In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving
Trstenik is a town and municipality located in the Rasina District of central Serbia. As of 2011 census, the town has 15,329, it lies on the West Morava river. In the Early and Middle Iron Age, the tribe of Triballi inhabited the West Morava. Romans conquered the area in the 1st century AD. Roman sites include the Stražbe castrum on the right bank of the river, as well as sites in Bučje and Donji Dubić, others still unexplored; the Romans introduced the Vitis vinifera to the region, which still today is processed in Serbian wineyards. In the Middle Ages, Trstenik belonged to the West Morava oblast; the first written record of Trstenik is from Prince Lazar's Ravanica charter dated 1381, in which he donated Trstenik to the Ravanica monastery. The Ljubostinja monastery was built in the Morava architectural style. In 1427, the Ottoman Empire conquered the areas of Trstenik. In the Western Morava valley, the Ottomans built the Grabovac fortress. After the final fall of the Serbian Despotate in 1459, Trstenik became an important Ottoman caravan stop.
In an Austrian report dated 1784, Trstenik had 47 Muslim and 17 Christian houses, stone mosques, two inns and a few craft shops. At that time Trstenik was located 2 km west of the present town, near the village of Osaonica. After receiving autonomy of the Principality of Serbia, Miloš Obrenović ordered the construction of a new settlement on the right bank of the Western Morava in the period 1832-1838. In the 1870s, Trstenik got a primary school, a post office, a pharmacy, a bank and the first steam mill. In 1899, west across the river, a steel bridge was built, the following year the Church of the Holy Trinity was built. Stalać-Kraljevo railroad opened in 1910. From 1929 to 1941, Trstenik was part of the Morava Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. After World War II new facilities were built and a large part of the old quarters dates from this period. After World War II, Trstenik suffered significant industrial development with the establishment of the factory hydraulic and pneumatic systems First five years.
During the period of sanctions in the 1990s, the city stagnated. According to the 2011 census results, the municipality of Trstenik has a population of 42,966 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipality: As of 2017, key industrial companies in Trstenik are mechanical manufacturer PPT-Petoletka and defense company PPT-Namenska, both being the successors of once great manufacturing company "Prva Petoletka" which employed nearly 20,000 employees at its peak during the 1980s. The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity: Ljubostinja - is a Serbian Orthodox monastery near Trstenik, Serbia. Located in the small mountain valley of the Ljubostinja river, it is dedicated to the Holy Virgin. The monastery was built from 1388 to 1405. Burials in the monastery include Princess Milica, Lazar Hrebeljanović's wife and Nun Jefimija, which after the Battle of Kosovo here became a nun along with a number of other widows of Serbian noblemans who lost their life's in the battles on the river Maritsa and Kosovo Polje.
Today Ljubostinja is female monastery which maintains about fifty nuns. During the rebellion of Kočine, the people were invited on rebellion from the Ljubostinje monastery. After the collapse of rebellion Turks burned the monastery to revenge the Serbs, most of the frescoes were destroyed; when the monastery was set on fire a secret treasure was discovered, hidden in the monastery wall behind icons in which the Princess Milica hid their treasure. Among the stolen treasure was located Crown of Prince Lazar, now located in Istanbul. Ljubostinja was declared Monument of Culture of Exceptional Importance in 1979, it is protected by Republic of Serbia. Veluće Monastery Vladimir Jugović, former footballer, European cup champion Marko Baša, Montenegrin footballer Nebojša Bradić, minister of culture Dobrica Ćosić, writer and political theorist, president of the FR Yugoslavia Jovana Vojinović, chess player Ljubiša Vukadinović, sports reporter Verica Kalanović, politician and three-time minister Dragiša Binić, European cup champion Nikola Georgijev, student of medicine and longstanding member of student parliament Nikola Mandžukić, first Serbian with hotmail na rs Trstenik Airport Ljubostinja Media related to Trstenik at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, the team that scores more goals wins. Modern handball is played on a court of 40 with a goal in the middle of each end; the goals are surrounded by a 6-meter zone. The sport is played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball and Czech handball and beach handball; the game is fast and high-scoring: professional teams now score between 20 and 35 goals each, though lower scores were not uncommon until a few decades ago. Body contact is permitted, the defenders trying to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. No protective equipment is mandated, but players may wear soft protective bands and mouth guards; the game was codified at the end of the 19th century in Denmark. The modern set of rules was published in 1917 in Germany, had several revisions since; the first international games were played under these rules for men in 1925 and for women in 1930.
Men's handball was first played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin as outdoors, the next time at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich as indoors, has been an Olympic sport since. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics; the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946 and, as of 2016, has 197 member federations. The sport is most popular in the countries of continental Europe, which have won all medals but one in the men's world championships since 1938. In the women's world championships, only two non-European countries have won the title: South Korea and Brazil; the game enjoys popularity in East Asia, North Africa and parts of South America. There is evidence of ancient Roman women playing a version of handball called expulsim ludere. There are records of handball-like games in medieval France, among the Inuit in Greenland, in the Middle Ages. By the 19th century, there existed similar games of håndbold from Denmark, házená in the Czech Republic, handbol in Ukraine, torball in Germany.
The team handball game of today was codified at the end of the 19th century in northern Europe: in Denmark, Germany and Sweden. The first written set of team handball rules was published in 1906 by the Danish gym teacher and Olympic medalist Holger Nielsen from Ordrup grammar school, north of Copenhagen; the modern set of rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Karl Schelenz, Erich Konigh from Germany. After 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz; the first international games were played under these rules, between Germany and Belgium by men in 1925 and between Germany and Austria by women in 1930. In 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation nominated a committee to draw up international rules for field handball; the International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928 and the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946. Men's field handball was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. During the next several decades, indoor handball flourished and evolved in the Scandinavian countries.
The sport re-emerged onto the world stage as team handball for the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal. Due to its popularity in the region, the Eastern European countries that refined the event became the dominant force in the sport when it was reintroduced; the International Handball Federation organised the men's world championship in 1938 and every four years from World War II to 1995. Since the 1995 world championship in Iceland, the competition has been held every two years; the women's world championship has been held since 1957. The IHF organizes women's and men's junior world championships. By July 2009, the IHF listed 166 member federations - 795,000 teams and 19 million players; the rules are laid out in the IHF's set of rules. Two teams of seven players take the field and attempt to score points by putting the game ball into the opposing team's goal. In handling the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions: After receiving the ball, players can pass, keep possession, or shoot the ball.
If possessing the ball, players must dribble, or can take up to three steps for up to three seconds at a time without dribbling. No attacking or defending players other than the defending goalkeeper are allowed to touch the floor of the goal area. A shot or pass in the goal area is valid. Goalkeepers are allowed outside the goal area, but are not allowed to cross the goal area boundary with the ball in their hands; the ball may not be passed back to the goalkeeper. Notable scoring opportunities can occur. For example, an attacking player may catch a pass while launching inside the goal area, shoot or pass before touching the floor. Doubling occurs. Handball is played on a court 40 with a goal in the centre of each end; the goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called the zone or the crease, defined by a line six meters from the goal. A dashed near-semicircular line nine metres f
Lazar of Serbia
Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović was a medieval Serbian ruler who created the largest and most powerful state on the territory of the disintegrated Serbian Empire. Lazar's state, referred to by historians as Moravian Serbia, comprised the basins of the Great Morava, West Morava, South Morava rivers. Lazar ruled Moravian Serbia from 1373 until his death in 1389, he sought to resurrect the Serbian Empire and place himself at its helm, claiming to be the direct successor of the Nemanjić dynasty, which went extinct in 1371 after ruling over Serbia for two centuries. Lazar's programme had the full support of the Serbian Orthodox Church, but the Serbian nobility did not recognize him as their supreme ruler, he is referred to as Tsar Lazar Hrebeljanović. Lazar was killed at the Battle of Kosovo in June 1389 while leading a pan-Christian army assembled to confront the invading Ottoman Empire, led by Sultan Murad I; the battle ended without a clear victor, though both sides endured heavy losses, which were more devastating for the less numerous Serbs and their Christian allies.
Lazar's widow, who ruled as regent for their adolescent son Stefan Lazarević, Lazar's successor, accepted Ottoman suzerainty in the summer of 1390. Lazar is venerated in the Orthodox Christian Church as a martyr and saint, is regarded in Serbian history and tradition. In Serbian epic poetry, he is referred to as Tsar Lazar. Lazar was born around 1329 in the Fortress of Prilepac, 13 kilometres southeast of Novo Brdo an important mining town, his family were the hereditary lords of Prilepac, which together with the nearby Fortress of Prizrenac protected the mines and settlements around Novo Brdo. Lazar's father, was a logothete in the court of Stefan Dušan, a member of the Nemanjić dynasty, who ruled as the King of Serbia from 1331 to 1346 and the Serbian Emperor from 1346 to 1355; the rank of logothete was modest in the hierarchy of the Serbian court. Dušan became the ruler of Serbia by dethroning his father, King Stefan Uroš III rewarding the petty nobles that had supported him in his rebellion, elevating them to higher positions within the feudal hierarchy.
Lazar's father was among these nobles and was elevated to the position of logothete by pledging loyalty to Dušan. According to Mavro Orbin, a 16th-century Ragusan historian and Lazar's surname was Hrebeljanović. Though Orbin did not provide a source for this claim, it has been accepted in historiography. Pribac was awarded by Dušan in yet another way: his son Lazar was granted the position of stavilac at the ruler's court; the stavilac had a role in the ceremony at the royal table, though he could be entrusted with jobs that had nothing to do with court ritual. The title of stavilac ranked as the last in the hierarchy of the Serbian court, it was quite prestigious as it enabled its holder to be close to the ruler. Stavilac Lazar married Milica; the latter was the son of Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjić dynasty, which ruled Serbia from 1166 to 1371. Vukan's descendents are not mentioned in any known source that predates the 15th-century genealogies. Tsar Dušan died in 1355 at the age of about 47, was succeeded by his 20-year-old son Stefan Uroš V. Lazar remained a stavilac at the court of the new tsar.
Dušan's death was followed by the stirring of separatist activity in the Serbian Empire. Epirus and Thessaly in its southwest broke away by 1359; the same happened with Braničevo and Kučevo, the empire's north-eastern regions controlled by the Rastislalić family, who recognized the suzerainty of King Louis of Hungary. The rest of the Serbian state remained loyal to young Tsar Uroš. Within it, powerful Serbian nobles were asserting more and more independence from the tsar's authority. Uroš was weak and unable to counteract these separatist tendencies, becoming an inferior power in the state he nominally ruled, he relied on Prince Vojislav Vojinović of Zahumlje. Vojislav started as a stavilac at the court of Tsar Dušan, but by 1363 he controlled a large region from Mount Rudnik in central Serbia to Konavle on the Adriatic coast, from the upper reaches of the Drina River to northern Kosovo; the next in power to Prince Vojislav were the Balšić brothers, Stracimir, Đurađ, Balša II. By 1363, they gained control over the region of Zeta, which coincided for the most part with present-day Montenegro.
In 1361, Prince Vojislav started a war with the Republic of Ragusa over some territories. Ragusans asked most eminent persons in Serbia to use their influence to stop these hostilities harmful for the both sides. In 1362 the Ragusans applied to stavilac Lazar and presented him with three bolts of cloth. A modest present as it was, it testifies that Lazar was perceived as having some influence at the court of Tsar Uroš; the peace between Prince Vojislav and Ragusa was signed in August 1362. Stavilac Lazar is mentioned as a witness in a July 1363 document by which Tsar Uroš approved an exchange of lands between Prince Vojislav and čelnik Musa; the latter man had been married to Lazar's sister, since at least 1355. Musa's title, čelnik, was of a higher rank than stavilac. Lazar's activities in the period between 1363 and 1371 are poorly documented in sources, he left the court of Tsar Uroš in 1363 or 1365. Prince Vojislav, the s
A vine is any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent stems, lianas or runners. The word vine can refer to such stems or runners themselves, for instance, when used in wicker work. In parts of the world, the term "vine" applies to grapevines, while the term "climber" is used for all climbing plants. Certain plants always grow as vines. For instance, poison ivy and bittersweet can grow as low shrubs when support is not available, but will become vines when support is available. A vine displays a growth form based on long stems; this has two purposes. A vine may use rock exposures, other plants, or other supports for growth rather than investing energy in a lot of supportive tissue, enabling the plant to reach sunlight with a minimum investment of energy; this has been a successful growth form for plants such as kudzu and Japanese honeysuckle, both of which are invasive exotics in parts of North America. There are some tropical vines that develop skototropism, grow away from the light, a type of negative phototropism.
Growth away from light allows the vine to reach a tree trunk, which it can climb to brighter regions. The vine growth form may enable plants to colonize large areas even without climbing high; this is the case with ground ivy. It is an adaptation to life in areas where small patches of fertile soil are adjacent to exposed areas with more sunlight but little or no soil. A vine can root in the soil but have most of its leaves in the brighter, exposed area, getting the best of both environments; the evolution of a climbing habit has been implicated as a key innovation associated with the evolutionary success and diversification of a number of taxonomic groups of plants. It has evolved independently in several plant families, using many different climbing methods, such as: twining the stem around a support by way of adventitious, clinging roots with twining petioles using tendrils, which can be specialized shoots, leaves, or inflorescences using tendrils which produce adhesive pads at the end that attach themselves quite to the support using thorns or other hooked structures, such as hooked branches The climbing fetterbush is a woody shrub-vine which climbs without clinging roots, tendrils, or thorns.
It directs its stem into a crevice in the bark of fibrous barked trees where the stem adopts a flattened profile and grows up the tree underneath the host tree's outer bark. The fetterbush sends out branches that emerge near the top of the tree. Most vines are flowering plants; these may be divided into woody vines or lianas, such as wisteria and common ivy, herbaceous vines, such as morning glory. One odd group of vining plants is the fern genus Lygodium, called climbing ferns; the stem does not climb. The fronds unroll from the tip, theoretically never stop growing. A twining vine known as a bine, is one that climbs by its shoots growing in a helix, in contrast to vines that climb using tendrils or suckers. Many bines have rough downward-pointing bristles to aid their grip. Hops are a commercially important example of a bine; the direction of rotation of the shoot tip during climbing is autonomous and does not derive from the shoot's following the sun around the sky – the direction of twist does not therefore depend upon which side of the equator the plant is growing on.
This is shown by the fact that some bines always twine clockwise, including runner bean and bindweed, while others twine anticlockwise, including French bean and climbing honeysuckles. The contrasting rotations of bindweed and honeysuckle was the theme of the satirical song "Misalliance", written and sung by Michael Flanders and Donald Swann; the term "vine" applies to cucurbitaceae like cucumbers where botanists refer to creeping vines. Gardeners can use the tendency of climbing plants to grow quickly. If a plant display is wanted a climber can achieve this. Climbers can be trained over walls, fences, etc. Climbers can be grown over other plants to provide additional attraction. Artificial support can be provided; some climbers climb by themselves. Vines differ in size and evolutionary origin. Darwin classified climbing groups based on their climbing method, he classified five classes of vines – twining plants, leaf climbers, tendril bearers, root climbers and hook climbers. Vines are unique in that they have multiple evolutionary origins and a wide range of phenotypic plasticity.
They reside in tropical locations and have the unique ability to climb. Vines are able to grow in both deep shade and full sun due to their wide range of phenotypic plasticity; this climbing action prevents shading by neighbors and allows the vine to grow out of reach of herbivores. The environment where a vine can grow is determined by the climbing mechanism of a vine and how far it can spread across supports. There are many theories suppor
Dobrica Ćosić was a Serbian politician and political theorist. He was the first President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with his tenure lasting from 1992 to 1993. Admirers sometimes refer to him as the Father of the Nation due to his influence on modern Serbian politics and the national revival movement in the late 1980s while his opponents use that term in an ironic manner. Ćosić was born as Dobrosav Ćosić on 29 December 1921 in the village of Velika Drenova near Trstenik to parents father Žika and mother Milka. Some sources have incorrectly stated his date of birth as 4 January 1922. Before the Second World War he was able to attend vocational agriculture school in Aleksandrovac, he joined the communist youth organization in Negotin in 1939. When the Second World War reached Yugoslavia in 1941, he joined the communist partisans. After the liberation of Belgrade in October 1944, he remained active in communist leadership positions, including work in the Serbian republican Agitation and Propaganda commission and as a people's representative from his home region.
In the early 1950s, he visited the Goli otok concentration camp, where the Yugoslav authorities imprisoned political opponents of the Communist Party. Ćosić maintained that he did so in order to better understand the Stalinist mind. In 1956 he found himself in Budapest during the Hungarian revolt, he arrived there for the meeting of the editors of literary magazines in socialist countries on the day when the revolution started and remained there until October 31 when he was transported back to Belgrade on a plane that brought in Yugoslav Red Cross help. It remains unclear whether this was purely a coincidence or he was sent there as a Yugoslav secret agent, he held political speeches in favor of a revolution in Budapest and upon his return he wrote a detailed report on the matter which, by some opinions affected and shaped firm official Yugoslav view on the whole situation. Parts of his memories and thoughts on the circumstances will be published under the name Seven Days in Budapest; until the early 1960s, Ćosić was devoted to Marshal Tito and his vision of a harmonious Yugoslavia.
In 1961, he joined Tito on a 72-day tour by presidential yacht to visit eight African non-aligned countries. The trip aboard the Galeb highlighted the close, affirmative relationship that Ćosić had with the administration until the early 1960s. Between 1961 and 1962, Ćosić got involved in a lengthy polemic with the Slovenian intellectual Dušan Pirjevec regarding the relationship between autonomy and centralism in Yugoslavia. Pirjevec voiced the opinions of the Communist Party of Slovenia which supported a more decentralized development of Yugoslavia with respect for local autonomies, while Ćosić argued for a stronger role of the Federal authorities, warning against the rise of peripheral nationalisms; the polemic, the first public and open confrontation of different visions within the Yugoslav Communist Party after World War II, ended with Tito's support of Ćosić's arguments. Actual political measures undertaken after 1962 followed the positions voiced by Pirjevec and the Slovenian Communist leadership.
As the government decentralized administration of Yugoslavia after 1963, Ćosić grew convinced that the Serbian population of the state was imperiled. In May 1968, he gave a celebrated speech to the Fourteenth Plenum of the Central Committee of the Serbian League of Communists, in which he condemned the then-current nationalities policy in Yugoslavia, he was upset at the regime's inclination to grant greater autonomy to Kosovo and Vojvodina. Thereafter he acted as a dissident. In the 1980s, following the death of Tito, Ćosić helped organize and lead a movement whose original goal was to gain equality for Serbia in the Yugoslav federation, but which became intense and aggressive, he was enthusiastic in his advocacy of the rights of the Serb and Montenegrin populations of Kosovo.Ćosić was a member of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, is considered by many to have been its most influential member. While Ćosić has been credited with writing the Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, which appeared in unfinished fashion in the Serbian public in 1986, he in fact was not responsible for its writing.
In 1989 he endorsed the leadership of Slobodan Milošević, two years he helped raise Radovan Karadžić to the leadership of the Bosnian Serbs. When war broke out in 1991, he supported the Serbian effort. In 1992, he became the president of Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, which consisted of Serbia and Montenegro. On Eastern Orthodox Christmas Eve of January 1993, Ćosić appeared on Serbian television to warn of demands for “national capitulation” from the West. "If we don't accept, we are going to be put in a concentration camp and face an attack by the most powerful armies of the world". These outside forces, he said, are determined to subordinate "the Serbian people to Muslim hegemony." That year Ćosić turned against Milošević, was removed from his position for that reason. In 2000, Ćosić publicly joined Otpor!, an underground anti-Milošević organization. In 2011, an internet hoax led to state-run Serbian television announcing wrongly that Ćosić had been awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature; that honour had in fact gone to Tomas Tranströmer.
In 2006, Ćosić received support for his proposal for a partition of Kosovo by Noam Chomsky. In a Serbian television interview, Chomsky was asked what the best solution for Kosovo's final status is, he responded:My feeling has been for a long time that the only realistic solution is one that in fact was offered by the Pres
Serbia the Republic of Serbia, is a country situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe in the southern Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. The sovereign state borders Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, Montenegro to the southwest; the country claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia's population is about seven million, its capital, ranks among the oldest and largest citiеs in southeastern Europe. Inhabited since the Paleolithic Age, the territory of modern-day Serbia faced Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the 6th century, establishing several sovereign states in the early Middle Ages at times recognized as tributaries to the Byzantine and Hungarian kingdoms; the Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by the Vatican and Constantinople in 1217, reaching its territorial apex in 1346 as the short-lived Serbian Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entirety of modern-day Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, their rule was at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding towards Central Serbia from the end of the 17th century while maintaining a foothold in the north of the country.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. Following disastrous casualties in World War I, the subsequent unification of the former Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro, peacefully dissolved in 2006. In 2008, the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community. Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, CERN, OSCE, PfP, BSEC, CEFTA, is acceding to the WTO. Since 2014 the country has been negotiating its EU accession with perspective of joining the European Union by 2025. Serbia dropped in ranking from Free to Partly Free in the 2019 Freedom House report. Since 2007, Serbia formally adheres to the policy of military neutrality.
An upper-middle income economy with a dominant service sector followed by the industrial sector and agriculture, the country ranks high on the Human Development Index, Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index. The origin of the name, "Serbia" is unclear. Various authors mentioned names of Serbs and Sorbs in different variants: Surbii, Serbloi, Sorabi, Sarbi, Serboi, Surbi, etc; these authors used these names to refer to Serbs and Sorbs in areas where their historical presence was/is not disputed, but there are sources that mention same or similar names in other parts of the World. Theoretically, the root *sъrbъ has been variously connected with Russian paserb, Ukrainian pryserbytysia, Old Indic sarbh-, Latin sero, Greek siro. However, Polish linguist Stanisław Rospond derived the denomination of Srb from srbati. Sorbian scholar H. Schuster-Šewc suggested a connection with the Proto-Slavic verb for "to slurp" *sьrb-, with cognates such as сёрбать, сьорбати, сёрбаць, srbati, сърбам and серебати.
From 1945 to 1963, the official name for Serbia was the People's Republic of Serbia, which became the Socialist Republic of Serbia from 1963 to 1990. Since 1990, the official name of the country is the "Republic of Serbia". However, between the period from 1992 to 2006, the official names of the country were the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A fragment of a human jaw was believed to be up to 525,000 -- 397,000 years old. Around 6,500 years BC, during the Neolithic, the Starčevo and Vinča cultures existed in or near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of Southeastern Europe. Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vinča-Belo Brdo, still exist near the banks of the Danube. During the Iron Age, Thracians and Illyrians were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their expansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century BC.
The Celtic tribe of Scordisci settled throughout the area in the 3rd century BC and formed a tribal state, building several fortifications, including their capital at Singidunum and Naissos. The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum was established; as a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends or over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia and Macedoni