A turbocharger, colloquially known as a turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a aspirated engine's power output is due to the fact that the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers. Today the term "supercharger" is applied only to mechanically driven forced induction devices; the key difference between a turbocharger and a conventional supercharger is that a supercharger is mechanically driven by the engine through a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine driven by the engine's exhaust gas. Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less responsive.
Twincharger refers to an engine with a turbocharger. Turbochargers are used on truck, train and construction equipment engines, they are most used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. Forced induction dates from the late 19th century, when Gottlieb Daimler patented the technique of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in 1885; the turbocharger was invented by Swiss engineer Alfred Büchi, the head of diesel engine research at Gebrüder Sulzer, engine manufacturing company in Winterthur, who received a patent in 1905 for using a compressor driven by exhaust gases to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase power output, but it took another 20 years for the idea to come to fruition. The first use of turbocharging technology based on his design was for large marine engines, when the German Ministry of Transport commissioned the construction of the "Preussen" and "Hansestadt Danzig" passenger liners in 1923. Both ships featured twin ten-cylinder diesel engines with output boosted from 1750 to 2500 horsepower by turbochargers designed by Büchi and built under his supervision by Brown Boveri.
During World War I French engineer Auguste Rateau fitted turbochargers to Renault engines powering various French fighters with some success. In 1918, General Electric engineer Sanford Alexander Moss attached a turbocharger to a V12 Liberty aircraft engine; the engine was tested at Pikes Peak in Colorado at 14,000 ft to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power loss experienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines such as the Napier Lioness in the 1920s, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. Ships and locomotives equipped with turbocharged diesel engines began appearing in the 1920s. Turbochargers were used in aviation, most used by the United States. During World War II, notable examples of U. S. aircraft with turbochargers—which included mass-produced ones designed by General Electric for American aviation use—include the B-17 Flying Fortress, B-24 Liberator, P-38 Lightning, P-47 Thunderbolt.
The technology was used in experimental fittings by a number of other manufacturers, notably a variety of experimental inline engine-powered Focke-Wulf Fw 190 prototype models, with some developments for their design coming from the DVL, a predecessor of today's DLR agency, but the need for advanced high-temperature metals in the turbine, that were not available for production purposes during wartime, kept them out of widespread use. Turbochargers are used in car and commercial vehicles because they allow smaller-capacity engines to have improved fuel economy, reduced emissions, higher power and higher torque. In contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. Belts, chains and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, placing a mechanical load on the engine. For example, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, the supercharger uses about 150 horsepower, yet the benefits outweigh the costs. This is. Another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency when compared with turbochargers.
Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of a compressor's ability to compress air without adding excess heat to that air. Under ideal conditions, the compression process always results in elevated output temperature. Roots superchargers impart more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, as a result denser, containing more oxygen molecules, therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. In practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers producing 15% to 30% more power based on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. By comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine, although turbochargers place exhaust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses; this is more ef
1970 Indianapolis 500
The 54th 500 Mile International Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Saturday, May 30, 1970. Al Unser, Sr. dominated the race, winning the pole position and leading 190 laps en route to victory. He joined his brother Bobby as the first duo of brothers to win the Indianapolis 500, it was the first of four victories for Al at Indianapolis. Car owner Parnelli Jones, who won the race as a driver in 1963, became the second individual to win separately as both a driver and as an owner. Unser took home $271,697 out of a record $1,000,002 purse. For the first time in Indy history, the total prize fund topped $1 million. Rain on race morning delayed the start by about thirty minutes. On the pace lap, Jim Malloy smacked the outside wall in turn four. All 33 cars in the field were turbocharged for the first time; this would be the final 500 in which the winner celebrated in the old victory lane at the south end of the pits. Victory lane would be relocated for 1971.
The race start time was scheduled for 12:00 noon local time, a slight departure from the traditional 11:00 am start time, used during most of the 1960s. With the race scheduled for Saturday May 30, Speedway management announced that Sunday May 31 would be the designated rain date, the first time the race would be permitted to run on a Sunday. However, despite a brief rain delay on race morning, the full 500 miles was completed Saturday, Sunday was not needed; this would be the last Indy 500, scheduled for the traditional fixed date of May 30. Through 1970, Memorial Day was a fixed date holiday observed on May 30 regardless of the day of the week. For 1970, the date of May 30 fell on a Saturday. From 1911 to 1970, the race was scheduled for May 30, regardless of the day of the week, unless May 30 fell on a Sunday. In those cases, the race would be scheduled for Monday May 31; the Uniform Monday Holiday Act would take effect in 1971, for 1971 and 1972, the race would be scheduled for the Saturday of Memorial Day weekend.
In 1973, it was scheduled for Monday. From 1974 onward, it was scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend. From 1974 onward, the race would only be held on May 30. Al Unser, Sr. set the fastest speed during practice, with a lap of 171.233 mph. Unser led the speed chart on five of the practice days, was the only driver to crack the 170 mph barrier during the first two weeks. A. J. Foyt and Art Pollard were close behind. John Cannon wrecked on Sunday May 10, was unable to qualify. On Monday May 11, defending race winner Mario Andretti wrecked in turn four, his car hit the inside wall twice, the car was damaged. Andretti was not injured. On Tuesday May 12, Dennis Hulme's car caught fire in turn three, he bailed from the moving machine, suffering burns to his feet. He withdrew due to the injuries. Al Unser, Sr. won the pole position over Johnny Rutherford by 0.01 seconds, a record closest margin for the pole position at the time. A. J. Foyt rounded out the "all over 170 mph" front row. Unser's pole speed of 170.221 mph was not a record – which marked the first time since the 1940s that two consecutive years went by without track records set during time trials at Indy.
Rain halted pole day qualifying at 3:42 p.m. with 17 cars in the field. A few cars were still waiting in line. USAC officials closed the track for the day, those cars were deemed ineligible for the pole round. In subsequent years, the rules would be changed to allow all cars in the original qualifying draw order at least one chance to make an attempt during the pole round, regardless if it extended into an additional calendar day due to rain. Rookie Tony Adamowicz suffered bad luck during his attempt. On his first qualifying lap, the yellow light was turned on by error, he slowed down, his first lap was turned in at 160.829 mph. The green light came back on moments and he completed the run. Although he had two laps over 166 mph, his first lap pulled his average down to 164.820 mph, made him the second-slowest car in the field for the day. Three drivers shut out from the pole round came back to qualify on the second day. Peter Revson was the 9th-fastest car in the field, but lined up 18th due to being a second day qualifier.
Lloyd Ruby went out for his first attempt, but when he raised his hand to signify the intent to start his attempt, the officials did not see it, inadvertently waved him off. After he persuaded the officials for a do-over, he had a lap of 169.428 mph, but burned a piston on the fourth and final lap. The incident drew the ire of the team, as they felt the officials cost them a chance to be the day's fastest qualifier. Ruby went out again in the day with a new engine, but waved off after one slow lap. After a disappointing first weekend, Lloyd Ruby rebounded to complete his qualifying attempt at 168.895 mph. A busy day saw 14 attempts, the field was filled to 33 cars. Two drivers were bumped. Jim McElreath put the fourth Foyt entry in the field. No other cars, were able to show enough speed to make the field. Jigger Sirois, infamous for missing the 1969 race, fell far short in Jack Adam's Turbine car. First alternate: Arnie Knepper Rain delayed the start of the race by about 25 minutes. On the final pace lap, the field was coming through turn four to take the green flag.
Jim Malloy on the outside of the third row, suffered a rear suspension failure, smacked the outside wall. His car veered across the track
Christopher "Chris" Constantine Economaki was an American motorsports commentator, pit road reporter, journalist. Economaki was given the title "The Dean of American Motorsports Journalism." Microsoft chose Economaki to author the auto racing history portion of its Encarta Encyclopedia. Economaki was born in New York. Economaki's father was his mother a great-niece of Robert E. Lee, he saw his first race at age 9 at the board track in Atlantic City. He was hooked on the sport, he once attempted driving a midget car at a cinder track in Pennsylvania. "It wasn't for me," says Economaki. "It was a frightening experience. That was the first and last time I drove in competition."He would hang around and help out some of auto racing's most famous drivers at the famous "Gasoline Alley" at Paterson, New Jersey. He helped Duane Carter with the setup on his outboard midget car in 1938 as an unofficial crew chief. Economaki began his career in auto racing journalism at age 13 selling copies of National Auto Racing News newspapers, now known as the Speed Sport franchise.
He wrote his first column at age 14 for the National Auto Racing News. Economaki became the editor of the National Speed Sport News in 1950, he began writing a column called "The Editor's Notebook", which he continued to write over fifty years later. He became owner and editor of the National Speed Sport News; the newspaper was considered "America's Weekly Motorsports Authority". His daughter, Corinne Economaki, took over as the publisher until the final issue of National Speed Sport News was published, on March 23, 2011; the National Speed Sport News Web site was sold in 2012 to Turn 3 Media, LLC, with longtime colleague Mike Kerchner as current publisher, which includes the Web site and the expansion of the Speed Sport brand to a magazine and television show. He co-authored an autobiography called Let'Em All Go: The Story of Auto Racing by the Man, there. In the inaugural World 600 in 1960, Don O'Dell's Pontiac smashed the driver's door of Lenny Page's Chevy. Lenny Page, lucky to survive the crash due to the safety systems at that time, was near death afterwards, but Economaki rushed to the scene and aided Page until safety crews arrived.
He was credited with saving Lenny's life. Economaki began as track announcer at a number of major races in the 1950s, he is responsible for introducing millions of Americans to auto racing as an expert TV commentator. He began at the July 4, 1961 running of the Firecracker 250 NASCAR race at Daytona International Speedway for ABC Sports, he covered most ABC Wide World of Sports motorsports events, including several Indianapolis 500s, Daytona 500s, Formula One Grand Prix races, the 24 Hours of Le Mans, the East African Safari, the Bathurst 1000 in Australia. He would cover Wide World's less glamorous motorsports assignments, such as demolition derbies. For several years during the 1960s, he contributed "Sport of Speed" segments twice each weekend to the NBC Radio Network program Monitor. After 23 years he switched to CBS Sports, he covered International Race of Champions events, Daytona 500s, Formula One Grand Prix events. He contributed to ESPN's SpeedWeek, TBS' Motorweek Illustrated. Economaki covered Formula One races on ESPN in 1987 and 1988 alongside British race driver and commentator David Hobbs, before being replaced by the younger Bob Varsha from 1989.
In February 1988 he was the expert pit reporter for Australian television station Channel 7 for the first NASCAR race run outside of North America, the Goodyear NASCAR 500 at the Calder Park Thunderdome in Melbourne. Economaki had worked for Seven during the Bathurst 1000 telecasts of the late 1970s and early 1980s working as a pit reporter, he would return to Australia to work as a pit reporter for Ch.7 during the telecast of the 1993 Tooheys 1000 at Bathurst. He covered several types of auto racing, including sprint cars, Championship Cars, stock cars, drag racers, Can-Am cars. From 1995 until 2008, Economaki was a part of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Radio Network coverage of the Indianapolis 500, working as a color commentator. Economaki received numerous major awards, he was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1994. He was inducted in the National Sprint Car Hall of Fame in 1993, he was awarded the 1990 NASCAR Award of Excellence, the NASCAR Lifetime Achievement Award in 1998.
Other awards bestowed upon Economaki included: Inducted into Oceanside Rotary Club of Daytona Beach Stock Car Racing Hall of Fame in 1993 Inducted into the Indianapolis Motor Speedway Hall of Fame Inducted into the National Midget Auto Racing Hall of Fame in 2002 Tom Marchese Award 1973 Hernry McLemore Award 1978 Ken Purdy Award 1981 Ray Marquette Award First recipient of the 1982 Patrick Jacquemart Award 1984 Dave Fritzlen Award 1984 Walt Ader Memorial Award First Hugh Deery Memorial Award for Service to Auto Racing 1990 USAC Presidential Award 1990 Charlotte Speedway Award 1996 Louis Meyer Award 2000 NASCAR/Federal Mogul Buddy Shuman award 2001 International Automotive Media Council Lifetime Achievement Award Was part of the CBS broadcast team which won the Sports Emmy for "Outstanding Live Sports Special" The Economaki Champion of Champions Award is named after him. A day at the Dodge Charger 500 at the Darlington Raceway race weekend is named "Chris Economaki Day." The press room at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway was named the Economaki Press Conference Room in 2006.
Pocono Raceway named its press box The Chris Economaki Press Box. New Jersey Motorsports Park's media center is named The Chris Economaki Media Center. Economa
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in many motorsport series, including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar, sports car racing. More than ten years after its last race, Team Lotus remained one of the most successful racing teams of all time, winning seven Formula One Constructors' titles, six Drivers' Championships, the Indianapolis 500 in the United States between 1962 and 1978. Under the direction of founder and chief designer Colin Chapman, Lotus was responsible for many innovative and experimental developments in critical motorsport, in both technical and commercial arenas; the Lotus name returned to Formula One in 2010 as Tony Fernandes's Lotus Racing team. In 2011, Team Lotus's iconic black-and-gold livery returned to F1 as the livery of the Lotus Renault GP team, sponsored by Lotus Cars, in 2012 the team was re-branded as Lotus F1 Team. Colin Chapman established Lotus Engineering Ltd in 1952 at Hornsey, UK.
Lotus achieved rapid success with the the 1954 Mk 8 sports cars. Team Lotus was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954. A new Formula Two regulation was announced for 1957, in Britain, several organizers ran races for the new regulations during the course of 1956. Most of the cars entered that year were sports cars, they included a large number of Lotus 11s, the definitive Coventry Climax-powered sports racer, led by the Team Lotus entries for Chapman, driven by Cliff Allison and Reg Bicknell; the following year, the Lotus 12 appeared. Driving one in 1958, Allison won the F2 class in the International Trophy at Silverstone, beating Stuart Lewis-Evans's Cooper; the remarkable Coventry Climax-powered Type 14, the Lotus Cars production version of, the original Lotus Elite, won six class victories, plus the "Index of Performance" several times at the 24 Hours of Le Mans race. As the Coventry Climax engines were enlarged in 1952 to 2.2-litres, Chapman decided to enter Grand Prix racing, running a pair of Lotus 12s at Monaco in 1958 for Graham Hill and Cliff Allison.
These were replaced that year by Lotus 16s. In 1959 – by which time the Coventry Climax engines had been stretched to 2.5-litres – Chapman continued with front-engined F1 cars, but achieved little, so in 1960 Chapman switched to the milestone mid-engined Lotus 18. By the company's success had caused it to expand to such an extent that it had to move to new premises at Cheshunt; the first Formula One victory for Team Lotus came when Innes Ireland won the 1961 United States Grand Prix. A year earlier, Stirling Moss had recorded the first victory for a Lotus car at Monaco in his Lotus 18 entered by the independent Rob Walker Racing Team. There were successes in Formula Junior; the road car business was doing well with the Lotus Seven and the Lotus Elite and this was followed by the Lotus Elan in 1962. More racing success followed with the 26R, the racing version of the Elan, in 1963 with the Lotus Cortina, which Jack Sears drove to the British Saloon Car Championship title, a feat repeated by Jim Clark in 1964 and Alan Mann in the 1965 European Touring car Championship.
In 1963, Clark drove the Lotus 25 to a remarkable seven wins in a season and won the World Championship. The 1964 title was still for the taking by the time of the last race in Mexico but problems with Clark's Lotus and Hill's BRM gave it to Surtees in his Ferrari. However, in 1965, Clark dominated again, six wins in his Lotus 33 gave him the championship. While innovative, Chapman came under criticism for the structural fragility of his designs; the number of top drivers injured or killed in Lotus machinery was considerable – notably Stirling Moss, Alan Stacey, Mike Taylor, Jim Clark, Mike Spence, Bobby Marshman, Graham Hill, Jochen Rindt and Ronnie Peterson. In Dave Friedman's book "Indianapolis Memories 1961–1969", Dan Gurney is quoted as saying, "Did I think the Lotus way of doing things was good? No. We had several structural failures in those cars, but at the time, I felt it was the price you paid for getting something better." When the Formula One engine size increased to three litres in 1966, Lotus was caught unprepared because of the surprising failure of the Coventry Climax 1.5-Litre FWMW Flat-16 project, which prevented Climax from developing a 3-Litre successor.
They started the season fielding the hastily prepared and uncompetitive two-litre Coventry-Climax FWMV V8 engine, only switching to the BRM H16 in time for the Italian Grand Prix, with the new engine proving to be overweight and unreliable. A switch to the new Ford Cosworth DFV, designed by former Lotus employee Keith Duckworth, in 1967 returned the team to winning form. Although they failed to win the title in 1967, by the end of the season, the Lotus 49 and the DFV engine were mature enough to make the Lotus team dominant again. However, for 1968 Lotus had lost its exclusive right to use the DFV; the season-opening 1968 South African Grand Prix confirmed Lotus's superiority, with Jim Clark and Graham Hill finishing 1–2. It would be Clark's last win. On 7 April 1968, one of the most successful and popular drivers of all time, was killed driving a Lotus 48 at Hockenheim in a non-championship Formula Two event; the season saw the introduction of wings as seen on various cars, including the Chaparral sports car.
Colin Chapman introduced a spoiler on Hill's Lotus 49B at Monaco. Graham Hill won the F1 World Championship in 1968 driving the Lotus 49. Around the same time, Chapman moved Lotus to new premises at Hethel in Norfolk. A new factory was built on the site, the former RAF Hethel bomber base, the old runways were converted into a testing facility; the offices and design studios wer
The DFV is an internal combustion engine, produced by Cosworth for Formula One motor racing. The name is an abbreviation of Double Four Valve, the engine being a V8 development of the earlier four-cylinder FVA, which had four valves per cylinder, its development in 1967 for Colin Chapman's Team Lotus was sponsored by Ford. For many years it was the dominant engine in Formula One, it was used in other categories of racing, including CART, Formula 3000 and sportscar racing; the engine is a 90°, 2,993 cc V8 with a bore and stroke of 85.67 x 64.897 mm producing over 400 bhp from the start reaching over 500 bhp by the end of its Formula 1 career. The 1983 DFY variant had a revised bore and stroke of 90 x 59 mm giving 2,993 cc and 520–530 bhp at 11,000 rpm, 280 ft⋅lbf torque at 8,500 rpm. In 1965, the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile, that administered Formula One racing, agreed to raise the series' maximum engine capacity from 1.5 litres to 3.0 litres from 1966. Up until that point, Colin Chapman's successful Team Lotus cars had relied on power from fast revving Coventry Climax engines, but with the change in regulations Coventry Climax decided for business reasons not to develop a large capacity engine.
Chapman approached Keith Duckworth a gearbox engineer at Lotus but now running his fledgling Cosworth company with Mike Costin, who commented that he could produce a competitive three-litre engine, given a development budget of £100,000. Chapman approached the Ford Motor Company and David Brown of Aston Martin for funding, each without initial success. Chapman approached Ford of Britain's public relations chief, former journalist Walter Hayes, with whom he had developed a close working relationship from the early 1960s. Since Hayes had joined Ford in 1962 the pair had collaborated in the production of the successful Lotus Cortina, introduced in 1963. Hayes arranged dinner for Chapman with Ford employee Harley Copp, a British-based American engineer who had backed and engineered Ford's successful entry into NASCAR in the 1950s. Hayes and Copp developed a business plan, backed by Ford UK's new chairman Stanley Gillen, approved by Ford's Detroit head office as a two-part plan: Stage one would produce a four-cylinder twin-cam engine for Formula Two Stage two would produce a V8 engine for Formula One, by May 1967 The project was revealed by Hayes in a PR launch in Detroit at the end of 1965, but the engine was not ready until the third race of the 1967 season, on the 4 June at Zandvoort.
Its debut proved successful. Graham Hill, in the team at the specific request of Ford and Hayes, put his DFV-powered Lotus 49 on pole position by half a second and led for the first 10 laps but was sidelined by a broken gear in the camshaft drive. Team-mate Jim Clark came home to win. However, this dominant performance belied a serious fault in the timing gear. Clark took three more wins that season, but reliability problems left him third in the Drivers' Championship, 10 points behind champion Denny Hulme; the progress of the engine was documented in a film produced by the Ford Motor Company's film section, entitled 9 Days in Summer. The agreement between Ford and Lotus was binding on all parties, Ford as the funder had no plans to sell or hire the DFV to any other teams. However, it occurred to Hayes that there was no competition: the Ferrari engine was underpowered. Only Brabham's Repco V8 engine provided a usable combination of power and reliability, but its age and design left little room for further improvement.
Hayes concluded that Ford's name could become tarnished if the Lotus were to continue winning against only lesser opposition, that they should agree to use the unit in other teams, hence dominate Formula One. At the end of 1967, Copp and Hayes explained to Chapman that he would no longer have monopoly use of the DFV and in August 1967 it was announced that the power unit would be available for sale, via Cosworth Engineering, to racing teams throughout the world. Hayes released the DFV to French team Matra, headed by Ken Tyrrell with Jackie Stewart as a driver. What followed was a golden age, where teams big or small could buy an engine, competitive, compact, easy to work with and cheap; the DFV replaced the Coventry Climax as the standard F1 powerplant for the private teams. Lotus, McLaren, Brabham, Surtees, Hesketh, Williams, Penske and Ligier are just some of the teams to have used the DFV. In 1969 and 1973 every World Championship race was won by DFV-powered cars, with the engine taking a total of 155 wins from 262 races between 1967 and 1985.
The advent of ground effect aerodynamics on the F1 scene in 1977 provided a new lease of life for the now decade-old engine. The principle relied on Venturi tunnels on the underside of the car to create low pressure regions and thus additional downforce. Teams running Ferrari and Alfa-Romeo flat-12 engines had enjoyed a handling advantage due to the low centre of gravity in such a configuration. However, for ground effect, the wide engine was the opposite of what was required as the cylinder heads protruded into the area where the Venturi tunnels should have been. In contrast, the V-configuration of the Cosworth engine angled the cylinders upwards and left ample s
1975 Formula One season
The 1975 Formula One season was the 29th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1975 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1975 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers which were contested concurrently from 12 January to 5 October over fourteen races; the season included three non-championship Formula One races and a nine race South African Formula One Championship. After a strong finish to the 1974 season, many observers felt the Brabham team were favourites to win the 1975 title; the year started well, with an emotional first win for Carlos Pace at the Interlagos circuit in his native São Paulo. However, over the season tyre wear slowed the cars, the initial promise was not maintained. Niki Lauda refers to 1975 as "the unbelievable year". In his second year with Ferrari, the team provided him with the Ferrari 312T—a car, technically far superior to any of the competition, he won his first world title with a huge margin over second place in the championship. American Mark Donohue died in August, two days after a practice run crash for the Austrian Grand Prix.
After the season in late November, an Embassy Hill airplane crashed in England and all six aboard were killed, including team owner Graham Hill and driver Tony Brise. The following drivers and constructors and contested the 1975 World Championship of F1 Drivers and the 1975 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers; the drivers went to Argentina to start the season, it was Jean-Pierre Jarier in the Shadow who took pole position with the Brabhams of Carlos Pace and Carlos Reutemann second and third on the grid. However, poleman Jarier could not start the race because his transmission failed on the parade lap. Home hero Reutemann took the led with Niki Lauda's Ferrari third. Pace passed teammate Reutemann to take the lead but spun off and dropped to seventh. James Hunt in his Hesketh soon overtook Lauda and Reutemann, much to the chagrin of the crowd. By reigning world champion Emerson Fittipaldi in his McLaren was past Lauda and up to third, soon took Reutemann for second as well. Fittipaldi took the lead with 18 laps left.
Pace recovered to fourth after his spin. Fittipaldi started his title defence with a win, Hunt was a superb second, Reutemann third in front of his home crowd; the second round was in Brazil, Jarier took pole position again with Fittipaldi alongside and Reutemann third. Reutemann, just like in Argentina, took the lead at the start from Jarier and Pace was up to third, whereas home driver Fittipaldi dropped to seventh. Jarier retook the lead from Reutemann on lap 5 and pulled away. Reutemann struggled with handling issues and dropped well down the order with Pace up to second, Clay Regazzoni's Ferrari third and Fittipaldi recovering to fourth. Jarier's engine stopped with seven laps left and Pace took the lead. Regazzoni was up to second but dropped behind Fittipaldi and Jochen Mass in the second McLaren as he too suffered handling issues. Pace took a home victory, with countryman Fittipaldi second and Mass third. A month after the Brazilian race, the field went to South Africa and Pace followed up his win with pole, with Reutemann alongside as Brabham locked out the front row, home hero Jody Scheckter was third in the Tyrrell.
Pace led at the start, with Scheckter second, Ronnie Peterson in his Lotus jumped up from eighth to take third. However, the Swede dropped back down the order. Scheckter took the lead from Pace to the delight to the fans. Pace kept second until he struggled with tyres and was passed by Reutemann and the second Tyrrell of Patrick Depailler. Scheckter took an emotional home victory, with Depailler completing the podium. Nearly two months after the third round, the European season began in Spain at the fast Montjuic street circuit in Barcelona; the Grand Prix Drivers Association was not happy with the state of the barriers, which were not bolted properly, the drivers threatened not to take part. Mechanics from the teams went around the entire circuit to attempt to repair/fasten down the barriers. After work was done on the circuit, the drivers agreed. Reigning world champion and championship leader Emerson Fittipaldi had no intention to race because of the condition of the barriers, went home on Sunday morning.
The organisers of the event locked the cars and motorhomes inside the circuit confines for breach of contract and threatened to keep them there. This being incompatible with the timeschedule for the next race at Monaco, the teams decided to cater for the organisers wishes and raced anyway; the rest of the drivers were there for qualifying, Ferrari took the front row, with Lauda on pole from Regazzoni, Hunt third in the Hesketh. There was chaos at the start when Mario Andretti in his Parnelli tapped the car of polesitter Lauda, sending it into the sister car of Regazzoni and knocking both Ferraris out of contention. Hunt gratefully took the lead, Andretti, whose car was undamaged was second. Hunt led until he crashed after spinning on oil on the track, leaving Andretti leading from John Watson in the Surtees and Rolf Stommelen's Hill. Watson had to pit with a vibration and the leader Andretti retired after a suspension failure sent him into the guardrail; this promoted Pace to second and Peterson to third, but the Swede retired after colliding with backmarker François Migault while lapping him.
On lap 26, Stommelen's rear wing broke, the car bounced into the barriers and flew back onto the road, hitting the barrier on the other side but the momentum of the car was enough for it to fly over the barrier where spectators were wa
United States Auto Club
The United States Auto Club is one of the sanctioning bodies of auto racing in the United States. From 1956 to 1979, USAC sanctioned the United States National Championship, from 1956 to 1997 the organization sanctioned the Indianapolis 500. Today, USAC serves as the sanctioning body for a number of racing series, including the Silver Crown Series, National Sprint Cars, National Midgets, Speed2 Midget Series.25 Midget Series, Stadium Super Trucks, TORC: The Off-Road Championship, Pirelli World Challenge. When the American Automobile Association withdrew from auto racing after the 1955 season, citing the Le Mans disaster and the death of Bill Vukovich at Indianapolis as contributing factors, both the SCCA and NASCAR were mentioned as its potential successor. USAC was formed by Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony Hulman, it became the arbiter of rules, car design, other matters for what it termed championship auto racing, the highest level of USAC racing. For a while there was a separate series of specifications for championship cars designed to be run on dirt, rather than paved, tracks.
USAC's long history as an open-wheel racing sanctioning body continues today with the Silver Crown Series, National Sprint Car Series, National Midget Series, Ignite Ethanol Fuel Series, Quarter Midgets, TORC Series. NASCAR drivers including Jeff Gordon, Tony Stewart, Ryan Newman, Kasey Kahne honed their skills and captured championships while competing in various USAC series; the "triple crown" is earned in USAC racing. Only two drivers, Tony Stewart and J. J. Yeley, have achieved the triple crown in a single season. Four other drivers, Pancho Carter, Dave Darland, Jerry Coons Jr. and Tracy Hines have claimed each of the three championships at least once in their careers. In 2012 Mike Curb and Cary Agajanian became the only car owners to win the triple crown by winning all three championships in the same year. USAC had awarded a national championship until A. J. Foyt won his seventh title in 1979, it has announced that it will begin awarding a national championship starting in 2010. A driver's finishes in their 25 best races are counted toward the championship and the 2010 winner received $40,000.
Points are accumulated in the three national series: sprints and silver crown. Bryan Clauson of Noblesville, Indiana claimed the inaugural championship, topping runner-up Levi Jones by 14 points; this is now the Mike Curb "Super Licence" National Championship Award. USAC national drivers champions 2010 – Bryan Clauson. Killed were: Ray Marquette, USAC's vice-president of public affairs and a former sportswriter for The Indianapolis Star Frank Delroy, chairman of USAC technical committee Shim Malone, starter for USAC races and head of its midget racer division Judy Phillips, graphic artist and publication director of USAC's newsletter Stan Worley, chief registrar Ross Teeguarden, assistant technical chairman Don Peabody, head of the sprint division Dr. Bruce White, assistant staff doctor Don Mullendore and pilot of the plane; the effect on USAC, for open-wheel racing in the United States, was devastating since it followed the death of Indianapolis Motor Speedway owner Tony Hulman. The plane crash came at a time when Indy car owners and drivers were demanding changes from USAC.
Aside from the Indianapolis 500, USAC events were not well attended, the owners felt that USAC poorly negotiated television rights. The owners wanted increases in payouts at Indy. Though some think the plane crash was used as an opportunistic way to force change in the sport, it was an unfortunate coincidence; the seed of dissent had been growing for several years before the accident, claims the crash was an immediate cause for the 1979 CART/USAC "split" are considered for the most part unfounded. Unpopular were the attempts of USAC to keep the aging Offenhauser engine competitive with the newer, much more expensive, Cosworth DFV engine using boost-limiting "pop off valves" and limiting the amount of fuel that could be used. Most car owners banded together to form Championship Auto Racing Teams in 1978, with the first race to be run in 1979. USAC tried unsuccessfully to ban all CART owners from the 1979 Indianapolis 500 losing in court before the race began. Both the USAC and CART ran race schedules in 1979.
Indianapolis Motor Speedway president John Cooper was instrumental in forming a joint body of CART and USAC with the creation of the Championship Racing League in March 1980. However, in mid 1980, Cooper forced USAC to renounce their agreement with the CRL if they wanted to keep officiating the Indy 500. After USAC's attempt at a 500-mile races at Pocono Raceway –, boycotted by the CART teams, forcing USAC to fill the field with silver crown cars – USAC and CART settled into a peaceful co-existence, with USAC continuing to sanction the Indianapolis 500, CART including the race in its schedule. Beginning in 1971, all dirt races were split from the National Championship. From 1971 to 1980, the series was named National Dirt Car Championship renamed Silv