Chopra is community development block that forms an administrative division in Islampur subdivision of Uttar Dinajpur district in the Indian state of West Bengal. The western frontier of ancient Pundravardhana kingdom, bordering Anga of Mahabharat fame, the Dinajpur area remained somewhat obscure in the major empires that held sway over the region and beyond till the rise of the Dinajpur Raj during the Mughal period; some areas forming a part of Uttar Dinajpur were parts of kingdoms in Nepal. Dinajpur district was constituted by the British in 1786, with a portion of the estate of Dinajpur Raj. Subsequent to the Permanent Settlement in 1793, the semi-independent Dinajpur Raj was further broken down and some of its tracts were transferred to the neighbouring British districts of Purnea, Malda and Bogra. In 1947, the Radcliffe Line placed the Sadar and Thakurgaon subdivisions of Dinajpur district in East Pakistan; the Balurghat subdivision of Dinajpur district was reconstituted as West Dinajpur district in West Bengal.
Raiganj subdivision was formed in 1948. In order to restore territorial links between northern and southern parts of West Bengal, snapped during the partition of Bengal, on the recommendations of the States Reorganisation Commission a portion of the erstwhile Kishanganj subdivision comprising Goalpokhar and Chopra thanas and parts of Thakurganj thana, along with the adjacent parts of the erstwhile Gopalpur thana in Katihar subdivision were transferred from Purnea district in Bihar to West Bengal in 1956, were formally incorporated into Raiganj subdivision in West Dinajpur; the township of Kishanganj and its entire municipal boundary remained within Bihar. Islampur subdivision was formed in March 1959. At the same time, the portion of Chopra PS lying to the north of the Mahananda river covering an area that now comprises Bidhannagar-1 gram panchayat, Bidhannagar-2 GP, Chathat-Bansgaon GP and the southern half of Phansidewa-Bansgaon Kismat GP in Darjeeling district, was transferred from West Dinajpur to the jurisdiction of Phansidewa PS in Darjeling district.
With the introduction of the Community Development Programme in 1960-61, community development blocks were set up in West Dinajpur district. In 1992, West Dinajpur district was bifurcated and Uttar Dinajpur district was established. Chopra is located at 26°24′N 88°18′E. Chopra Block established in the year 1964. Uttar Dinajpur district has a flat topography and slopes from north to south. All rivers flow in that direction. Except for the eastern fringes of Chopra CD Block, most of the district is a part of the catchment area of the Mahanada and a part of the larger Barind Tract; the soil is composed of different varieties of alluvium. The main rivers are: Nagar, Kulik, Gamari and Tangon; the rivers have little water in the dry season but with heavy rains, during monsoon, overflow the banks. The Mahananda flows along the north-western edge of Chopra CD Block, forming the boundary with Darjeeling district; the Kurto river flows along a part of the international border with Bangladesh. Chopra CD Block is bounded by Phansidewa CD Block in Darjeeling district and Tetulia Upazila in Panchagarh district of Bangladesh on the north, Panchagarh Sadar and Atwari Upazilas in Panchagarh District of Bangladesh on the east, Islampur CD Block on the south, Pothia and Thakurganj CD Blocks in Kishanganj district of Bihar on the west.
206 km of the India-Bangladesh border is in Uttar Dinajpur district. It covers the eastern boundary of the district. On the western side Uttar Dinajpur district has 227 km boundary with Bihar. Border Stretch of Chopra: Bangladesh-65 km, Bihar-26 km, Darjeeling-14 km. Chopra CD Block has an area of 380.82 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 8 gram panchayats, 156 gram sansads, 119 mouzas and 116 inhabited villages. Chopra police station serves this block. Headquarters of this CD Block is at Chopra. Uttar Dinajpur district is one of the smaller districts in the state and stands 15th in terms of area in the state. Sap nikla forest is under Chopra block; the lake and the forest attract tourists. Eight Gram panchayats of Chopra Block/ Chopra Panchayat samiti are: Chopra, Daspara, Haptiagachh, Lakhipur and Sonarpur; as per the 2011 Census of India, Chopra CD Block had a total population of 284,403, of which 278,826 were rural and 5,777 were urban. There were 137,330 females. Population below 6 years was 49,741.
Scheduled Castes numbered 50,818 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 20,041. As per 2001 census, Chopra block had a total population of 223,046, out of which 115,244 were males and 107,802 were females. Chopra block registered a population growth of 34.59 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the district was 28.72 per cent. The only census town in Chopra CD Block was: Chopra. Large villages in Chopra CD Block were: Dakshin Jibhakata, Ghiringaon Khas, Shitalgaon, Purbba Chutiakhor, Dakshin Kundal Pukhar, Uttar Gorasahid, Paschim Chutiakhor, Bhagabati, Bhagalpur Khas, Borobila and Chitalghata. Other villages in Chopra CD Block included: Majhiali, Ghirnigaon. Decadal Population Growth Rate Note: The CD Block data for 1971-1981, 1981-1991 and 1991-2001 is for Chopra PS covering the block The decadal growth of population in Chopra CD Block in 2001-2011 was 24.93%. The decadal growth of population in Chopra PS in 1991-2001 was 34.58%, in 1981-91 was 28.77% and in 1971-8
Suicide: Alan Vega and Martin Rev is the second studio album by the American band Suicide. The album was produced by Ric Ocasek of The Cars for Ze Records in 1980. Recorded in January 1980, Ocasek gave keyboardist Martin Rev new equipment to perform on while Alan Vega distanced himself from the album musically to concentrate on the vocals. Michael Zilkha of Ze pushed to give the album a more dance music oriented sound, hoping that disco musician Giorgio Moroder would produce the album; the album was listed on the NME's top albums of the year. Alan Vega felt. Both Vega and Rev released solo albums following the album's release. After a tour opening for the group The Cars, Alan Vega received a call from Michael Zilkha of Ze Records asking if he could sign Suicide to his label. Zilkha gave producer Ric Ocasek a copy of Donna Summer's "I Feel Love" single stating that that song is what Suicide should sound like. Suicide: Alan Vega and Martin Rev was produced without pay by Ocasek at the Power Station studios.
Power Station was a expensive studio at that time and was used by acts such as Chic and Bruce Springsteen. The album was recorded in January 1980. Ocasek had provided the group with new equipment when in the studio, many of which keyboardist Martin Rev had not played before production had started. Bruce Springsteen was recording an album next door to Suicide and visited them during the production of the album. Alan Vega was less involved with this album musically in comparison to their previous album stating that the music was more of a collaboration of Ocasek and Rev while Vega "concentrated on the vocals"; the songs "Harlem" and "Touch Me" were written and being performed after the production of the release of the duo's first album. Michael Zilkha of Ze Records hoped to get Giorgio Moroder to produce the album and have it be more dance oriented. Allmusic described the sound of Suicide: Alan Vega and Martin Rev as "less confrontational and more contemporary" than the duo's previous album. Martin Rev stated that the lyrics of "Diamonds, Fur Coat, Champagne" were about the "decadent side of the nightlife scene".
Rev felt that the album did not reflect what the group was about. Rev described the album cover as having a disco music style. Rev felt that Zilkha was moving Ze Records into a dance music style and tried to tone down the amount of blood and gore on the album cover as much as possible. Prior to the album's release, Suicide released a non-album single titled "Dream Baby Dream" in November 1979; the album was released in May 1980 under the title Suicide: Alan Vega and Martin Rev. Alan Vega stated that there were problems with the distribution of the album; the album was re-issued by Mute Records on compact disc on January 18, 2000. The release was titled The Second Album which featured three extra songs: "Super Subway Comedian", "Dream Baby Dream", "Radiation"; the second disc consisted of live material recorded at New York City in the Museum for Living Artists in 1975. In 1980, the album was listed in the NME's best of the year listing. AllMusic gave the album rating of a four and a half stars out of five, stating the album is "Perhaps it's not as renegade as Suicide, but it's an arguably better, more realized work, just as essential".
Select gave the Blast First re-issue titled The Second Album a five out of five rating, stating that Suicide's "unjustly less celebrated second LP is more polished and sound remarkably like contemporary electronica" and referred to the album as "a timeless recording". British music magazine Fact placed it at number 79 on their list of the top 100 albums of the 1980s, referring to it as an "astonishing album, which refuses to age". Alan Vega felt that "nothing big for us happened" after the second album was released in comparison to the first album. Suicide: Alan Vega and Martin Rev was a big influence on electronic music in the United Kingdom. Bobby Gillespie of Primal Scream stated he "loved the album right from the start" feeling that it predated house music. Steven Severin of Siouxsie and the Banshees stated that "everything about is perfect...it would be up there with my top ten favourite albums. It's that good." All songs written by Alan Vega. SuicideAlan Vega – vocals Martin Rev – electronicsTechnicalRic Ocasek – producer Larry Alexander – engineer Tony Wright – cover art 1980 in music Music of New York City Nobahkt, David.
Suicide: No Compromise. SAF Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0946719713. Retrieved June 27, 2013. Suicide: Alan Vega and Martin Rev at Discogs
Gert Kruys is a Dutch football manager and former player Kruys played his entire career for FC Utrecht, except for one short spell at RKC Waalwijk. He retired in 1988, soon afterwards became a coach who worked for AGOVV Apeldoorn, Cambuur Leeuwarden, FC Den Bosch, De Graafschap, FC Dordrecht and FC Volendam. After being coach of Topklasse side IJsselmeervogels, Kruys returned in professional football by becoming coach of Sparta Rotterdam on 1 January 2014. However, he was sacked on 29 November 2014, his son Rick Kruys plays professional football for Dutch Eredivisie side Excelsior.rick now is assistant coach at Utrecht Profile
The S33 is a regional railway line of the S-Bahn Zürich on the Zürcher Verkehrsverbund, Zürich transportation network, is one of the network's lines connecting the cantons of Zürich and Schaffhausen. S33 Winterthur – Andelfingen – SchaffhausenThe line runs from the northwest of the canton of Zürich from Winterthur and heads for Schaffhausen. Winterthur Hauptbahnhof Hettlingen Henggart Andelfingen Marthalen Dachsen Schloss Laufen am Rheinfall Neuhausen Schaffhausen All services are operated by THURBO rolling stock; the train frequency is 30 minutes and the trip takes 33 minutes. Rail transport in Switzerland Trams in Zürich Media related to S-Bahn Zürich at Wikimedia Commons ZVV official website: Routes & zones
The fungal order Agaricales known as gilled mushrooms or euagarics, contains some of the most familiar types of mushrooms. The order has 33 extant families, 413 genera, over 13000 described species, along with six extinct genera known only from the fossil record, they range from the ubiquitous common mushroom to the deadly destroying angel and the hallucinogenic fly agaric to the bioluminescent jack-o-lantern mushroom. In his three volumes of Systema Mycologicum published between 1821 and 1832, Elias Fries put all of the fleshy, gill-forming mushrooms in the genus Agaricus, he organized the large genus into "tribes", the names of many of which still exist as common genera of today. Fries elevated several of these tribes to generic level, but authors—including Gillet, Kummer, Quélet, Staude—made most of the changes. Fries based his classification on macroscopic characters of the fruit bodies and color of the spore print, his system had been used as it had the advantage that many genera could be identified based on characters observable in the field.
Fries's classification was challenged when microscopic studies of basidiocarp structure, initiated by Fayod and Patouillard, demonstrated several of Fries's groupings were unnatural. In more recent history, Rolf Singer's influential work The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy, published in four editions spanning from 1951 to 1986, used both Fries's macroscopic characters and Fayod's microscopic characters to reorganize families and genera. Singer treated three major groups within the Agaricales sensu lato: the Agaricales sensu stricto and Russulales; these groups are still accepted by modern treatments based on DNA analysis, as the euagarics clade, bolete clade, russuloid clade. Molecular phylogenetics research has demonstrated that the euagarics clade is equivalent to Singer's Agaricales sensu stricto. A recent large-scale study by Brandon Matheny and colleagues used nucleic acid sequences representing six gene regions from 238 species in 146 genera to explore the phylogenetic grouping within the Agaricales.
The analysis showed that most of the species tested could be grouped into six clades that were named the Agaricoid, Marasmioid, Pluteoid and Plicaturopsidoid clades. Some notable fungi with gill-like structures, such as chanterelles, have long been recognized as being different from usual Agaricales. Molecular studies are showing more groups of agarics as being more divergent than thought, such as the genera Russula and Lactarius belonging to a separate order Russulales, other gilled fungi, including such species as Paxillus involutus and Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca showing a closer affinity with Boletes in the order Boletales; some other quite distinctive fungi, the puffballs, some clavaroid fungi, e.g. Typhula, the Beefsteak fungus have been been shown to lie within the Agaricales; the term agaric had traditionally referred to Agaricales, which were defined as those fungi with gills. Given the discoveries described above, those two categories are not synonymous. Agarics are ubiquitous. Most are terrestrial, their habitats including all types of woodland and grassland, varying from one genus to another.
Agarics were long thought to be terrestrial, until the 2005 discovery of Psathyrella aquatica, the only gilled mushroom known to fruit underwater. Agaricals are known from six monotypic fossil genera found fossilized in amber; the oldest records are from three Cretaceous age genera. The three other species, Aureofungus yaniguaensis, Coprinites dominicana and Protomycena electra are known from single specimens found in the Dominican amber mines of Hispaniola. Basidiocarps of the agarics are fleshy, with a stipe called a stem or stalk, a pileus and lamellae, where basidiospores are produced; this is the stereotypical structure of a mushroom. Different types of mushrooms include the polypores, they have pores rather than gills, the hydnoid fungi that form tooth-like or spine-like projections; the fungus fruit body is the spore-producing stage of the life cycle. Most fungi reproduce by spores and the fruit bodies are developed for the production and dispersal of spores; the spores produced by fruit bodies are the result of sexual reproduction.
The fruit body is the visible part of the growing fungus. It develops from an extensive network of thread-like filaments called hyphae. Hyphae are collectively termed the mycelium; the individual hyphae that compose the mycelium absorb nutrients and water from the substratum in which they are growing. When the nutrient supply is adequate and environmental conditions are favorable, some fungi may grow in the same location for several years. Fungi can not make their own food, namely carbohydrates; some species are saprobic, obtaining nutrients from dead organic material, whereas others are parasitic on living plants or animals or on other fungi. Many fungi gilled mushroomes and boletes, have an extensive mycelium that lives in association with the roots of woody plants; this association, beneficial t