edition, Batchworth Press, London, 1948. Varieties of Goldfish -About Celestial Eye
Pompoms or pompon or hana fusa are a type of fancy goldfish that have bundles of loose fleshy outgrowths between the nostrils, on each side of the head. The pompom has a similar body shape and finnage to the lionhead or Oranda but instead of supporting a headgrowth it has nasal outgrowths; the extent of the nasal outgrowths, which are enlargements of the nasal septum, vary in pompom goldfish. In some, the outgrowths hang down past the mouth; these skin outgrowths around the nostrils of pompoms are developed through selective breeding. Pompoms may have either metallic or nacreous scalation, can occur with or without a dorsal fin, it will be best if the lionhead variety of these fishes are engaged with the same variety or other dorsal fin less fishes. The Chinese submit this variety as the "Velvet ball". There are records for the existence of this fish being seen as far back as 1898; the first importation of these fish into the United Kingdom was in 1936 when the original fish were exported from Shanghai and others were displayed at an aquarium in Paris.
It was quite popular in the early days of the fancy goldfish, but is now rarely seen for sale or on display. The hana fusa or white pompom oranda is an elegant pompom with a dorsal fin. Varieties of Goldfish -About Pompom
An oranda is a breed of goldfish characterized by a prominent bubble-like "hood" on the head. The headgrowth or hood may be a prominent growth on the top of the head or may encase the entire face except for the eyes and mouth; when it was first imported from China to Japan it was mistakenly thought to be native to the Netherlands, was therefore dubbed the "Holland Lionmask", Dutch Lionhead, "Netherlands Lion Head", from which its English name "oranda" derives. Due to the fleshy outgrowth on the upper half of its head and sides of its face, the oranda has become one of the most popular goldfish; the headgrowth is described as a'wen' by Chinese aquarists. The mass comes from selective breeding; the oranda is a metallic or matte scaled goldfish, similar in appearance to the veiltail. It has a large and deep body accompanied by a long quadruple tail; this four-lobed and contracted tail spreads out broadly when the oranda stops swimming. The back does not rise up to form a ryukin-like hump. Orandas are available in a variety of colors, most orange, red-and-white, red-and-black, blue, bronze, white or silver, black-and-white, red-black-and-white, calico colors.
The headgrowth of young fry may take one to two years to develop. The oranda can reach 20 to 31 centimeters in length. Sometimes the wen grows enormously covering the eyes of the goldfish. Due to this, the eyesight may become limited or blind. Special care should be given to the wen; the Oranda can tolerate temperatures from 17-28°C. More blue scale oranda have been developed but these fish are rare. Oranda goldfish are sensitive to cold temperatures, more so than other goldfish; the azuma nishiki is an attractive nacreous-colored form of the oranda. The red-cap oranda has a silver body with a prominent red headgrowth on the forehead. Chinese breeders have developed telescope eyed orandas, a cross-breeding of the telescope eye and oranda goldfish; the hana fusa or pompom oranda is an elegant pompom with a dorsal headgrowth like an oranda. Its a cross between the oranda and a dorsal formed pom-pom; the nagate oranda is a long body oranda developed in Shikoku, south west area of Japan. The Apache oranda, is a form of oranda that bares both black together.
Apaches can not be named. The panda oranda is a variety of oranda, bi-colored or tri-colored, most identifiable by the black-and-white coloration for which it is named; the Ingot oranda known as the Yuan-Bao oranda, is a new Chinese variety of oranda, crossed from a ryukin with a Ranchu. Its large, short round body has a characteristics of a Ranchu, with its box shaped face containing wen, its tail is somewhat equal as to the ryukin, though short-finned ingots are popular and produced today. The Chakin named as the chocolate oranda, is a colored varient of an oranda, it has brownish scales with a color like that of chocolate. The Seibungyo or Seibun is a blue oranda, named for its bluish grey silver coloration; the "blue" is combined with both black areas on the outside skin, black from the inside layers, to form a blue-like sheen. The black oranda is a developed color variety, crossed from the black moor; the jade seal oranda is a type of color pattern that consist of a white, clear cap on its head, the rest of the body is red or orange.
Orandas can be kept with other goldfish. If their wen grows too much, it may hinder vision, so it is advised to keep them with other goldfish with poor vision in order to make sure that they do not starve because of the able-sighted competition; some aquarists prefer to trim the wen off of the goldfish by using a scissor to prevent blindness and doused with peroxide to prevent from damaging essential areas around the face or body. Their wen is susceptible to injury from rough objects placed in their residence. Varieties of Goldfish -About Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Calico Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Blue Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Chocolate Oranda Varieties of Goldfish -About Redcap Oranda
The common goldfish is a breed of goldfish with no other differences from its living ancestor, the Prussian carp, other than its color and shape. Goldfish are a close relative of koi. Most varieties of fancy goldfish were derived from this simple breed. Common goldfish come in a variety of colors including red, red/white, white/black, grey/brown/, olive green, white and calico kind, with the most common variation being orange. Sometimes, the brightness and the vividness of the color may be an indication of the fish’s health status. Common goldfish are social animals, they are able to interact with any fish belonging to the same species. With provision of adequate care and attention, common goldfish can become tame. Once familiar with the face of its owner, swimming towards the fish keeper during feeding time can be observed and hand-feeding becomes possible. Small goldfish will avoid any form of human contact. However, this fear ceases in a mature goldfish. A full-grown goldfish is more to eat directly from the hands of its owner without evident hesitation.
While this behavior is welcomed by goldfish owners, it proved problematic in outdoor ponds where predators may eat such friendly prey. Mature goldfish will explore their surroundings through nibbling or grazing behavior. If transferred into a tank of other goldfish, a common goldfish would try to communicate and familiarize itself with its new tank mates by rubbing up against the body of other fish; the most common introductory gesture would be by swimming side by side with another goldfish with its head facing forward, or by swimming side by side with another goldfish with its head facing the opposite direction, or by swimming above another goldfish in a perpendicular fashion. Schooling is a common behavior. After some time, this schooling behavior ceases, soon every individual fish will again be swimming and exploring the aquarium on its own. Aggressive behavior is uncommon. Hierarchy during feeding is observed in which the larger goldfish receives most of the food. However, small goldfish may become aggressive or competitive feeders despite the presence of larger fish which is, in general terms, considered a good sign, as a willingness to feed is indicative of a healthy goldfish.
It is a common practice to keep common goldfish in a small bowl, but this allows waste in the water to build up to toxic levels and does not provide enough oxygen. For every small/young goldfish, there should ideally be at least 10 to 20 US gallons of water. A good filter, with no heater, is recommended. Tank recommendations range up to 75 US gallons, it is possible to keep small goldfish in smaller tanks, but such an arrangement will be difficult to maintain once the fish grows older. If there is concern about the fish not getting enough oxygen when it is warm, a water pump, such as a fountain pump, mini pond pump will pull the CO2 water from the bottom, expel it, the surface action will oxygenate the tank or pond. Contrary to popular belief, air pumps and air stones do not oxygenate directly and rely on bubbles breaking the surface to transfer oxygen to the fish's environment. Ideally, the water pump should push 10x the volume of the pond plus an extra 100lph or gph. Goldfish will die without sufficient dissolved oxygen in the water.
A filter that can do at least 10x filtration is best, which means that for every 10 gallons or liters of water, the filter should be able to cycle 100 gallons or liters per hour. If the oxygen in the water runs out the fish may die or become unconscious, it is advised to move the fish to a basin of water full of fresh water. Goldfish are curious fish that will become bored without items or other fish to interact with. If placed in a bare aquarium, goldfish will settle to the bottom and only move when fed or frightened by sudden jolts. However, if put in a tank with sufficient gravel, aquarium accessories or plants they will make themselves at home. Goldfish are not territorial. However, if an aquarium is too small for one goldfish, it will be too small for two or more. Stress is not healthy for any goldfish. In a worst-case scenario, one or two fish will bully the rest to starvation. Cannibalism is rare but in cramped, stressful situations, goldfish may behave unpredictably. A disease is possible.
When adding goldfish to a new tank it is important to place no more than two at a time. This allows helpful bacteria to grow. If introduced in too great a number before these bacteria grow, the goldfish will die from breathing in too much of their own untreated excrement. After the development of the biological filter, it is necessary to change about 20% of the water at least one time a week, or as necessary to prevent a build-up of harmful nitrate; the addition of live aquatic plants may reduce the number of times per month one will have to perform water changes, but only if the plants are growing. But it is recommended if the needs are required, To never remove all of the water out of an established tank. Never do a water change over 90%, the remaining 10% of water will help maintain the waters cycle and the remaining good bacteria will soon reestablish in the tank. A good tip is when doing
The egg fish goldfish is a fancy goldfish breed which lacks a dorsal fin and has a pronounced egg-shaped body. In Japan, the Egg-fish is called the Maruko, it is kept in China and is the precursor to the Celestial, Lionhead and the Bubble Eye goldfish varieties. The phoenix is a Chinese variety with an egg-shaped body and a long tail, without a dorsal fin and no headgrowth, it comes in all shades of scale types. A rare variety with blue-colored scales is called the Blue Egg Phoenix
The Bubble Eye is a small variety of fancy goldfish with upward pointing eyes that are accompanied by two large fluid-filled sacs. It is a dorsal-less fish -- good specimens will have a clean back and eye bubbles that match in color and size, their bubbles are quite delicate, so the fish should be kept separately from boisterous types, as well as sharp tank decor. Although the bubbles will regrow if punctured, injury could leave the fish prone to infections; the bubbles can disadvantage the fish as it is not a strong swimmer, with a low bobbing head at times. The Bubble Eye has an evenly curved back that lacks a dorsal fin; the pair of large pouches of skin attached under its eyes jiggle. Bubble Eyes have metallic scales and they are similar to the celestial eye goldfish; the eyes of the Bubble Eye goldfish are normal in the young fry, but will start to develop eye bladders three months after hatching. Like ranchu, the bubble eye goldfish has a double tail, they grow up to 3 to 4 inches in length.
If one of their "Bubbles" pop due to pressure or collision with a sharp object, there is a risk of infection where the inside of the sac has been exposed. The precursor to the Bubble Eye, known as the Toadhead or hama-tou, had upturned eyes and small, bladder like sacs. Through selective breeding, the bubble eye is available with either a long or more rounded body, the choice between matte, metallic or nacreous scales. A recent development of the bubble eye has four eye sacs rather than the usual two. Desirable colors for these fish include red, orange and white, the rare black. Due to the delicate eye sacs, enthusiasts must ensure that their bubble eye is kept in aquariums free from sharp objects; the water must be changed three times a month to prevent infection, the gravel filter vacuumed if the aquarium lacks aquatic plants. Some inexperienced owners keep a single fish to minimise the risk of collisions, but the majority of experts consider this unnecessary. However, due to the fish's visual impairment, it is recommended that they are kept with other bubble eyes, black moors and celestial goldfish to ensure fair competition for food.
Researchers in Japan have theorized that the liquid in the bubble eye's sacs could be a stimulant to cell growth. Due to the eye sac's ability to regenerate and refill itself, scientists can milk the same fish every few months with a syringe. Celestial Eye Bristol Aquarist's Society - Describes the appearance of the standard, show-quality Bubble Eye Goldfish, Part 2 - An excellent article on keeping Bubble Eyes, as well as fancy goldfish in general Happy bubble fish video! - A video showing some Bubble Eye fish in action. Varieties of Goldfish - About Bubble Eye
The Curled-gill or Reversed-gill goldfish is another uncommon variety of fancy goldfish, developed by specialist enthusiasts. It owes its name from the out-turned appearance of its gill covers; this fish resembles a Ryukin. For the appearance of this goldfish, it has a fantail-shaped body with long finnage all round as well as a forked tail.