Columns of San Marco and San Todaro
Columns of San Marco and San Teodoro are two columns in Piazza San Marco, Italy. They comprise the Column of San Teodoro. Sculpture Lion of Venice surmounts Column of the Lion
Venice is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. It is situated on a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and linked by over 400 bridges; the islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave rivers. In 2018, 260,897 people resided in the Comune di Venezia, of whom around 55,000 live in the historical city of Venice. Together with Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area, considered a statistical metropolitan area, with a total population of 2.6 million. The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the region by the 10th century BC; the city was the capital of the Republic of Venice. The 697–1797 Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, a staging area for the Crusades and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as an important center of commerce and art in the 13th century up to the end of the 17th century.
The city-state of Venice is considered to have been the first real international financial center, emerging in the 9th century and reaching its greatest prominence in the 14th century. This made Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its history. After the Napoleonic Wars and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, following a referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence. Venice has been known as "La Dominante", "La Serenissima", "Queen of the Adriatic", "City of Water", "City of Masks", "City of Bridges", "The Floating City", "City of Canals"; the lagoon and a part of the city are listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Parts of Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings, their architecture, artwork. Venice is known for several important artistic movements—especially during the Renaissance period—has played an important role in the history of symphonic and operatic music, is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi.
Although the city is facing some major challenges, Venice remains a popular tourist destination, an iconic Italian city, has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world. The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae, is most taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic and Frankish control; the name Venetia, derives from the Roman name for the people known as the Veneti, called by the Greeks Enetoi. The meaning of the word is uncertain, although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding names, such as the Celtic Veneti and the Slavic Vistula Veneti. Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen, so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or "friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the color'sea-blue', is possible. Supposed connections of Venetia with the Latin verb venire, such as Marin Sanudo's veni etiam, the supposed cry of the first refugees to the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or with venia are fanciful.
The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia. Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the founding of Venice and the available evidence have led several historians to agree that the original population of Venice consisted of refugees—from nearby Roman cities such as Padua, Treviso and Concordia, as well as from the undefended countryside—who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions; this is further supported by the documentation on the so-called "apostolic families", the twelve founding families of Venice who elected the first doge, who in most cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late Roman sources reveal the existence of fishermen, on the islands in the original marshy lagoons, who were referred to as incolae lacunae; the traditional founding is identified with the dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of Rialto —said to have taken place at the stroke of noon on 25 March 421. Beginning as early as AD 166–168, the Quadi and Marcomanni destroyed the main Roman town in the area, present-day Oderzo.
This part of Roman Italy was again overrun in the early 5th century by the Visigoths and, some 50 years by the Huns led by Attila. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula, that of the Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire only a small strip of coastline in the current Veneto, including Venice; the Roman/Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna, administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople. Ravenna and Venice were connected only by sea routes, with the Venetians' isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built, including those at Torcello in the Venetian lagoon; the tribuni maiores formed the earliest central standing governing committee of the islands in the lagoon, dating from c. 568. The traditional first doge of Venice, Paolo Lucio A
The Biblioteca Nazionale Marciana is a library and Renaissance building in Venice, northern Italy. The library is named after the patron saint of Venice, it is not to be confused with the State Archive of the Republic of Venice, housed in a different part of the city. The building, begun in 1537, is the "undoubted masterpiece" of Jacopo Sansovino, a key work in Venetian Renaissance architecture. Andrea Palladio, who saw it being built, called it "probably the richest built from the days of ancients up to now", it has been described by Frederick Hartt as "surely one of the most satisfying structures in Italian architectural history", it has an prominent site, with the long facade facing the Doge's Palace across the Piazzetta di San Marco, the shorter sides facing the lagoon and the Piazza San Marco. Venice had become the main Italian centre of book printing and publishing, the library was an opportunity to promote what had become an important industry for the city, it was provided with a building designed by Jacopo Sansovino.
On this prime site, owned by the Republic, the library itself was always only on the upper floor, with the ground floor let to shops and, today and restaurants. The first sixteen arcaded bays of his design were constructed during 1537 to 1553, with work on frescoes and other decorations continuing until 1560. Sansovino died in 1570, but in 1588, Vincenzo Scamozzi undertook the construction of the additional five bays, still to Sansovino's design, which brought the building down to the molo or embankment, next to Sansovino's building for the Venetian mint, the Zecca; the upper storey of the building took a device which Andrea Palladio would adapt to the pre-existing Venetian window to introduce what has become known as the Palladian window, as Palladio used it so often. The Venetian window has three parts: a central high round-arched opening, with two smaller rectangular openings to the sides, the latter topped by lintels and supported by columns. Sansovino's upper storey in the library has only a single tall opening, places a larger order in between each window, doubles the small columns supporting the arch, placing the second column behind rather than beside the first.
Palladio would add the side openings, in his Basilica Palladiana in Vicenza. The ground floor uses the Doric order, as opposed to the Ionic above, is based on the Colosseum in Rome; the whole building is richly decorated, with high relief sculptures in the spandrels, lower reliefs of mythological scenes on the soffits of the arches. No large areas of plain wall are visible at all. At the top of the building there is a rich frieze with putti and large garlands a balustrade on the roofline, with standing nude classical deities, so that "the upper contour of the structure... dissolves against the sky", "all traditional boundaries of the building block are thus dissolved". The sculpture was by various artists; the building, though in a rich Renaissance classicism, has enough elements in common with the Venetian Gothic Doge's Palace across the square to harmonize well with it. These include the round heads to the openings, the arcades on the first two storeys; the entrance from the arcade to the upper floor is not marked or suggested by any special feature on the outside, which one would expect in a grand building of the period.
This somewhat gives the impression that this long facade might be just the side of an enormous building. In fact, with 21 bays at the front and three at the sides, it is very long and thin, although it does extend some way backwards in places; when Scamozzi built the abutting Procuratie Nuove along the Piazza San Marco, he used similar styles for the lower two floors, but had a third storey above, in the Corinthian order and with rectangular aedicule windows, topped by alternating curved and triangular pediments. The main interior rooms are lavishly decorated, with oil paintings by Titian, Paolo Veronese, Bernardo Strozzi, Andrea Schiavone and others set into the walls and rich ceilings; these show mythological and allegorical figures and groups. One of the early librarians, from 1530, was Pietro Bembo. However, the library stock began to be collected before the construction of the building. For example, the germ of the collections in the library was the gift to the Serenissima of the manuscript collection assembled by Byzantine humanist, scholar and collector, Cardinal Bessarion, he made a gift of his collection on 31 May 1468: some 750 codices in Latin and Greek, to which he added another 250 manuscripts and some printed books, constituting the first "public" library open to scholars in Venice.
Like the British Library or the Library of Congress at times, the Biblioteca Marciana profited from a law of 1603 that required that a copy be deposited in the Marciana of all books printed at Venice, the first such law. The Marciana was enriched by the transfer in the late eighteenth century of the collections accumulated in several monasteries, such as SS. Giovanni e Paolo in Venice and S. Giovanni di Verdara in Padua. Major additions made to the collection include: 1589: Melchiorre Guilandino of Marienburg.
St Mark's Basilica
The Patriarchal Cathedral Basilica of Saint Mark known as Saint Mark's Basilica, is the cathedral church of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice, northern Italy. It is the most famous of the city's churches and one of the best known examples of Italo-Byzantine architecture, it lies at the eastern end of the Piazza San Marco and connected to the Doge's Palace. It was the chapel of the Doge, has been the city's cathedral only since 1807, when it became the seat of the Patriarch of Venice, archbishop of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice at San Pietro di Castello; the basic structure of the church dates from 1060 to 1100, the large amount of subsequent work has been to embellish this rather than replace elements. The famous main facade has an ornamented roofline, Gothic, the gold ground mosaics that now cover all the upper areas of the interior took centuries to complete. In the 13th century the external height of the domes was increased by hollow drums raised on a wooden framework and covered with metal.
Without this, they would not now be visible from the piazza. For its opulent design, gold ground mosaics, its status as a symbol of Venetian wealth and power, from the 11th century on the building has been known by the nickname Chiesa d'Oro, it achieves an Oriental feeling of exoticism through blending Byzantine and Islamic elements, but remains unique, a product of Italian workers of all sorts. The first St Mark's was a building next to the Doge's Palace, ordered by the doge in 828, when Venetian merchants stole the supposed relics of Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria, completed by 832; the church was burned in a rebellion in 976, when the populace locked Pietro IV Candiano inside to kill him, restored or rebuilt in 978. Nothing certain is known of the form of these early churches. From 1063 the present basilica was constructed; the consecration is variously recorded as being in 1084–85, 1093, 1102 and 1117 reflecting a series of consecrations of different parts. The size of the church was increased in all directions to the north and south, the wooden domes replaced by brick, which required thickening such walls as were retained.
In 1094 the supposed body of Saint Mark was rediscovered in a pillar by Vitale Faliero, doge at the time. The building incorporates a low tower, believed by some to have been part of the original Doge's Palace; the Pala d'Oro ordered from Constantinople was installed on the high altar in 1105. In 1106 the church, its mosaics, were damaged by a serious fire in that part of the city; the main features of the present structure were all in place by except for the narthex or porch, the facade. The basic shape of the church has a mixture of Italian and Byzantine features, notably "the treatment of the eastern arm as the termination of a basilican building with main apse and two side chapels rather than as an equal arm of a centralized structure". In the first half of the 13th century the narthex and the new facade were constructed, most of the mosaics were completed and the domes were covered with second much higher domes of lead-covered wood in order to blend in with the Gothic architecture of the redesigned Doge's Palace.
As with most Venetian buildings, the main structure is built in brick, with the arches given moulded terracotta or brick decoration, with stone columns, horizontal mouldings, some other details. The brick remains in place, but covered over except in a few places; the basic structure of the building has not been much altered. Its decoration has changed over time, though the overall impression of the interior with a dazzling display of gold ground mosaics on all ceilings and upper walls remains the same; the original unadorned structure would have looked different, but it is that gradual decoration was always intended. The succeeding centuries the period after the Venetian-led conquest of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade of 1204 and the fourteenth century, all contributed to its adornment, with many elements being spolia brought in from ancient or Byzantine buildings, such as mosaics, capitals, or friezes; the Venetian sculptors of other capitals and friezes copied the Byzantine style so that some of their work can only be distinguished with difficulty.
The exterior brickwork became covered with marble cladding and carvings, some much older than the building itself, such as the statue of the Four Tetrarchs. The latest structural additions include the closing-off of the Baptistery and St Isidor's Chapel, the carvings on the upper facade and the Sacristy, the closing-off of the Zen Chapel. During the 13th century the emphasis of the church's function seems to have changed from being the private chapel of the Doge to that of a "state church", with increased power for the procurators, it was the location for the great public ceremonies of the state, such as the installation and burials of Doges, though as space ran out and the demand for grander tombs increased, from the 15th century Santi Giovanni e Paolo became the usual burial place. The function of the basilica remained the same until 1807, after the
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, biofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered a branch of the humanities. In North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology, while in Europe it is viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology is distinct from palaeontology, the study of fossil remains, it is important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world. Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time.
The discipline involves surveying and analysis of data collected to learn more about the past. In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research, it draws upon anthropology, art history, ethnology, geology, literary history, semiology, textual criticism, information sciences, statistics, paleography, paleontology and paleobotany. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Since its early development, various specific sub-disciplines of archaeology have developed, including maritime archaeology, feminist archaeology and archaeoastronomy, numerous different scientific techniques have been developed to aid archaeological investigation. Nonetheless, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, opposition to the excavation of human remains.
The science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare, "We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Flavio Biondo, an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England, he was ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture and shield-shapes. Excavations were carried out by the Spanish military engineer Roque Joaquín de Alcubierre in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum, both of, covered by ash during the Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79; these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescos, had a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington. He undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798.
Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today. One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy; the idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton and Charles Lyell. The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. In the third and fourth decades of the 19th-century, archaeologists like Jacques Boucher de Perthes and Christian Jürgensen Thomsen began to put the artifacts they had found in chronological order. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologist, Augustus Pitt Rivers, who began excavations on his land in England in the 1880s, his approach was methodical by the standards of the time, he is regarded as the first scientific archaeologist.
He arranged his artifacts by type or "typologically, within types by date or "chronologically"
St Mark's Campanile
St Mark's Campanile is the bell tower of St Mark's Basilica in Venice, located in the Piazza San Marco. It is one of the most recognizable symbols of the city; the tower is 98.6 metres tall, stands alone in a corner of St Mark's Square, near the front of the basilica. It has a simple form, the bulk of, a fluted brick square shaft, 12 metres wide on each side and 50 metres tall, above, a loggia surrounding the belfry, housing five bells; the belfry is topped by a cube, alternate faces of which show the Lion of St. Mark and the female representation of Venice; the tower is capped by a pyramidal spire, at the top of which sits a golden weathervane in the form of the archangel Gabriel. The campanile reached its present form in 1514; the current tower was reconstructed in its present form in 1912 after the collapse of 1902. The initial 9th-century construction, initiated during the reign of Pietro Tribuno and built on Roman foundations, was used as a watch tower or lighthouse for the dock, which occupied a substantial part of the area, now the Piazzetta.
Construction was finished during the reign of Domenico Morosini. Adjoining the base of the campanile is the loggetta built by Sansovino, completed in 1549 and rebuilt in 1912 after it had been destroyed by the fall of the campanile. One of the models for the tower was the St. Mercuriale's Campanile, in Forlì; the campanile suffered damage by lightning on many occasions. It was damaged in 1388, set on fire and destroyed in 1417 and damaged by a fire in 1489 that destroyed the wooden spire; the campanile assumed its definitive shape in the sixteenth century thanks to the restorations made to repair further damage caused by the earthquake of March 1511. These works, initiated by the architect Giorgio Spavento executed under the direction of Bartolomeo Bon of Bergamo, added the belfry, realized in marble; the work was completed on 6 July 1513, with the placement of the gilded wooden statue of the Archangel Gabriel in the course of a ceremony recorded by Marin Sanudo. In the following centuries numerous other interventions were made to repair the damage from fires caused by lightning.
It was damaged in 1548 and 1565. In 1653, Baldassarre Longhena took up the restorations; the campanile was damaged by lightning again in 1658. More work was done after a fire caused by a lightning strike on 13 April 1745, which caused some of the masonry to crack, killed several people as a result of falling stonework; the campanile was damaged by lightning again in 1761 and 1762. In 1776 it was equipped with a lightning rod. In 1820, the statue of the angel was replaced with a new one by Luigi Zandomeneghi. In July 1902, the north wall of the tower began to show signs of a dangerous crack that in the following days continued to grow. On Monday, 14 July, around 9:45 am, the campanile collapsed also demolishing the loggetta. Only the caretaker's cat was killed; because of the campanile's position, the resulting damage was limited. Apart from the loggetta, only a corner of the Biblioteca Marciana was destroyed; the pietra del bando, a large porphyry column from which laws used to be read, protected the basilica itself.
The same evening, the communal council approved over 500,000 Lire for the reconstruction of the campanile. It was decided to rebuild the tower as it was, with some internal reinforcement to prevent future collapse, plus installing an elevator. Royal Privy Councillor and scaffolding specialist Georg Leib of Munich was the first to donate his scaffolding to rebuild St. Mark's Campanile, on 22 July 1902. Work lasted until 6 March 1912; the work was carried out by the construction firm of G. A. Porcheddu; the new campanile was inaugurated on 25 April 1912, on the occasion of Saint Mark's feast day 1000 years after the foundations of the original building had been laid. The original Campanile inspired the designs of other towers worldwide in the areas belonging to the former Republic of Venice. Identical, albeit smaller, replicas of the campanile exist in the Slovenian town of Piran and in the Croatian town of Rovinj. Other replicas include the clock tower at King Street Station in Seattle; the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower, a landmark skyscraper located at One Madison Avenue in the borough of Manhattan in New York City, US, was designed by the architectural firm of Napoleon LeBrun & Sons, who based the external form and shape of the skyscraper on this Campanile.
Replicas of the current tower sit on the complex of The Venetian, the Venice-themed resort on the Las Vegas Strip, its sister resort The Venetian Macao, in the Italy Pavilion at Epcot, a theme park at Walt Disney World in Lake Buena Vista, in the nearly empty New South China Mall in Dongguan, China. There is a mill chimney in Darwen, Lancashire, modelled on the Campanile in St. Mark's Square, called India Mill. Another one is in the Venice Grand Canal in Taugig City; the Venetian Towers in Barcelona, are modelled on the Campanile. The Custom House Tower in Boston, MA is modelled on the Campanile; the Italianate-style tower at Jones Beach S
Piazzetta dei Leoncini
Piazzetta dei Leoncini is a city square in Venice, Italy. The square is located on the north side of the St Mark's Basilica, near the Palazzo Patriarcale and San Basso; the square is known for its lion statuary. On the square, in an alcove of the Basilica itself, is the sarcophagus of Daniele Manin, the president of the brief independent Republic of San Marco, established during a rebellion in 1848 against Hapsburg rule