Feliciano Alberto Viera Borges was a Uruguayan political figure. He was a member of the Colorado Party and identified with the liberal former President José Batlle y Ordóñez, who long dominated Uruguayan political life. Prior to becoming President, Viera served Batlle's second government as Interior Minister, he was President of Uruguay from 1915 to 1919. Among prominent figures who served in his Administration was Baltasar Brum, who occupied the Interior and subsequently the Foreign Affairs ministry. Uruguay was more identified with the Allied cause in World War I than was neighbouring Argentina, cutting diplomatic relations with the German Empire in late 1917. On September 8, 1917, Viera received the Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor of France. In 1919 Viera was succeeded by Baltasar Brum, he became Chairman of the National Council of Administration, holding the post until 1921. He died on 13 November 1927, aged 55. Politics of Uruguay
José Serrato was a Uruguayan political figure. Serrato was a prominent member of the Uruguayan Colorado Party which had long dominated the politics of the country, he was broadly identified with the policies of José Batlle y Ordóñez, but was regarded as not being ideological, thus able to work with others in the party with more polarized standpoints. He served as Minister of Finance from 1904-1906. Serrato served as President of Uruguay from 1923–1927, succeeding Baltasar Brum in that office. In 1925 he presided over the formal opening of the Palacio Montevideo, he himself was succeeded by Juan Campisteguy. Serrato served as Uruguayan Foreign Minister under President Juan José de Amézaga, he died in more than 30 years after leaving the Presidency. Politics of Uruguay
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Baltasar Brum Rodríguez, GCTE was a Uruguayan political figure. He was President of Uruguay from 1919 to 1923, his political convictions followed those of liberal President José Batlle y Ordóñez, under whom Brum served as Education Minister 1913 - 1915. He was Interior Minister from 1915 - 1916. Brum subsequently served as Foreign Minister under the Presidency of Feliciano Viera. Brum's period of office as Foreign Minister proved to be somewhat controversial. In the autumn of 1917, American warships sailed to the Argentine capital Buenos Aires and a delegation issued threats to the country's President Hipólito Yrigoyen, in relation to the country's neutrality, which the United States insisted should be more focused as being pro-American. Yrigoyen refused to be bowed by such threats from a military delegation, whereupon the American ships sailed to Montevideo, where they were warmly welcomed by Brum, in contrast to the guarded reception which the delegation had received in Buenos Aires. Brum travelled to the United States and was received by the Secretary of State.
Brum thus came to Presidential office in 1919 as one with a reputation as a pro-American facilitator of US interests. During Brum's Presidency, he was noted for pursuing economic stability, but on the political front faced significant opposition from both his own Colorado Party, notably from Luis Alberto de Herrera of the Blanco, or National, Party. Beyond the political, Baltasar Brum was noted for interests in Uruguayan history and folklore. During his Presidential term of office he took measures with a view to preserving and protecting the historic Fort of Santa Teresa in the Rocha Department and after leaving office Brum collaborated in the preparation of related literature. On March 31, 1933, on the installation of President Gabriel Terra's rule by decree, Brum attempted to lead resistance to Terra's government. After having realized during the course of that day that Terra's authoritarian rule enjoyed at least tacit support by many Uruguayans, Brum hurried into the middle of a road in Montevideo, was heard to shout "viva la libertad!
Viva Batlle!", committed suicide by gunshot. He was aged 49 at the time of his death. To some observers, Brum represented a self-sacrificing romantic streak within Uruguayan politics at a time when many Uruguayans were prepared tacitly to accept extrajudicial changes brought in by Terra. To others, Brum's spectacular suicide suggested the presence of elements of mental instability, however, was not medically proven, his brother Alfeo Brum served as Vice President of Uruguay. A town in Artigas Department is named after him. Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword Politics of Uruguay List of political families#Uruguay Baltasar Brum, Artigas#Location and history es:Fortaleza de Santa Teresa#Folclore y leyendas Photo, showing Baltasar Brum on March 31, 1933, before he committed suicide that day
Latin Americans are the citizens of the Latin American countries and dependencies. Latin American countries are multi-ethnic, home to people of different ethnic and national backgrounds; as a result, some Latin Americans do not take their nationality as an ethnicity, but identify themselves with both their nationality and their ancestral origins. Aside from the indigenous Amerindian population, all Latin Americans or their ancestors immigrated since 1492. Latin America has the largest diasporas of Spaniards, Black Africans, Italians and Japanese in the world; the region has large German and Jewish diasporas. The specific ethnic and/or racial composition varies from country to country: many have a predominance of European-Amerindian, or Mestizo, population. Various Black and Zambo minorities are identified in most countries. White Latin Americans are the largest single group. Together with the people of part-European ancestry they combine for 80% of the population, or more. Latin Americans and their descendants can be found everywhere in the world in densely populated urban areas.
The most important migratory destinations for Latin Americans are found in the United States, Canada and Japan. Latin America is the region of the Americas where Romance languages —particularly Spanish and Portuguese, as well as French—are spoken, it includes more than 20 nations: Mexico in North America. Latin America, can be defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the French, Spanish, or Portuguese Empires; the population of Latin America comprises a variety of ancestries, ethnic groups, races, making the region one of the most diverse in the world. The specific composition varies from country to country: many have a predominance of European-Amerindian, or Mestizo, population. Black and Zambo minorities are identified regularly. White people are accounting for more than a third. Amerindians; the indigenous population of Latin America, the Amerindians, arrived during the Lithic stage. In post-Columbian times they experienced tremendous population decline in the early decades of colonization.
They have since recovered in numbers, surpassing sixty million, though with the growth of the other groups meanwhile, they now compose a majority only in Bolivia and Peru. In Guatemala, Amerindian are a large minority. Mexico's 21% is the next largest ratio, one of the largest Amerindian population in the Americas in absolute numbers. Most of the remaining countries have Amerindian minorities, in every case making up less than one-tenth of the respective country's population. In many countries, people of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry make up the majority of the population. Asians. People of Asian descent number several million in Latin America; the first Asians to settle in the region were Filipino, as a result of Spain's trade involving Asia and the Americas. The majority of Asian Latin Americans are of Japanese or Chinese ancestry and reside in Brazil and Peru. Brazil is home to two million people of Asian descent, which includes the largest ethnic Japanese community outside Japan itself, estimated as high as 1.5 million, circa 200,000 ethnic Chinese and 100,000 ethnic Koreans.
Ethnic Koreans number tens of thousands of individuals in Argentina and Mexico. Peru, with 1.47 million people of Asian descent, has one of the largest Chinese communities in the world, with nearly one million Peruvians being of Chinese ancestry. There is a strong ethnic-Japanese presence in Peru, where a past president and a number of politicians are of Japanese descent; the Martiniquais population includes an African-White-Indian mixed population, an East Indian population. The Guadeloupean East Indian population is estimated at 14% of the population. Blacks. Millions of African slaves were brought to Latin America from the 16th century onward, the majority of whom were sent to the Caribbean region and Brazil. Today, people identified as "Black" are most numerous in Haiti. Among the Hispanic nations and Brazil, Puerto Rico leads this category in relative numbers, with a 15% ratio. Significant populations are found in Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador and Colombia. Latin Americans of mixed Black and White ancestry, called Mulattoes, are far more numerous than Blacks.
Mestizos. Intermixing between Europeans and Amerindians was extensive; the resulting people, known as Mestizos, make up the majority of the population in half of the countries of Latin America. Additionally, Mestizos compose large minorities in near
Máximo Benito Santos Barbosa was a Uruguayan political and military figure. Santos pursued a career in the military, prior to serving as Minister for War from 1880 to 1882, he was a member of the Colorado Party. In 1882 Miguel Alberto Flangini Ximénez, who served as acting President of Uruguay, stepped down from office. Succeeding acting President Flangini, Santos served as President of Uruguay from 1882 until 1886. Among Santos's lasting acts as President was the creation of the Flores Department in the interior of the country, named after assassinated former President of Uruguay General Venancio Flores, who hailed from the territory incorporated as a department, he in a measure repaired relations with Paraguay. However, his administration was widely criticized for failure to root out corruption. Santos was succeeded as president by Francisco Antonino Vidal in 1886. Subsequently, after relinquishing presidential office in 1886, Santos returned to exercise presidential powers for a number of months in 1886.
Santos was succeeded as president by his Colorado Party colleague Máximo Tajes, with whom, however, he had poor relations. Tajes was still exercising his presidential office at Santos's death. Subsequent to the relinquishing of his presidential office for the second time, Santos travelled in Europe, was unable to return to Uruguay. Still aged in his early 40s, Santos died in exile in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1889. Santos' magnificent residence in downtown Montevideo nowadays is the seat of the Ministry of Foreign Relations of Uruguay and is known as Palacio Santos, his country estate now houses the Museo de la Memoria, a state-owned museum dedicated to the victims of the Uruguayan dictatorship. Colorado Party #Earlier History Politics of Uruguay Miguel Alberto Flangini Ximénez#Interim President of Uruguay Máximo Tajes#President of Uruguay Flores Department#History and cultural heritage
Alfredo Baldomir Ferrari was an Uruguayan soldier and politician. He served as President of Uruguay from 1938 to 1943 and is most notable for leading Uruguay to support the Allies during World War II. Baldomir was born in Montevideo, he studied architecture and engineering. He designed many famous buildings in Uruguay directed the army corps of engineers and worked as a professor. By 1930, Baldomir was becoming involved in politics, he served as chief of police of Montevideo from 1931 to 1934 and as defense minister of Uruguay from 1935 to 1938, was thus identified with the rule of his brother-in-law President of Uruguay Gabriel Terra. He was elected President of Uruguay in 1938 as a member of the long-ruling Colorado Party, he took office as President on June 19, 1938. Baldomir set a high priority in involving Uruguay in international affairs, appointed the famous diplomat Alberto Guani as foreign minister; as World War II broke out, Baldomir discouraged support for the Axis within the country, early in 1942, he broke off diplomatic relations with the Axis Powers.
In 1942, now a general in the army, expanded his powers through a military coup dissolving parliament and declaring an emergency. His term, soon to expire, was extended for a year. Soon a new Constitution came into force. In 1943, Baldomir voluntarily held elections and gave up power, but the continued dominance of the Colorados was insured. Baldomir retired from office on March 1, 1943. Five years he died of an illness in Montevideo. Baldomir's actions to identity Uruguay with the Allied cause in World War II have lessened his reputation as a controversial historical figure, it may be noted that he was a leading supporter of the previous President of Uruguay Gabriel Terra, who ruled by decree. Constitution of Uruguay of 1942 Politics of Uruguay