Le Puy-en-Velay is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France near the Loire river. Its inhabitants are called Ponots; the city is famous for its cathedral, for a kind of lentil, for its lace-making. Le Puy-en-Velay was a major bishopric in medieval France, founded early, its early history is legendary. According to a martyrology compiled by Ado of Vienne, published in many copies in 858, supplemented in the mid-10th century by Gauzbert of Limoges, a priest named George accompanied a certain Front, the first Bishop of Périgueux, when they were sent to proselytize in Gaul. Front was added to the list of the apostles to Gaul, who in tradition are described as being sent out to reorganize Christians after the persecutions that are associated with Decius, circa 250; as with others of the group, notably Saint Martial of Limoges mythology pushed the activities of Saint Front and the priest George back in time. It tells; the expanding legend of this St. George, according to the Church historian Duchesne is not earlier than the 11th century makes that saint one of the Seventy Apostles of the Gospel of Luke.
It tells that he founded the church of the que dicitur Vetula in pago Vellavorum, the city "called Vetula in the pays of the Vellavi" was how a document of 1004 termed it. This was. Vetula means "the old woman", pagans were still making small images of her as late as the 6th century in Flanders, according to the vita of Saint Eligius; this was the first cathedral at Le Puy. Following St. George the founder medieval local traditions evoke a legendary list of bishops at this chief town of the pays of Le Velay: Macarius, Roricius, Eusebius and Vosy, all of them canonized by local veneration; the Gaulish settlement of Ruessium/Vellavorum was given its Christianizing name, Saint-Paulien, from Bishop Paulianus. A bishop Evodius attended the Council of Valence in 374. In the early 1180s peasants of Le Puy, led by a carpenter named Durandus, formed a conspiratio called the Capucciati, they challenged seigneurial dominance in a short-lived attempt at reformation. The Christianization legends of Mons Anicius relate that at the request of Bishop Martial of Limoges, Bishop Evodius/Vosy ordered an altar to the Virgin Mary to be erected on the pinnacle that surmounts Mont Anis.
Some such beginning of the shrine Christianized the pagan site. This marked one starting-point for the pilgrim route to Santiago de Compostela, a walk of some 1600 km, as it still does today; the old town of Le Puy developed around the base of the cathedral. Pilgrims came early to Le Puy, this was the most popular destination in France during the Middle Ages. Charlemagne came twice, in 772 and 800. There is a legend that in 772, he established a foundation at the cathedral for ten poor canons, he chose Le Puy, with Aachen and Saint-Gilles, as a center for the collection of Peter's Pence. Charles the Bald visited Le Puy in 877, count of Paris in 892, Robert II in 1029, Philip Augustus in 1183. Louis IX met James I of Aragon there in 1245, in 1254, when passing through Le Puy on his return from the Holy Land, he gave the cathedral an ebony image of the Blessed Virgin clothed in gold brocade, she is one of the many dozens of venerable "Black Virgins" of France. It was destroyed during the Revolution, but replaced at the Restoration with a copy that continues to be venerated.
After him, Le Puy was visited by Philip the Bold in 1282, by Philip the Fair in 1285, by Charles VI in 1394, by Charles VII in 1420, by Isabelle Romée, the mother of Joan of Arc, in 1429. Louis XI made the pilgrimage in 1436 and 1475, in 1476 halted three leagues from the city and walked barefoot to the cathedral. Charles VIII visited it in 1495, Francis I in 1533; the legendary early shrine on the summit of Mons Anicius, which drew so many, would seem to predate the founding of an early church of Our Lady of Le Puy at Anicium. It was attributed to Bishop Vosy. Crowning the hill was a megalithic dolmen. A local tradition rededicated the curative virtue of the sacred site to Mary, who cured ailments when a person touched the standing stone; when the founding bishop Vosy climbed the hill, he found. The Bishop was apprised in a vision that the angels themselves had dedicated the future cathedral to the Blessed Virgin, whence the epithet "Angelic" given to the cathedral of Le Puy; the great dolmen was left standing in the center of the Christian sanctuary, constructed around it.
By the 8th century, the stone, popularly known as the "stone of visions", was taken down and broken up. Its pieces were incorporated into the floor of a particular section of the church that came to be called the Chambre Angélique, or the "angels' chamber." It is impossible to say whether this St. Evodius is the same person who signed the decrees of the Council of Valence in 374. Neither can it be affirmed that St. Benignus, who in the 7th century founded a hospital at the gates of the basilica, St. Agrevius, the 7th-century martyr from whom the town of Saint-Agrève Chiniacum took its name, were bishops. Duchesne thinks that the chronology of these early bishops rests on littl
Velay is a historical area of France situated in east Haute-Loire département and south east of Massif central. Julius Caesar mentioned the vellavi as subordinate of the arverni. Strabon suggested that they might have made secession from the arverni and Ptolemy located them as vellauni; the country is well delimited by natural obstacles: Allier river in the south, Mount Boutières and Mézenc on the east, Mount Devès on the west. Devès has Celtic toponyms suggesting an antic border. No explanation concerning the toponym, except 19th century's naïve scholastic ones that connected the name to PIE root wel or to the mythological Hel. In the early Middle Ages Velay was known as Pagus Vellaicus and was placed under the rule of the Duchy of Aquitaine, followed the Auvergne destiny; the first mention of a county of Velay was in 1142. In the beginning of the 10th century, Le Puy-en-Velay had supplanted Ru-Essio as religious and administrative capital of the Velay. In 1162, Velay becomes an independent county, with its bishop as count reporting directly to the King.
Velay was divided into eighteen baronies. The country is part of Languedoc from the mid 14th century but with a particular status: Velay kept its own States General until 1789. During the same period, it was a crossroads of pilgrimage trails. In the beginning of the 16th century Velay was wealthy. Le Puy was ardently catholic but the extreme south east of Velay was Protestant, it is still nowadays the most Protestant area of France. Velay ceased to exist after the French Revolution on March 4, 1790; the department of Haute-Loire was created from the former county of Velay, on top of it a portion of Auvergne, Gévaudan and Vivarais are added. The first part of Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes (1879( from Robert Louis Stevenson is entitled Velay, the country being the starting point of the writer's trip; the name is kept for new French geographical administrative entity. Sources Francisque Mandet, Histoire du Velay, Christian Lauranson-Rosaz, L'Auvergne et ses marges du VIIIe au XIe siècle. La fin du monde antique?, Le Puy-en-Velay, éd. des Cahiers de la Haute-Loire, 1987, rééd.
2007 The Annotated Travels with a Donkey in the Cévennes, at Wikisource
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. Rome's war against the Gallic tribes lasted from 58 BC to 50 BC and culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the Roman Republic over the whole of Gaul. While militarily just as strong as the Romans, the internal division between the Gallic tribes helped ease victory for Caesar, Vercingetorix's attempt to unite the Gauls against Roman invasion came too late; the wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the sole ruler of the Roman Republic. Although Caesar portrayed this invasion as being a preemptive and defensive action, most historians agree that the wars were fought to boost Caesar's political career and to pay off his massive debts. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, as they had been attacked several times by native tribes both indigenous to Gaul and farther to the north.
Conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which remains the most important historical source regarding the conflict; as a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debt. However, through his membership in the First Triumvirate—the political alliance which comprised Marcus Licinius Crassus, Pompey, himself— Caesar had secured the proconsulship of two provinces, Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum; when the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, this province was awarded to Caesar. Caesar's governorships were extended to a new idea at the time. Caesar had four veteran legions under his direct command: Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana, Legio X; as he had been Governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar knew most of these legions. Caesar had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.
His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get himself out of debt, it is possible that Gaul was not his initial target. It is more that he was planning a campaign against the Kingdom of Dacia, located in the Balkans; the countries of Gaul were wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some those that were governed by republics such as the Aedui and Helvetii, had enjoyed stable political alliances with Rome in the past; the Romans feared the Gallic tribes. Only fifty years before, in 109 BC, Italy had been invaded from the north and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine to attack the Aedui, a strong Roman ally, Rome turned a blind eye; the Sequani and Arverni sought Ariovistus’ aid and defeated the Aedui in 63 BC at the Battle of Magetobriga. The Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory. Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people.
When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him more land to accommodate the Harudes people. This demand concerned Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to take all of the Sequani land and attack the rest of Gaul, they did not appear to be concerned about a conflict between non-client and allied states. By the end of the campaign, the non-client Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus, stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their co-conspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, now keenly invested in the defense of Gaul, was irrevocably drawn into war; the Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains as well as the Rhine and Rhone rivers. They began to come under increased pressure from German tribes to the east. By 58 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix.
Caesar mentions as an additional reason their not being able to in turn raid for plunder themselves due to their location. They planned to travel across Gaul to the west coast, a route that would have taken them through lands of the Aedui, a Roman ally, the Roman province of Transalpine Gaul; the Helvetii sent emissaries to neighboring tribes to negotiate peaceful transit. Orgetorix made an alliance with the Sequani chieftain Casticus and arranged the marriage of his daughter to an Aedui chieftain, Dumnorix; the three secretly planned to become kings of their respective tribes, masters of the whole of Gaul. Orgetorix's personal ambitions were discovered and he was to be put on trial, with the penalty being death by fire if convicted. Orgetorix escaped with the help of his many debtors. However, the death of Orgetorix was "not without suspicion that he had decided upon death for himself", as Caesar puts it. Caesar dated their departure to the 28 March, mentions that they burned all their towns and villages so as to discourage thoughts among undecided client tribes and enemies of occupying their vacated realm..
Caesar was across the Alps in Italy. With only a single legion in Transalpine Gaul, the endangered province, he hurried to Geneva and ordered a levy of several auxiliary units and the destruction of the Rhone bridge. Th
Gallia Narbonensis was a Roman province located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. It was known as Provincia Nostra, from its having been the first Roman province north of the Alps, as Gallia Transalpina, distinguishing it from Cisalpine Gaul in northern Italy, it became a Roman province in the late 2nd century BC. Its boundaries were defined by the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Cévennes and Alps to the north and west; the western region of Gallia Narbonensis was known as Septimania. The province of Gallia Transalpina was renamed Gallia Narbonensis, after its newly established capital of Colonia Narbo Martius, a Roman colony founded on the coast in 118 BC; the Romans had called it Provincia Nostra or Provincia. The term has survived in the modern French and Occitan names of the eastern part of the area, now a région of France. By the mid-2nd century BC, Rome was trading with the Greek colony of Massalia on the southern coast of Gaul. Massalia, founded by colonists from Phocaea, was by this point centuries quite prosperous.
Rome entered into an alliance with Massalia, by which it agreed to protect the town from local Gauls, nearby Aquitani, sea-borne Carthaginians and other rivals, in exchange for a small strip of land that it wanted in order to build a road to Hispania, to assist in troop transport. The Massalians, for their part, cared more for their economic prosperity than they did for territorial integrity. During this period, the Mediterranean settlements on the coast were threatened by the powerful Gallic tribes to the north the tribes known as the Arverni and the Allobroges. In 123 BC, the Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus campaigned in the area and defeated the Allobroges and the Arverni under King Bituitus; this defeat weakened the Arverni and ensured the further security of Gallia Narbonensis. In this strip of land, the Romans founded the town of Narbonne in 118 BC. At the same time, they built the Via Domitia, the first Roman road in Gaul, connecting Gaul to Hispania, the Via Aquitania, which led toward the Atlantic through Tolosa and Burdigala.
Thus the Romans built a crossroads that made Narbonne an optimal trading center, Narbonne became a major trading competitor to Massalia. From Narbonne, the Romans established the province of Transalpine Gaul called Gallia Narbonensis. Control of the province, which bordered directly on Italia, gave the Roman state several advantages: control of the land route between Italy and the Iberian peninsula, it was from the capital of Narbonne. The area became a Roman province in 121 BC under the name Gallia Transalpina; the name distinguished it from Cisalpine Gaul on the near side of the Alps to Rome. In 40 BC, during the Second Triumvirate, Lepidus was given responsibility for Narbonese Gaul, while Mark Antony was given the balance of Gaul. Emperor Diocletian's administrative reorganization of the Empire in c. AD 314 merged the provinces Gallia Narbonensis and Gallia Aquitania into a new administrative unit called Dioecesis Viennensis with the capital more to the north in Vienne. The new diocese's name was changed to Dioecesis Septem Provinciarum, indicating that Diocletian had demoted the word "province" to mean a smaller subdivision than in traditional usage.
Galla Narbonensis and surrounding areas were incorporated into the Visigothic Kingdom between AD 462 and 477, permanently ending Roman political control. After the Gothic takeover, the Visigothic dominions were to be known as Septimania, while to the east of the lower Rhone the term Provence came into use. Gnaeus Pullius Pollio—between 18 and 16 BC Titedius Labeo—under Tiberius Manius Vibius Balbinus—15-17 Torquatus Novellius Atticus—30-34 Titus Mussidius Pollianus—34-37 Titus Vinius—under Nero L. Vdius Bassus—c. 77 Gaius Iulius Cornutus Tertullus—before 78 Aulus Larcius Priscus—103-109 Marcus Acilius Priscus Egrilius Plarianus—118-120 Lucius Aninius Sextius Florentinus—c. 124 Lucius Aurelius Gallus—124-127 Lucius Novius Crispinus Martialis Saturninus—144-5 Gaius Seius Calpurnius Quadratus Sittianus—before 150 Lucius Cestius Gallus Cerrinius Iustus Lutatius Natalis—between 165 and 183 Gnaeus Cornelius Aquilius Niger—between 138 and 192 Lucius Fabius Cilo Septiminus Catinius Acilianus Lepidus Fulcinianus—between 180 and 192...]dius Titii filius—2nd century Lucius Ranius Optatus Novatus—between 197 and 214 Ignotus killed for supporting Geta—c.
210...]us—between 210 and 230 Tiberius Claudius Paulinus—216-217 Gaius Aemilius Berenicianus Maximus—between 222 and 235 Iulianus—between 222 and 235 William Smith, ed.. "Gallia Transalpina". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
The Arverni were a Celtic tribe. The tribe was located in what is today the French Auvergne region, which derives its name from the Arverni. One of the most powerful tribes in ancient Gaul, the Arverni opposed the Romans on several occasions. One of their most important strongholds was Gergovia, near the present-day commune of Clermont-Ferrand; the Arverni are known to have had the most powerful tribal hegemony in Gaul during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC under their kings and his son Bituitus. Their power was based on strong metallurgic technologies and weapons and rich agriculture and catering, mining and military dominance over their neighbours with tributes paid to them, but when Arvern king Bituitus was defeated by the Romans of Quintus and Gnaeus Ahenobarbus in 121 BC, their ascendancy passed to the Aedui and Sequani. Unlike the Allobroges, who were brought under direct Roman rule as a result of the Celtic wars of the 120s, the Arverni negotiated a treaty that preserved their independence, though their territory was diminished.
No further Arvernian kings are mentioned in the historical record between 121 BC and 52 BC, they may have adopted a constitutional oligarchy at this time. However, there were at least two attempts to re-establish rulership by Celtillos and Vercingetorix; the defeat of the Arverni led directly to the establishment of Gallia Narbonensis as a Roman province, referred to as the Provincia so that a part of the ancient region is today known as Provence. The King Luernios was mentioned in writing by the Greek ethnographer Posidonius. Luernios was known to have scattered gold and silver coins to his followers while riding in his chariot. Under Luernios, the Arverni were at the head of a formidable Gallic military hegemony which stretched from the Rhine to the Atlantic coast, they joined Bellovesus' migrations towards Italy, together with the Aedui, Aulerci and Senones. The Arverni played an important role in the Gallic Wars of Julius Caesar from 58 BC to 51 BC. At first the Arvenian nobles tried to avoid confronting Caesar during his early incursions.
They executed the leader Celtillus, evidently for trying to gain sovereignty over all the Gauls. In 52 BC, Celtillus' son Vercingetorix rallied his supporters to fight the Romans, but was expelled from Gergovia by the nobles, including his uncle Gobanitio, he raised a great army in the country, returned to the city where he ejected his opponents and was declared king. This accomplished, Vercingetorix forged an alliance with at least 15 Gallic tribes, requesting the presence of sons of chiefs to prove their alliance, he led the majority of the Gauls and won the Gergovia battle against Julius Caesar and his cavalry did marvels in pursuing the Roman troops. After Julius Caesar saved half of his legions and received food from other Gauls, he went further north to fight weaker opposition. Vercingetorix was defeated by Caesar at the Battle of Alesia, after several months where the legions built 14 ranges of military equipment around the city to lay siege upon the Gallic soldiers. After several weeks of support from the western Gallic people with large numbers of troops coming to support Vercingetorix from outside the city, the Gauls were close to merging the inner and outer forces on 2 occasions.
When the outer forces decided to depart, Vercingetorix took the decision to surrender himself to the Romans in order to save the people of Alesia. In the aftermath of the Gallic Wars the Arverni soldiers were pardoned and its senate was restored to power; the Arverni and the majority of other Gaulish states were pulled into the Roman political hemisphere but retained full rights and home rule. According to Gregory of Tours and his book Historia Francorum the Arverni senators were still active in the sixth century and were involved in the politics of the nascent Frankish state. Auvergne AuvergnatQuintus Fabius Maximus Allobrogicus: conquered King Bituitus Alba Fucens: town where Bituitus was held after capture
History of Auvergne
The history of the Auvergne dates back to the early Middle Ages, when it was a historic province in south central France. It was the feudal domain of the Counts of Auvergne. Auvergne was a province of France deriving its name from the Arverni, a Gallic tribe who once occupied the area, well known for its fierce resistance, led by Vercingetorix, to conquest by the Roman Empire. Christianized by Saint Austremoine, Auvergne was quite prosperous during the Roman period. After a short time under the Visigoths, it was conquered by the Franks in 507. During the earlier medieval period, Auvergne was a county within the duchy of Aquitaine and as such part of the "Angevin Empire" until the 13th century. In 1225, Louis VIII of France granted Auvergne to his third son Alfonso. On Alfonso's death in 1271, along with the County of Toulouse and the Comtat Venaissin, reverted to the royal domain; the Middle Ages the 10th to 13th centuries, were a period of great development for Auvergne, with the building of famous abbeys and churches in a Romanesque style.
In 1095, the historic Council of Clermont was held to rally support for the First Crusade. Its wide autonomy was ended by King Philippe-Auguste of France, who linked it to the royal possessions. Hardly impacted by the Hundred Years' War, the religion wars and epidemics, integrated to the kingdom of France, it turned itself more and more into an agricultural province, although reputed for its products. In 1790, the historical province was divided into the modern-day départements of Puy-de-Dôme, Haute-Loire, Allier, although Haute-Loire and Allier include some land from the historical provinces of Bourbonnais and Velay; the region is famed for its charcuterie, celebrated in "La Mangona" festivals in many Auvergnat villages, for its cheeses, for its mineral waters. Michelin tires are produced there. Auvergne is the site of several major hydroelectric projects located on the Dordogne, Cère, Truyère rivers; the region is quite touristic, thanks to its landscapes. Auvergnat, a variety of the Occitan language, was spoken in the Auvergne.
It is still spoken there. Aubrac oxen, a rare breed, are raised in the Aubrac hills; the Auvergne emigrants, together with other Aveyron and Italian emigrants influenced the Parisian Bal-musette music. Composer Joseph Canteloube based Songs of the Auvergne, his well-known piece for voice and orchestra, on folk music and songs from the Auvergne. Singer-songwriter Georges Brassens composed Chanson pour l'Auvergnat. Composer Camille Saint-Saëns composed Rhapsodie d'Auvergne in 1884, based upon folk songs from the Auvergne. Vercingetorix, King of the Arverni, leader of the Gallic resistance against Julius Caesar. Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, born in Auvergne, was a national hero in both France and the United States for his roles in the American Revolutionary War and the French Revolution. Pierre-Andre Coffinhal, Jacobin leader and vice-president of the Revolutionary Tribunal, was born in Auvergne. A close friend of Robespierre, he was executed following the events of the 9 Thermidor. Jean-Baptiste Carrier was a French Revolutionary born at Yolet in Auvergne.
He was famous for his brutality towards his enemies. In 1794, he was guillotined upon the conviction of the National Convention. Sylvester II, pope and scholar, born Gerbert of Aurillac, a significant player in the transition from the Carolingians to the Capetians; the Dalfi d'Alvernha or Dauphin d'Auvergne and patron of troubadours, Count of Clermont and Montferrand Joseph Canteloube, French composer. Guy Debord and leader of the Situationist International, acquired a country house in the region in 1975, where he lived until committing suicide there in 1994. Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, President of France, although not born in the Auvergne, was educated in Clermont-Ferrand and represented it in the National Assembly. Pierre Laval, Prime Minister of France and of the Vichy French regime, was born near Clermont-Ferrand, although he made his political career in Paris. Blaise Pascal, inventor, Christian apologist Audrey Tautou, internationally successful French actress, was born and raised in Auvergne: her surname is Occitan.
Lestat de Lioncourt Gabrielle de Lioncourt Nicolas de Lenfent Philippe Charboneau Philip Kent.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed; the Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117. In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an autocratic semi-elective empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it dominated the North African coast and most of Western Europe, the Balkans and much of the Middle East.
It is grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern language, society, law, government, art, literature and engineering. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France, it achieved impressive technological and architectural feats, such as the construction of an extensive system of aqueducts and roads, as well as the construction of large monuments and public facilities. The Punic Wars with Carthage were decisive in establishing Rome as a world power. In this series of wars Rome gained control of the strategic islands of Corsica and Sicily. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond: its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia and from the mouth of the Rhine to North Africa.
The Roman Empire emerged with the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman–Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia. It would become the longest conflict in human history, have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires. Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, it stretched from the entire Mediterranean Basin to the beaches of the North Sea in the north, to the shores of the Red and Caspian Seas in the East. Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would temporarily divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the western part of the empire broke up into independent "barbarian" kingdoms in the 5th century; this splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of universal history from the pre-medieval "Dark Ages" of Europe.
The eastern part of the empire endured through the 5th century and remained a power throughout the "Dark Ages" and medieval times until its fall in 1453 AD. Although the citizens of the empire made no distinction, the empire is most referred to as the "Byzantine Empire" by modern historians during the Middle Ages to differentiate between the state of antiquity and the nation it grew into. According to the founding myth of Rome, the city was founded on 21 April 753 BC on the banks of the river Tiber in central Italy, by the twin brothers Romulus and Remus, who descended from the Trojan prince Aeneas, who were grandsons of the Latin King Numitor of Alba Longa. King Numitor was deposed by his brother, while Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to the twins. Since Rhea Silvia had been raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine; the new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, so he ordered them to be drowned. A she-wolf saved and raised them, when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor.
The twins founded their own city, but Romulus killed Remus in a quarrel over the location of the Roman Kingdom, though some sources state the quarrel was about, going to rule or give his name to the city. Romulus became the source of the city's name. In order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted; this caused a problem, in that Rome was bereft of women. Romulus visited neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables he was refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins with the Sabines. Another legend, recorded by Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus, says that Prince Aeneas led a group of Trojans on a sea voyage to found a new Troy, since the original was destroyed at the end of the Trojan War. After a long time in rough seas, they landed on the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, but the women who were traveling with them did not want to leave.
One woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent their leaving