Alexandre Cabanel was a French painter born in Montpellier, Hérault. He painted historical and religious subjects in the academic style and he was well known as a portrait painter. According to Diccionario Enciclopedico Salvat, Cabanel is the best representative of the Lart pompier, Cabanel entered the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris at the age of seventeen, and studied with François-Édouard Picot. He exhibited at the Paris Salon for the first time in 1844, Cabanel was elected a member of the Institute in 1863. He was appointed professor at the École des Beaux-Arts in 1864 and he was closely connected to the Paris Salon, He was elected regularly to the Salon jury and his pupils could be counted by the hundred at the Salons. Through them, Cabanel did more than any other artist of his generation to form the character of belle époque French painting, Cabanel won the Grande Médaille dHonneur at the Salons of 1865,1867, and 1878. A successful academic painter, his 1863 painting The Birth of Venus is one of the best known examples of 19th-century academic painting, the picture was bought by the emperor Napoleon III, there is a smaller replica at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
En plein air
En plein air, or plein air painting, is a phrase borrowed from the French equivalent meaning open air. It is particularly used to describe the act of painting outdoors, called French, peinture sur le motif and this method contrasts with studio painting or academic rules, those might create a predetermined look. En plein air can be used to other activities where a person partakes in an outdoor environment. Artists have long painted outdoors, but in the century, working in natural light became particularly important to the Barbizon school, Hudson River School. The Newlyn School in England is considered another major proponent of the technique in the latter 19th century, the popularity of painting en plein air increased in the 1840s with the introduction of paints in tubes. Previously, painters made their own paints by grinding and mixing dry pigment powders with linseed oil, the act of outdoor painting from observation has been continually popular well into the 21st century. It was during the century that the box easel, typically known as the French box easel or field easel, was invented.
It is uncertain who developed it, but these highly portable easels with telescopic legs and built-in paint box and palette made it easier to go into the forest and up the hillsides. Still made today, they remain a popular choice since they fold up to the size of a brief case and thus are easy to store. The Pochade Box is a box that allows the artist to keep all of their supplies. Some designs allow for a canvas which can be held by clamps built into the lid. There are designs which can hold a few wet painting canvases or panels within the lid. These boxes have a rising popularity as while they are used for plein air painting, can be used in the studio, home. Since pochade boxes are used for painting on location, the canvas or work surface may be small. Challenges include the type of paint used to paint outdoors, bugs, acrylic paint may harden and dry quickly in warm, sunny weather and it cannot be reused. On the opposite side of the spectrum is the challenge of painting in moist or damp conditions with precipitation, the advent of plein air painting predated the invention of acrylics.
The traditional and well-established method of painting en plein air incorporates the use of oil paint, but enthusiasts of plein air painting were not limited to the Old World. American impressionists too, such as those of the Old Lyme school, were avid painters en plein air, american impressionist painters noted for this style during this era included Guy Rose, Robert William Wood, Mary DeNeale Morgan, John Gamble, and Arthur Hill Gilbert
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features. The character of a landscape helps define the self-image of the people who inhabit it and it is the dynamic backdrop to people’s lives. Landscape can be as varied as farmland, a landscape park, the activity of modifying the visible features of an area of land is referred to as landscaping. There are several definitions of what constitutes a landscape, depending on context, the term landscape emerged around the turn of the sixteenth century to denote a painting whose primary subject matter was natural scenery. Land may be taken in its sense of something to people belong. The suffix ‑scape is equivalent to the more common English suffix ‑ship, the roots of ‑ship are etymologically akin to Old English sceppan or scyppan, meaning to shape. The suffix ‑schaft is related to the verb schaffen, so that ‑ship, the word landscape, first recorded in 1598, was borrowed from a Dutch painters term.
An example of this usage can be found as early as 1662 in the Book of Common Prayer, Could we but climb where Moses stood. Setting, In works of narrative, it includes the moment in time and geographic location in which a story takes place. Picturesque, The word literally means in the manner of a picture, fit to be made into a picture, and used as early as 1703, gilpin’s Essay on Prints defined picturesque as a term expressive of that peculiar kind of beauty, which is agreeable in a picture. A view, A sight or prospect of some landscape or extended scene, wilderness, An uncultivated and inhospitable region. Cityscape, The urban equivalent of a landscape, in the visual arts a cityscape is an artistic representation, such as a painting, print or photograph, of the physical aspects of a city or urban area. Seascape, A photograph, painting, or other work of art depicts the sea. Geomorphology is the study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical or chemical processes operating at or near Earths surface.
Geomorphology is practiced within physical geography, geodesy, engineering geology and this broad base of interests contributes to many research styles and interests within the field. The surface of Earth is modified by a combination of processes that sculpt landscapes, and geologic processes that cause tectonic uplift and subsidence. Many of these factors are strongly mediated by climate, the Earth surface and its topography therefore are an intersection of climatic and biologic action with geologic processes. Desert, Taiga, Wetland, Mountain range, Coast, Littoral zone, Polar regions of Earth, Forest, Woodland, Moors
Military Order of Saint James of the Sword
This article deals with the Portuguese Order of knighthood. For the Spanish branch, see Order of Santiago, the Military Order of Saint James of the Sword is a Portuguese order of chivalry. The Order of Saint James was founded in León-Castile circa 1170 and it was probably founded as an order of Augustinian canons regular to escort pilgrims to the shrine of St. James the Greater in Santiago of Compostella in Galicia. But King Ferdinand II of León soon set it to garrison the southern frontiers of León against the Almohads of al-Andalus. In 1170, Ferdinand II granted the new order the castles of Cáceres and Monfragüe, which had confiscated from Gerald the Fearless in 1169. The new Leonese order was soon operating in neighboring kingdoms, a Portuguese branch emerged when King Afonso I of Portugal donated Arruda dos Vinhos to the Order of Santiago. This was followed up by donations of the castle of Monsanto, given the poor relations between Afonso and Ferdinand II, the arrival of the Leonese order in Portugal is a little surprising.
Nonetheless, the donation documents explicitly name Rodrigo Álvarez as the administrator of all three Portuguese donations, although a founding knight of Santiago, Rodrigo Álvarez was known to be dissatisfied with its rules. So it is possible Afonso may have been trying to encourage a switch or schism in the Order already at this stage, the foundation of the Order of Évora in 1175/76 reveal Afonsos keen interest in a Portugal-based order. Whatever the intentions of the invitation, the Santiago knights evidently did not meet Afonsos expectations. The Order of Santiago would only return to Portugal in 1186, the establishment of the Order of Santiago in León, Castile and Portugal was endorsed by papal legate Cardinal Hyacinthus of Acardo on a visit to Iberia in 1172-73. The approval of the Order was confirmed three years by Pope Alexander III in a bull issued July 1175, in 1186, King Sancho I of Portugal donated to the returning Order of Santiago the Portuguese dominions of Palmela and Alcácer do Sal.
But in 1190–91, all three citadels were conquered in an offensive led by the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur and they were recovered sometime between 1194 and 1204. The Order of Santiago established its Portuguese headquarters at Palmela shortly before 1210, one of the more notable of Portuguese Santiago knights was Paio Peres Correia. Between 1234 and 1242, Correia led the conquest of much of the southerly Moorish dominions of Baixo Alentejo, in 1242, Paio Peres Correia was elevated to Grand Master of the Order of Santiago, the only known Portuguese to have held the supreme title of the Castilian-based Order. In 1249, Paio Peres Correia and the Order of Santiago helped Afonso III of Portugal sweep up the final Moorish possessions in the Algarve, the possessions of the Order of Santiago in Portugal were expanded and confirmed by Afonso III in 1255. After the death of Correia in 1275, the Order of Santiago returned firmly into Castilian hands, thus, in 1288, King Denis of Portugal separated the Portuguese branch from the Castilian-Leonese Order.
This was confirmed by Pope John XXII in 1320, the Order of Santiago possessed many domains granted by the Portuguese crown, almost all of them south of the Tagus River, clustered in the Sado region and lower Alentejo
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Virginie Élodie Marie Thérèse Demont-Breton was a French painter. Her father Jules Breton and her uncle Émile Breton were both well-known painters and she married the painter Adrien Demont in 1880. Her artistic career got off to an early start, by the age of twenty, she was exhibiting at the Salon and, four years later, she won a Gold Medal at the Amsterdam Exposition. In 1890, she and her husband moved to Wissant, a village on the Côte dOpale. Called the Typhonium, it is in Neo-Egyptian style and has been a Historical Monument since 1985 and she was decorated with the Légion dhonneur in 1894, and became an Officer in 1914. In 1889, Vincent van Gogh painted his own version of one of her works, 1914-1919 poésies, Alphonse Lemerre, Paris 1920 Les maisons que jai connues. Yann Gobert-Sergent, Virginie Demont-Breton, Peintre et témoin de la vie des marins de la Côte d’Opale, in the Revue Boulogne et la Mer, #14, July 2008, annette Bourrut-Lacouture, Virginie Demont-Breton peintre de Wissant. La famille, la mer et les mythes fin de siècle, Bononia, #19,1991, Virginie Demont-Bretons biography, @ Virginie Demont-Bretons biography ArtNet, More works by Demont-Breton Biography @ Wiki Pas-de-Calais
Jules Adolphe Aimé Louis Breton was a 19th-century French Realist painter. Breton was born on 1 May 1827 in Courrières, a small Pas-de-Calais village and his father, Marie-Louis Breton, supervised land for a wealthy landowner. His mother died when Jules was 4 and he was brought up by his father, other family members who lived in the same house were his maternal grandmother, his younger brother, Émile, and his uncle Boniface Breton. A respect for tradition, a love of the land and for his native region remained central to his art throughout his life and his first artistic training was not far from Courrières at the College St. Bertin near Saint-Omer. He met the painter Félix De Vigne in 1842 who, impressed by his youthful talent, Breton left for Ghent in 1843 where he continued to study art at the Academy of Fine Arts with de Vigne and the painter Hendrik Van der Haert. In 1846, Breton moved to Antwerp where he took lessons with Egide Charles Gustave Wappers, in 1847, he left for Paris where he hoped to perfect his artistic training at the École des Beaux-Arts.
In Paris he studied in the atelier of the Michel Martin Drolling and he met and became friends with several of the Realist painters, including François Bonvin and Gustave Brion and his early entries at the Paris Salon reflected their influence. His first efforts were in historical subjects, Saint Piat preaching in Gaul then, under the influence of the revolution of 1848, he represented Misery, the Salon displayed his painting Misery and Despair in 1849 and Hunger in 1850-51. Both paintings have since been destroyed, after Hunger was successfully shown in Brussels and Ghent, Breton moved to Belgium where he met his future wife Elodie. Elodie was the daughter of his early teacher Félix de Vigne, in 1852, Breton returned to France. But he had discovered that he was not born to be a historical painter, in 1853 he exhibited Return of the Reapers, the first of numerous rural peasant scenes influenced by the works of the Swiss painter Louis Léopold Robert. Bretons interest in peasant imagery was well established from on, in 1854, he returned to the village of Courrières where he settled.
He began The Gleaners, an inspired by seasonal field labor. The Gleaners received a class medal, which launched Bretons career. He received commissions from the State and many of his works were purchased by the French Art Administration and his 1857 painting Blessing of the Wheat, Artois was exhibited at the Salon the same year and won a second class medal. Breton married Elodie de Vigne in 1858 and he continued to exhibit throughout the 1870s and into the 1880s and 1890s and his reputation grew. His poetic renderings of single peasant female figures in a landscape, posed against the sun, remained very popular. Since his works were so popular, Breton often produced copies of some of his images and he was extremely popular in his own time, exhibiting numerous compositions at the Salons that were widely available as engravings
Fernand Cormon was a French painter born in Paris. He became a pupil of Alexandre Cabanel, Eugène Fromentin, and Jean-François Portaels and his father was the playwright Eugène Cormon. His mother was Charlotte Furais, the actress, the Musée dOrsay has his Cain flying before Jehovahs Curse, and for the Mairie of the fourth arrondissement of Paris he executed in grisaille a series of panels, Death, War, etc. A Chiefs Funeral, and a series of paintings for the Museum of natural history in Paris with themes from the Stone Age. He was appointed to the Legion of Honor in 1880, subsequently he devoted himself to portraiture. Among his students with whom he was unsuccessful on this point were, for instance, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Louis Anquetin, Eugène Boch, Paul Tampier, Émile Bernard, other students included Alphonse Osbert, Marius Borgeaud, and Theodor Pallady. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Atelier Cormon ~1885 (note e. g. Toulouse-Lautrec, Anquetin, last row, second after sculpture, É.
Lisbon is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with a population of 552,700 within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km². Its urban area extends beyond the administrative limits with a population of around 2.7 million people. About 2.8 million people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and it is continental Europes westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. Lisbon lies in the western Iberian Peninsula on the Atlantic Ocean, the westernmost areas of its metro area is the westernmost point of Continental Europe. Lisbon is recognised as a city because of its importance in finance, media, arts, international trade, education. It is one of the economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial sector. Humberto Delgado Airport serves over 20 million passengers annually, as of 2015, and the motorway network, the city is the 7th-most-visited city in Southern Europe, after Istanbul, Barcelona, Madrid and Milan, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region contributes with a higher GDP PPP per capita than any region in Portugal.
Its GDP amounts to 96.3 billion USD and thus $32,434 per capita, the city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the political centre of the country, as its seat of Government and residence of the Head of State. Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, julius Caesar made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic tribes from the 5th century, in 1147, the Crusaders under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city and since it has been a major political and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbons status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention, making its position as de facto capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal. It has one of the warmest winters of any metropolis in Europe, the typical summer season lasts about four months, from June to September, although in April temperatures sometimes reach around 25 °C.
Although modern archaeological excavations show a Phoenician presence at this location since 1200 BC, another conjecture based on ancient hydronymy suggests that the name of the settlement derived from the pre-Roman appellation for the Tagus, Lisso or Lucio. Lisbons name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela and it was referred to as Olisippo by Pliny the Elder and by the Greeks as Olissipo or Olissipona. The Indo-European Celts invaded in the 1st millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European population and this indigenous settlement maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians, which would account for the recent findings of Phoenician pottery and other material objects