Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populous, the second largest autonomous community in the country; the Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as a "historical nationality". The territory is divided into eight provinces: Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and Seville, its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is located in the south of the Iberian peninsula, in south-western Europe south of the autonomous communities of Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha. Andalusia is the only European region with both Atlantic coastlines; the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, separated by the Intrabaetic Basin. In the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spain's Meseta Central.
To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies within the Baetic System, while Lower Andalusia is in the Baetic Depression of the valley of the Guadalquivir. The name "Andalusia" is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus; the toponym al-Andalus is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted in 716 by the new Muslim government of Iberia. These coins, called dinars, were inscribed in both Arabic; the etymology of the name "al-Andalus" has traditionally been derived from the name of the Vandals. Halm in 1989 derived the name from a Gothic term, *landahlauts, in 2002, Bossong suggested its derivation from a pre-Roman substrate; the region's history and culture have been influenced by the native Iberians, Carthaginians, Romans, Visigoths, Jews, Muslim Moors and the Castilian and other Christian North Iberian nationalities who reconquered and settled the area in the latter phases of the Reconquista. Andalusia has been a agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe.
However, the growth of the community in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain and higher than many communities in the Eurozone. The region has a strong identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are or Andalusian in origin; these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles, both of which are prevalent in other regions of Spain. Andalusia's hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba and Seville averaging above 36 °C in summer high temperatures. Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average annual temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe followed by Almería, its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia, "Al-Andalus". However, the etymology of the name "Al-Andalus" is disputed, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name has changed over the centuries.
The Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía. The name was adopted to refer to those territories still under Moorish rule, south of Castilla Nueva and Valencia, corresponding with the former Roman province hitherto called Baetica in Latin sources; this was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the adjectival form of the Arabic language al-Andalus, the name given by the Arabs to all of the Iberian territories under Muslim rule from 711 to 1492. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this area came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not refer to the exact territory designated by these terms today; the term referred to territories under Muslim control. In the Estoria de España of Alfonso X of Castile, written in the second half of the 13th century, the term Andalucía is used with three different meanings: As a literal translation of the Arabic al-Ándalus when Arabic texts are quoted.
To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada and Murcia. In a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself León y de toda Andalucía. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley but not the Kingdom of Granada; this was the most common significance in Early modern period. From an administrative point of view, Granada remained separate for many years after the completion of the Reconquista due, above all, to its emblematic character as the last territory regained, as the seat of the important Real Chancillería de Granada, a court of last resort. Stil
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
A weather vane, wind vane, or weathercock is an instrument for showing the direction of the wind. It is used as an architectural ornament to the highest point of a building; the word vane comes from the Old English word fana meaning "flag". Although functional, weather vanes are decorative featuring the traditional cockerel design with letters indicating the points of the compass. Other common motifs include ships and horses. Not all weather vanes have pointers; when the wind is sufficiently strong, the head of the arrow or cockerel will indicate the direction from which the wind is blowing. The weather vane was independently invented in ancient China and Greece around the same time during the 2nd century BCE; the earliest written reference to a weather vane appears in the Huainanzi, a weather vane was fitted on top of the Tower of the Winds in Athens. The oldest textual reference to a weather vane comes from the Chinese Huainanzi dating from around 139 BC, which describes a "wind-observing fan".
The Tower of the Winds on the ancient Greek agora in Athens once bore on its roof a wind vane in the form of a bronze Triton holding a rod in his outstretched hand, rotating as the wind changed direction. Below this was a frieze adorned with the eight Greek wind deities; the eight-metre-high structure featured sundials, a water clock inside. It dates from around 50 BC. Military documents from the Three Kingdoms period of China refer to the weather vane as "five ounces", named after the weight of its materials. By the 3rd century, Chinese weather vanes were shaped like birds and took the name of "wind-indicating bird"; the Sanfu huangtu, a 3rd-century book written by Miao Changyan about the palaces at Chang'an, describes a bird-shaped wind vane situated on a tower roof, also an anemometer: The Han'Ling Tai' was eight li north-west of Chang'an. It was called'Ling Tai' because it was intended for observations of the Yin and the Yang and the changes occurring in the celestial bodies, but in the Han it began to be called Qing Tai.
Guo Yuansheng, in his Shu Zheng Ji, says that south of the palaces there was a Ling Tai, fifteen ren high, upon the top of, the armillary sphere made by Zhang Heng. There was a wind-indicating bronze bird, moved by the wind. There was a bronze gnomon 8 feet high, with a 13 feet long and 1 foot 2 inches broad. According to an inscription, this was set up in the 4th year of the Taichu reign-period; the oldest surviving weather vane with the shape of a rooster is the Gallo di Ramperto, made in 820 AD and now preserved in the Museo di Santa Giulia in Brescia, Lombardy. Pope Leo IV had a cock placed on the Old St. Peter's old Constantinian basilica. Pope Gregory I said that the cock "was the most suitable emblem of Christianity", being "the emblem of St Peter", a reference to Luke 22:34 in which Jesus predicts that Peter will deny him three times before the rooster crows; as a result of this, the cock began to be used as a weather vane on church steeples, in the 9th century Pope Nicholas I ordered the figure to be placed on every church steeple.
The Bayeux Tapestry of the 1070s depicts a man installing a cock on Westminster Abbey. One alternative theory about the origin of weathercocks on church steeples is that it was an emblem of the vigilance of the clergy calling the people to prayer. Another theory says that the cock was not a Christian symbol but an emblem of the sun derived from the Goths. A few churches used weather vanes in the shape of the emblems of their patron saints; the City of London has two surviving examples. The weather vane of St Peter upon Cornhill is not a key. Early weather vanes had ornamental pointers, but modern wind vanes are simple arrows that dispense with the directionals because the instrument is connected to a remote reading station. An early example of this was installed in the Royal Navy's Admiralty building in London – the vane on the roof was mechanically linked to a large dial in the boardroom so senior officers were always aware of the wind direction when they met. Modern aerovanes combine the directional vane with an anemometer.
Co-locating both instruments provides a coordinated readout. According to the Guinness World Records, the world's largest weather vane is a Tío Pepe sherry advertisement located in Jerez, Spain; the city of Montague, Michigan claims to have the largest standard-design weather vane, being a ship and arrow which measures 48 feet tall, with an arrow 26 feet long. A challenger for the title of world's largest weather vane is located in Yukon; the weather vane is a retired Douglas DC-3 CF-CPY atop a swiveling support. Located at the Yukon Transportation Museum beside Whitehorse International Airport, the weather vane is used by pilots to determine wind direction, used as a landmark by tourists and enjoyed by locals; the weather vane only requires a 5 knot wind to rotate. A challenger for the worlds tallest weather vane is located in Alberta; the classic weather vane that reaches to 50 feet is topped by a 1942 Case Model D Tractor. This landmark is located at the Canadian Tractor Museum; the term "weathervane" is a slang word for a politician who has frequent changes of opinion.
The National Assembly of Quebec has banned use of this slang term as a sl
Sierra Nevada (Spain)
Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the region of Andalucia, in the province of Granada and, a little further, Málaga and Almería in Spain. It contains the highest point of continental Spain and the third highest in Europe, after the Caucasus Mountains and the Alps, Mulhacén at 3,479 metres above sea level, it is a popular tourist destination, as its high peaks make skiing possible in one of Europe's most southerly ski resorts, in an area along the Mediterranean Sea predominantly known for its warm temperatures and abundant sunshine. At its foothills is found the city of Granada and, a little further, Almería and Málaga. Parts of the range have been included in the Sierra Nevada National Park; the range has been declared a biosphere reserve. The Sierra Nevada Observatory and the IRAM radiotelescope are located on the northern slopes at an elevation of 2,800 metres; the Sierra Nevada was formed during the Alpine Orogeny, a mountain-building event that formed the European Alps to the east and the Atlas Mountains of northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
The Sierra as observed today formed during the Paleogene and Neogene Periods from the collision of the African and Eurasian continental plates. Central to the mountain range is a ridge running broadly west-south-west - east-north-east. For a substantial distance, the watershed stays above 3,000 metres. On the southern side of the range, several long, narrow river valleys lead off towards the south-west, separated by a number of subsidiary ridges. On the steeper and craggier northern side, the valleys have less regular orientations; this side is dominated by the Rio Genil which starts near Mulhacén and into which many of the other rivers flow. According to the Köppen climate classification, Sierra Nevada has a Mediterranean subalpine climate, due to the location's high elevation and low summer precipitation. With June and September being around the threshold of 10 °C in mean temperature to avoid the subarctic classification, the climate at a lower elevation is continental highland climate. At an elevation lower than that classification area.
This renders Sierra Nevada's climate a highland cooled-down variety of a typical mediterranean climate. Summer and winter daytime temperatures are some 12° C cooler than found in Granada, differences that are greater in spring as Sierra Nevada takes longer to approach the short summers. In May daytime highs in Sierra Nevada are around 4 °C with Granada having an average of 24 °C; the yearly temperature of 3.9 °C is in stark contrast to Granada's 15.7 °C and coastal Málaga's 18.5 °C. Sierra Nevada Ski Station Alpujarras Baetic System Sierra Nevada National Park Francisco Pérez Raya, Joaquín Molero Mesa, Francisco Valle Tendero, 1992: "Parque Natural de Sierra Nevada. Paisaje, flora, itinerarios". Ed. Rueda. Madrid. ISBN 84-7207-067-0 "Flora de la Tundra de Sierra Nevada". Pablo Prieto Fernández, Ed. Universidad de Granada. ISBN 84-600-1810-5 "Sierra Nevada: Guía de Montaña". Aurelio del Castillo y Antonio del Castillo. Ed. Penibética, 2003. ISBN 84-932022-3-1 "Sierra Nevada, Spain". NASA Earth Observatory.
Retrieved 2006-04-28. Media related to Sierra Nevada at Wikimedia Commons Google Maps - Satellite Photo Sierra Nevada Ski Resort - official site Sierra Nevada ski resort - trail map Maps of the Sierra Nevada nevasport.com - XVII sport week - Old Pictures Natural Park Sierra Nevada Sulayr
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Alpujarra is a natural and historical region in Andalusia, Spain, on the south slopes of the Sierra Nevada and the adjacent valley. The average elevation is 1,200 metres above sea level, it extends over two provinces and Almería. There are several interpretations of this Arabic name: the most convincing is that it derives from al-basharāt, meaning something like "sierra of pastures"; the administrative centre is Órgiva. The Sierra Nevada runs west-to-east for about 80 km, it includes the highest mountain in mainland Spain: the Mulhacén at 3,479 metres As the name implies, it is covered with snow in winter. The snow-melt in the spring and summer allows the southern slopes of the Sierra to remain green and fertile throughout the year, despite the heat of the summer sun. Water emerges from innumerable springs. Olives are grown on the lower slopes, in the valley below which extends from Órgiva to Cadiar, through which flows the Guadalfeo river; the plentiful water, milder climate, fertile land favour the cultivation of grapes and other fruit.
There is a developing production of wine on the hills between this valley and the sea, almond trees thrive on its southern slopes. The eastern end of the Alpujarra, towards Ugijar in the province of Almería, is much more arid; the terracing and the irrigation of the hillsides was the work of Berbers, who inhabited this area after the Moorish invasion of 711 AD. They created villages on the hillsides in the style to which they were accustomed in the mountains of North Africa: narrow, winding streets and small flat-roofed houses; the Catholic "Reconquista" of Spain progressed to the extent that by 1462 only the Emirate of Granada - including the Alpujarras - was left in Moorish hands. Their attempts to force Christianity on the Muslim inhabitants led to successive revolts, the Rebellion of the Alpujarras and the Rebellion of the Alpujarras; the revolt of 1568 was a civil war, with the Spaniards deploying large forces against this rural population and with much cruelty on both sides. The revolt ended with the death of the last Moorish leader in March 1571.
The Catholic Monarchs ordered the expulsion of Moors from the territory of Granada, who were taken in forced marches to other parts of Spain. Only a few, considered to have genuinely converted to Christianity, were allowed to remain, so as to teach the new inhabitants the silk industry. Starting in 1571, settlers were brought in from all over Spain. Though they were given various financial incentives, the re-settlement provided difficult; the population of the Alpujarra, estimations at about 40,000 before the final revolt, was only about 7,000 by the end of the century. The isolation of this mountain region caused it to remain poor and backward, until during the 20th century it was opened up by improved roads; the Civil War of 1936-39 was disastrous, as the opposing Nationalist and Republican forces fought over the area. Some villages changed hands more than once, each time the victor exacted retribution over the vanquished. After the Nationalist victory in April 1939, guerrilla fighters in the mountains continued their struggle against the Guardia Civil and a locally recruited militia based in the villages.
This conflict did not end until 1942. The high villages have lost population as younger people seek work in the cities, in Spain and elsewhere in the European Union. Tourism has developed. Visitors include day-time or weekend visitors from Granada and longer-term tourists from northern Europe. There are bus connections with Motril. There are numerous foreign residents, who have brought income and employment to the area; the villages have good-quality accommodation and shops for tourists. "Serrano ham", cured in Trevélez and other high-altitude villages, is a major local product. Mountain biking and walking is provided for, the GR 7 / E4 European long-distance footpath passes through the region; the Sierra Nevada and most of the Alta Alpujarra is protected under various national and international schemes, ensuring that the rural and the urbanistic features are preserved. The priority now is to promote "sustainable tourism" and as far as possible to extend the tourist period. Pedro Antonio de Alarcón was the first modern writer to describe a visit to the Alpujarras: "La Alpujarra: sesenta leguas a caballo precedidas de seis en diligencia".
In English,'The Alpujarra: sixty leagues on horseback preceded by six in stagecoach'. Gerald Brenan described his seven-year stay in Yegen in the 1920s in South From Granada. Chris Stewart's best-seller Driving Over Lemons: An Optimist in Andalucía An Optimist in Spain, is set in La Alpujarra. Michael Tracy's Bubión - the story of an Alpujarran village provides historical background, description of local customs, discussion of current issues, an extensive bibliography. Follow-up comments of the author are found at https://web.archive.org/web/20130516195101/http://alpujarrabubion.net/. Elyse Byskof's On Foot in Andalucía: 40 Hiking Excursions in Southern Spain contains much on the Alpujarras. Alpujarras travel g
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p