The Vendidad /ˈvendi'dæd/ or Videvdat Avestan: is a collection of texts within the greater compendium of the Avesta. However, unlike the other texts of the Avesta, the Vendidad is an ecclesiastical code, not a liturgical manual; the name of the texts is a contraction of the Avestan language Vî-Daêvô-Dāta, "Given Against the Daevas", as the name suggests, the Vendidad is an enumeration of various manifestations of evil spirits, ways to confound them. According to the divisions of the Avesta as described in the Denkard, a 9th-century text, the Vendidad includes all of the 19th nask, the only nask that has survived in its entirety; the Vendidad's different parts vary in character and in age. Although some portions are recent in origin, the subject matter of the greater part is old. In 1877, Karl Friedrich Geldner identified the texts as being linguistically distinct from both the Old Avestan language texts as well as from the Yashts of the younger Avesta. Today, there is controversy over historical development of the Vendidad.
The Vendidad is classified by some as an young Avestan text. Its language resembles Old Avestan; the Vendidad is thought to be a Magi composition. It has been suggested that the Vendidad belongs to a particular school, but "no linguistic or textual argument allows us to attain any degree of certainty in these matters."The Vendidad consists of 22 fargards containing fragments of discussions between Ahura Mazda and Zoroaster. The arrangement does not suggest. However, some consider the Vendidad a link to ancient early oral traditions written as a book of laws for the Zoroastrian community; the writing of the Vendidad began - substantially - before the formation of the Median and Persian Empires, before the 8th century B. C. E.. In addition, as with the Yashts, the date of composition of the final version does not exclude the possibility that some parts of the Vendidad may consist of old material. In this modern age, Zoroastrians are continually rewriting old spiritual material; the first chapter is dualistic creation myth, followed by the description of a destructive winter comparable with the great floods of various other mythologies.
The second chapter recounts the legend of Yima. Chapter 19 relates the temptation of Zoroaster, when urged by Angra Mainyu to turn from the good religion, turns instead towards Ahura Mazda; the remaining chapters cover diverse rules and regulations, through the adherence of which evil spirits may be confounded. Broken down by subject, these fargards deal with the following topics: hygiene and cleansing. There is a degree of moral relativism apparent in the Vendidad, the diverse rules and regulations are not always expressed as being mystical, universal or mandatory; the Vendidad is about social laws, mores and culture. In some instances, the description of prescribed behaviour is accompanied by a description of the penances that have to be made to atone for violations thereof; such penances include: payment in kind to the aggrieved. Most of the Zoroastrians continue to use the Vendidad as a valued and fundamental cultural and ethical moral guide, viewing their teachings as essential to Zoroastrian tradition and see it as part of Zoroastrianism original perspectives about the truth of spiritual existence.
They argue that it has origins on early oral tradition, being only written. The emergent reformist Zoroastrian movement reject the writings in the Avesta as being corruptions of Zarathustra's original teachings and thus do not consider the Vendidad as an original Zoroastrian scripture, they argue that it was written nearly 700 years after the death of Zarathustra and interpret the writing as different from the other parts of the Avesta. An article by Hannah M. G. Shapero sums up the reformist perspective: "How do Zoroastrians view the Vendidad today? And how many of the laws of the Vendidad are still followed? This depends, as so many other Zoroastrian beliefs and practices do, on whether you are a "reformist" or a "traditionalist." The reformists, following the Gathas as their prime guide, judge the Vendidad harshly as being a deviation from the non-prescriptive, abstract teachings of the Gathas. For them, few if any of the laws or practices in the Vendidad are either in the spirit or the letter of the Gathas, so they are not to be followed.
The reformists prefer to regard the Vendidad as a document which has no religious value but is only of historic or anthropological interest. Many Zoroastrians, in Iran and the world diaspora, inspired by reformists, have chosen to dispense with the Vendidad prescriptions or only to follow those which they believe are not against the original spirit of the Gathas." Although the Vendidad is not a liturgical manual, a section of it may be recited as part of a greater Yasna service. A
Laem Ngop is a district of Trat Province, eastern Thailand. The district was established in 1897 named Ko Chang District; the district office was in Ban Dan Kao on Ko Chang. The district controlled all islands in Trat Province; as the district office was on an island, it was not convenient for most of people on mainland, thus the government moved the office to Ban Laem Ngop, but kept the district name. In 1939 the district name was changed in accordance with the location of the district office. Neighboring districts are Khlung of Chanthaburi Province, Khao Saming, Mueang Trat of Trat Province and the Gulf of Thailand; the district is divided into four sub-districts. There are two townships: Laem Ngop covers parts of the tambon Laem Ngop, Nam Chiao the complete tambon Nam Chiao. There are a further three tambon administrative organizations. Missing numbers now for the districts Ko Kut and Ko Chang. Amphoe.com
Break of Dawn is the fourth studio album from Bay Area vocalist Goapele after a five-year-long hiatus. The first single, "Milk & Honey," was leaked on the Internet July 10, 2009, while the video directed by David Telles went into rotation on August 4, 2009, was shot with the Red One Camera, it offers a more seductive vibe than what fans may be accustomed to from the singer. Goapele is known to incorporate messages of politics, love and struggle into her music; the second single, "Right Here," is a love song produced by Drumma Boy. On August 28, 2011, Goapele released the third single, "Play," a sensual song produced by Dan Electric & Teddy Thunderbolt. Break of Dawn was recorded at the Zoo in Downtown Oakland, home of Goapele’s Skylight Studios; this project will be another personal album with several love songs as well as up-tempo joints. Production-wise, tracks with Drumma Boy, Kanye West, Drumma Boy, Dan Electric, Mike Tiger, Bobby Ozuna, Jeff Bhasker, other musicians were confirmed. On this album Goapele revealed a more confident and sensual side.
She said that she was liberating herself a little more and claims while there was something empowering about appearing in a T-shirt without make-up on the cover of her first internationally distributed album, Even Closer, there is something empowering about shedding her fears of music-industry exploitation and strutting confidently into more brazen territory. She said, “Now if I want to dress sexy, I can, if I want to be more blunt, I can. I just want to do what feels good.” "Play"—3:43 "Tears On My Pillow"—4:46 "Undertow"—3:47 "Break of Dawn"—4:29 "Hush"—4:05 "Money"—4:06 "Pieces"—3:24 "Right Here"—3:21 "Milk & Honey"—3:12 "Cupcake" —3:40 Official site Goapele Press Goapele at MySpace
The Sala dei Cento Giorni is a large frescoed gallery or room in the Palazzo della Cancelleria or Chancellery in Central Rome, Italy. The frescoes epitomize the Mannerist style of his studio. In March 1546, Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, at the suggestion of Paolo Giovio, commissions Vasari to paint a fresco a hall of the chancery in the Palazzo of San Giorgio, remodeled and rebuilt as the massive Palazzo della Cancelleria; the purpose of the frescoes was to celebrate the life of Alessandro's grandfather. In his biography of Artists, Vasari details the planning and execution of this work. Legend has it that Michelangelo, known for his plodding meticulous style, was shown the work and Vasari bragged about the rapid execution, Michelangelo is reputed to have tartly replied: si vede!. The work in its day was not admired for its quality. Paolo Giovio reports to Cardinal Farnese. Today, the condition of the frescoes is mediocre though they were restored several times after a 1940 fire. In the Sala dei Cento Giorni and his assistants work in an elaborate and fanciful manner.
The narrative unfolds within an unusual illusionist space flooded with allegoric ornamentation and further by numerous figures in painted architecture surrounded by simulated sculpture. The gestures and expressions of the figures are extravagant and exaggerated in a courtly manner, according to the Maniera style of the mid-Cinquecento; the decoration in this room exemplifies the third type of wall decoration: it is stylistically related to the Chamber of Fortune in the Casa Vasari. This hall is rectangular, its flat wooden ceiling is composed of recessed coffered shapes. These squares are created by the intersection of wooden beams. A corbel resting on the upper part of the wall supports the end of each beam; the east wall contains six small ones in the upper zone. The north and south walls each contain only one bay; the treatment of the wall decoration is architectonic. The wall is not considered as a painted two-dimensional surface, but rather as a plastic, architectural structure in which imaginary and real space can expand and contract as one.
The wall, which treated in a frieze-like style, is divided into two horizontal zones, each in turn divided into three vertical parts. The upper part contains at each end a portrait bust of an ancient emperor framed by winged Ignudi or allegories of Victory. A Latin motto is inscribed in a scroll above this composition. In the center of this upper zone, seated female figures framed by the wooden corbels present an escutcheon, they can he identified by the attributes they hold and by the Latin inscription on the scroll at their feet. Variations of grotesque motifs added to the overall decoration of this zone; the lower and upper parts are separated by two broken pediments at the ends of the wall and by the architrave running between them. This architrave supports festoon motifs. In the lower part of the wall are two painted tabernacles supporting the broken pediments described above; the tabernacle motif contains an open area, or niche, from which a standing female figure protrudes toward the viewer: a motif deriving from Vasari's Michelangelesque studies of the Medici Chapel.
In the center of the lower part, Doric columns frame depictions of an istoria. Using painted architecture to frame a narrative scene in antiquity, was elaborated in the Quattrocento, for example, in the Salone dei Mesi of the Schifanoia Palace at Ferrara, in the High Renaissance as exemplified by the Sala di Costantino in the Vatican Palace; the istorie are filled with stylistic quotations from present art. The dado of the wall has been either eliminated. Vasari creates a new, large-scale device by using illusionistically painted steps extending from the center of the lower zone to the actual physical floor, it seems as if the viewer could step up into the painted scene and participate in the events occurring in narrative istoria. According to Sydney Freedberg, the steps motif is a transformation of Michelangelo's ricetto in the Biblioteca Laurenziana. Other important sources for Vasari's motifs are their exedra of Cortile del Belvedere at the Vatican and the Nymphaeum fresco in the window embrasure of the Hall of Constantine in the Vatican Palace.
The decorative scheme in the Sala dei Cento Giorni is systematized and framed into quadro riportato, or independent framed scenes of history. The quadri or frames are flanked by tabernacles containing figures that symbolize moral or aesthetic virtues, and the overall design is fused by grotesque motifs. The execution of the Sala dei Cento Giorni is invaluable for Vasari, it is, in fact, the beginning of a formalized, complex painting program, to undergo further elaboration in the decorative cycles of the Palazzo Vecchio. De Girolami Cheney, Liana; the Homes of Giorgio Vasari. Peter Lang. P. 309. ISBN 978-0820474946. Orbicciani, Laura. Palazzo della Cancelleria. Ist. Poligrafico dello. P. 128. ASIN 8824011667. CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN
Gary is a city in Lake County, United States, 25 miles from downtown Chicago, Illinois. Gary borders southern Lake Michigan. Gary was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation; the city is known for its large steel mills, as the birthplace of the Jackson 5 music group. Once the second largest city in Indiana, the population of Gary was 80,294 at the 2010 census, making it the ninth-largest city in the state of Indiana, it was a prosperous city from the 1920s through the mid-1960s due to its booming steel industry, but overseas competition and restructuring of the steel industry resulted in a decline and a severe loss of jobs. Since the late 1960s, Gary has suffered drastic population loss, falling by 55 percent from its peak of 178,320 in 1960; the city faces the difficulties of many Rust Belt cities, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels. It is estimated that nearly one-third of all houses in the city are abandoned.
Gary, was founded in 1906 by the United States Steel Corporation as the home for its new plant, Gary Works. The city was named after lawyer Elbert Henry Gary, the founding chairman of the United States Steel Corporation. Gary was the site of civil unrest in the steel strike of 1919. On October 4, 1919, a riot broke out on Broadway, the main north-south street through downtown Gary, between striking steel workers and strike breakers brought in from outside. Three days Indiana governor James P. Goodrich declared martial law. Shortly thereafter, over 4,000 federal troops under the command of Major General Leonard Wood arrived to restore order; the jobs offered by the steel industry provided Gary with rapid growth and a diverse population within the first 26 years of its founding. According to the 1920 United States Census, 29.7% of Gary's population at the time was classified as foreign-born from eastern European countries, with another 30.8% classified as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent.
By the 1930 United States Census, the first census in which Gary's population exceeded 100,000, the city was the fifth largest in Indiana and comparable in size to South Bend, Fort Wayne, Evansville. At that time, 78.7% of the population was classified as white, with 19.3% of the population was classified as foreign-born, another 25.9% as native-born with at least one foreign-born parent. In addition to white internal migrants, Gary had attracted numerous African-American migrants from the South in the Great Migration, 17.8% of the population was classified as black. 3.5% was classified as Mexican. Gary's fortunes have fallen with those of the steel industry; the growth of the steel industry brought prosperity to the community. Broadway was known as a commercial center for the region. Department stores and architecturally significant movie houses were built in the downtown area and the Glen Park neighborhood. In the 1960s, like many other American urban centers reliant on one particular industry, Gary entered a spiral of decline.
Gary's decline was brought on by the growing overseas competitiveness in the steel industry, which had caused U. S. Steel to lay off many workers from the Gary area; the U. S. Steel Gary Works employed over 30,000 in 1970, declined to just 6,000 by 1990, further declined to 5,100 in August 2015. Attempts to shore up the city's economy with major construction projects, such as a Holiday Inn hotel and the Genesis Convention Center, failed to reverse the decline. Rapid racial change occurred in Gary during the late 20th century; these population changes resulted in political change which reflected the racial demographics of Gary: the non-white share of the city's population increased from 21% in 1930, 39% in 1960, to 53% in 1970. Non-whites were restricted to live in the Midtown section just south of downtown. Gary had one of the nation's first African-American mayors, Richard G. Hatcher, hosted the ground-breaking 1972 National Black Political Convention. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Gary had the highest percentage of African-Americans of U.
S. cities with a population of 100,000 or more, 84%. This no longer applies to Gary since the population of the city has now fallen well below 100,000 residents; as of 2013, the Gary Department of Redevelopment has estimated that one-third of all homes in the city are unoccupied and/or abandoned. U. S. Steel continues to be a major steel producer, but with only a fraction of its former level of employment. While Gary has failed to reestablish a manufacturing base since its population peak, two casinos opened along the Gary lakeshore in the 1990s, although this has been aggravated by the state closing of Cline Avenue, an important access to the area. Today, Gary faces the difficulties of a Rust Belt city, including unemployment, decaying infrastructure, low literacy and educational attainment levels. Gary has closed several of its schools within the last ten years. While some of the school buildings have been reused, most remain unused since their closing; as of 2014, Gary is considering closing additional schools in response to budget deficits.
Gary chief of police Thomas Houston was convicted of excessive force and abuse of authority in 2008. In April 2011, 75-year-old mayor Rudy Clay announced that he would suspend his campaign for reelection as he was being treated for prostate cancer, he endorsed rival Karen Freeman-Wilson, wh
Regina Zernay Roberts is an American instrumentalist and songwriter. She is lead bass player of Detroit Diesel Power, she played bass guitar and Moog synthesizer with Scarlet Fever, the all-female backing band that toured with Cee Lo Green during 2010 and 2011. She toured several years in Cowboy Mouth. Regina Zernay grew up in a tiny Florida village, she is the first-born child of Filipino parents. After moving to La Puente in Los Angeles County, she graduated from Nogales High School and Azusa Pacific University, she married Darren Roberts in 2009. As a young child, she wanted to be a musician. There was always a piano in the house, she took lessons until a conflict with her teacher about writing with her left hand. She began playing guitar at age 11, inspired by Duran Duran. In high school, friends needed a bass guitarist for their band, her mother bought her one for Christmas, she "totally fell in love with it." Although she is left-handed, she plays a standard right-handed instrument. After high school, she did her first West Coast tour for two weeks with a band in small pickup in difficult living conditions.
She polished her craft playing with many bands, in small clubs and venues throughout Southern California, sometimes three bands concurrently. In addition to Duran Duran, in high school she played music by Social Distortion, the Dead Kennedys, Black Flag, Agent Orange, The Toy Dolls, The Ramones. Role models include John Paul Jones of Led Zeppelin, Ben Shepherd from Soundgarden. Zernay has played and recorded with many Southern California bands, such as Big Violin, Ten Pound Troy, The Syrups, Red Delicious. In 2001, she joined hard rock band Halfcocked during their final tour, she performed with hip hop/rock band Jam Balaya, appearing on two episodes of Half & Half in 2005. She was featured as the front-cover Bass Quarterly interview for the issue of January/February 2011, was chosen number 3 of the top 10 bassists to watch in 2010. More she has toured with Red Elvises during November 2011 through December 2012. Circa late 2002, Zernay formed Méchant, she was the primary songwriter and original bassist for the band.
One of their early tracks, "Sweet", was included in the short film Outta Moves in 2005. With the help of several musician friends, she began recording a second CD in 2005, Fate and The Arsenal; the band remained active until 2007. From 2007 to 2010, Zernay performed with Cowboy Mouth, playing more than 200 shows annually, including a two-week USO tour in Kuwait and Iraq. During her time with them, Cowboy Mouth released the live concert DVD The Name of the Band is Cowboy Mouth and the full-length CD Fearless, they were featured as a cartoon in The New Yorker, performed on Live with Regis and Kelly twice. Beginning in June 2010, she toured with Cee Lo Green and the all-female backing band named Scarlet Fever on promotional tours for "What Part of Forever" and The Lady Killer album, they performed for The Tonight Show with Jay Leno,BBC Radio,Late Show with David Letterman,Saturday Night Live, many other venues. Core band members include Sharon Aguilar, Brittany Brooks, DANiiVORY née Theresa Flaminio.
Circa late 2011, Zernay and her husband formed Detroit Diesel Power. They debuted at Molly Malone's on July 2, 2013, again at The Viper Room on July 23, 2013, both in Los Angeles, California. Other members include Michael Martinsson, their first EP, "16:16", was released December 1, 2013. Fate and the Arsenal 2-Song EP Fearless The Name of the Band is Cowboy Mouth 16:16 Detroit Diesel Power official site Podshow site Regina Zernay Roberts on Twitter