Black metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music. Common traits include fast tempos, a shrieking vocal style distorted guitars played with tremolo picking, raw recording, unconventional song structures, an emphasis on atmosphere. Artists appear in corpse paint and adopt pseudonyms. During the 1980s, several thrash metal and death metal bands formed a prototype for black metal; this so-called first wave included bands such as Venom, Mercyful Fate and Celtic Frost. A second wave arose in the early 1990s, spearheaded by Norwegian bands such as Mayhem, Burzum, Emperor and Gorgoroth; the early Norwegian black metal scene developed the style of their forebears into a distinct genre. Norwegian-inspired black metal scenes emerged throughout Europe and North America, although some other scenes developed their own styles independently; some prominent Swedish bands spawned during this second wave, such as Marduk and Dark Funeral. A synonym for "Satanic metal", black metal has sparked controversy, due to the actions and ideologies associated with the genre.
Many artists express extreme anti-Christian and misanthropic views, advocating various forms of Satanism or ethnic paganism. In the 1990s, members of the scene were responsible for a spate of church murders. There is a small neo-Nazi movement within black metal, although it has been shunned by many prominent artists. Black metal strives to remain underground, inaccessible to the mainstream and those who are not committed. Although contemporary black metal refers to the Norwegian style with shrieking vocals and raw production, the term has been applied to bands with differing sounds. Norwegian-inspired black metal guitarists favor high-pitched or trebly guitar tones and heavy distortion; the guitar is played with fast, un-muted tremolo picking. Guitarists use dissonance—along with specific scales and chord progressions—to create a sense of dread; the tritone, or flat-fifth, is used. Guitar solos and low guitar tunings are rare in black metal; the bass guitar is used to play stand-alone melodies. It is not uncommon for the bass to be muted against the guitar, or for it to homophonically follow the low-pitched riffs of the guitar.
While electronic keyboards were "not heard in type of music", Dimmu Borgir say they started using keyboards "in the background" and started using them as a "proper instrument" for creating "atmosphere". Some newer black metal bands began raising their production quality and introducing additional instruments such as synthesizers and orchestras; the drumming is fast and relies on double-bass and blast beats to maintain tempos that can sometimes approach 300 beats per minute. These fast tempos require great skill and physical stamina, typified by black metal drummers Frost and Hellhammer. Still, authenticity is still prioritized over technique. "This professionalism has to go," insists well-respected drummer and metal historian Fenriz of Darkthrone. "I want to de-learn playing drums, I want to play primitive and simple, I don't want to play like a drum solo all the time and make these complicated riffs". Black metal songs stray from conventional song structure and lack clear verse-chorus sections.
Instead, many black metal songs contain repetitive instrumental sections. The Greek style—established by Rotting Christ and Varathron—has more traditional heavy metal and death metal traits than Norwegian black metal. Traditional black metal bands tend to favor raspy, high-pitched vocals which include techniques such as shrieking and snarling, a vocal style influenced by Quorthon of Bathory. Death growls, common in the death metal genre, are sometimes used, but less than the characteristic black metal shriek. Black metal lyrics attack Christianity and the other institutional religions using apocalyptic language. Satanic lyrics are common, many see them as essential to black metal. For Satanist black metal artists, "Black metal songs are meant to be like Calvinist sermons. Misanthropy, global catastrophe, death and rebirth are common themes. Another topic found in black metal lyrics is that of the wild and extreme aspects and phenomena of the natural world the wilderness, mountains, winter and blizzards.
Black metal has a fascination with the distant past. Many bands write about the mythology and folklore of their homelands and promote a revival of pre-Christian, pagan traditions. A significant number of bands write lyrics only in their native language and a few have lyrics in archaic languages; some doom metal-influenced artists' lyrics focus on depression, introspection, self-harm and suicide. Many bands choose not to play live. Many of those who do play live maintain that their performances "are not for entertainment or spectacle. Sincerity and extremity are valued above all else"; some bands consider their concerts to be rituals and make use of stage props and theatrics. Bands such as Mayhem and Gorgoroth are noted for their controversial shows, which have featured impaled animal heads, mock crucifixions, medieval weaponry and band members doused in animal blood. A few vocalists, such as Dead and Kvarforth, are known for cutting themselves while singing onstage. Black metal artists appear dressed in black with combat boots, bullet belts, spiked wristbands and inverted crosses and inverted pentagrams to reinforce their anti-Christian or anti-religious stance.
Dark ambient is a genre of post-industrial music that features an ominous, dark droning and gloomy, monumental or catacombal atmosphere with discordant overtones. It shows similarities towards ambient music, a genre, cited as a main influence by many dark ambient artists, both conceptually and compositionally. Although electronically generated, dark ambient includes the sampling of hand-played instruments and semi-acoustic recording procedures, is related to ritual industrial music; the term dark ambient was coined in the early 1990s by Roger Karmanik to describe the music of Raison d'être and related artists that are associated with the Cold Meat Industry record label. Dark ambient has its roots in the 1970s, with the introduction of newer and more affordable effects units and sampling technology. Early genre elements can be found on Throbbing Gristle's 1978 album D.o. A: The Third and Final Report of Throbbing Gristle. Important early precursors of the genre were Tangerine Dream's early double-album Zeit, unlike most of their subsequent albums in abandoning any notion of rhythm or definable melody in favour of "darkly" sinuous disturbing sonics, Affenstunde by fellow krautrock band Popol Vuh.
Projects like Lustmord, Nocturnal Emissions, Zoviet France, evolved out of industrial music during the 1980s, were some of the earliest artists to create dark ambient music. These artists make use of industrial principles such as noise and shock tactics, but wield these elements with more subtlety. Additionally, ambient industrial has strong occultist tendencies, with a particular leaning toward magick, as expounded by Aleister Crowley, chaos magic giving the music a ritualistic flavor. Among the artists who produce ambient industrial/dark ambient are Controlled Bleeding, CTI, Coph Nia, Deutsch Nepal, Hafler Trio, Nocturnal Emissions, PGR, Thomas Köner, Zoviet France, Cabaret Voltaire, SPK, Lab Report, Akira Yamaoka, Robin Rimbaud, Vidna Obmana, Daniel Menche, Hwyl Nofio, Hieronymus Bosch, Final. Many of these artists are eclectic in their output, with much of it falling outside ambient industrial. Dark ambient consists of evolving dissonant harmonies of drones and resonances, low frequency rumbles and machine noises, sometimes supplemented by gongs, percussive rhythms, distorted voices and other found sounds processed to the point where the original sample cannot be recognized.
For example, entire works may be based on radio telescope recordings, the babbling of newborn babies, or sounds recorded through contact microphones on telegraph wires. The music tends to evoke a feeling of solitude, melancholy and isolation. However, while the theme in the music tends to be "dark" in nature, some artists create more organic soundscapes. Examples of such productions are those of Oöphoi, Alio Die, Mathias Grassow, Tau Ceti, Klaus Wiese; the Symphonies of the Planets series, a collection of works by Brain/Mind Research inspired by audible-frequency plasma waves recorded by the Voyager unmanned space probes, can be considered an organic manifestation of dark ambient. List of dark ambient artists List of electronic music genres
Dextronaut is the first album by the black metal band Velvet Cacoon, released in 2002 via Peer-to-Peer platforms. The band claims to have recorded and released the album in 1998, but this has been verified by SGL as a lie. Dextronaut was re-mastered and re-released as a double disc set by Full Moon Productions in December 2006; the first disc does not include tracks 8 and 10. The second disc is three ambient tracks. In 2010, Khrysanthoney released the album as it was made with no remastering and with all ten tracks included; this release did not include the second disc of ambient songs. All songs written by Velvet Cacoon. "Bloodletting" - 1:25 "Infinite Plateau" - 3:26 "Nest Of Hate" - 5:38 "Perched On A Neverending Peak" - 7:08 "Setting Off The Twilights" - 4:31 "A Year Of Decembers" - 5:55 "Reverie" - 3:27 "Starlit Seas Of Angel Blood" - 4:21 "World Untouched By Mankind" - 2:48 "When The Purest Flesh Is Alive in a Heart Full of Hate" - 4:56Disc Two "Velorum" - 22:27 "Ambient Planet" - 29:04 "Nighttime Ice Horizon" - 20:21 Velvet Cacoon - All
Northsuite is a compilation released by the black metal band Velvet Cacoon. Contains both the "Red Steeples" demo from 2004 and the "Music For Falling Buildings" demo from 2003. Original 2005 Ivory Snowfish Music printing limited to 100 Centurian "Of Purest Fire" Pro CD-Rs. Re-released that year on CD by Full Moon. LP version released by Southern Lord in June 2007 with a jacket made of velvet with the logo in black foil. Limited to 1500 copies, 500 being marble-purple. All songs written by Velvet Cacoon. Tracks 1-6 from the "Red Steeples" demo. Tracks 7-8 from the "Music For Falling Buildings" demo. Josh - vocals, drum programming Angela - guitar Dorothy Montoure - mixing
Genevieve is the second album released by the black metal band Velvet Cacoon. CD version released by Full Moon Productions in 2004. LP version released by Southern Lord in June 2007 with a jacket made of velvet with the logo in silver foil. Limited to 1500 copies, 500 being marble-purple. All songs written by Velvet Cacoon. Velvet Cacoon - All
Atropine is the third album released by the black metal band Velvet Cacoon. It features a dark ambient sound. CD Released by Full Moon limited to 1000 copies. All songs written by Velvet Cacoon. Disc 1"Candlesmoke" - 6:24 "Funeral Noir" - 9:35 "Graveside Sonnet" - 12:38 "Dreaming in a Hemlock Patch" - 36:44Disc 2"Nightvines" - 3:03 "Nocturnal Carriage" - 13:06 "Earth and Dark Petals" - 13:02 "Autumn Burial Victoria" - 27:55 Velvet Cacoon - All
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons