Quercus agrifolia, the California live oak, or coast live oak, is an evergreen oak, native to the California Floristic Province. It grows west of the Sierra Nevada from Mendocino County, California and it is classified in the red oak section. This species is sympatric with canyon live oak, and the two may be hard to distinguish because their spinose leaves are superficially similar. Coast live oak typically has a trunk and reaches a mature height of 10–25 meters. Some specimens may attain an age exceeding 250 years, with diameters up to three or four meters, such as those on the Filoli estate in San Mateo County. The trunk, particularly for individuals, may be highly contorted, massive. The crown is rounded and dense, especially when aged 20 to 70 years, in life the trunk and branches are more well defined. The leaves are green, often convex in shape, 2–7 cm long and 1–4 cm broad. The outer layers of leaves are designed for maximum solar absorption and these outer leaves are deemed to be small in size to more efficiently re-radiate the heat gained from solar capture.
Shaded leaves are broader and thinner, having only a single layer of photosynthetic cells. The convex leaf shape may be useful for interior leaves which depend on capturing reflected light scattered in random directions from the outer canopy. The flowers are produced in spring, the male flowers are pendulous catkins 5–10 cm long. The fruit is a reddish brown acorn 2–3.5 cm long and 1–1.5 cm broad, with the basal quarter enclosed in a cupule, unusually for a red oak. There are two varieties of Quercus agrifolia, Quercus agrifolia var. agrifolia, throughout the range of the species. Leaves that are glabrous to slightly hairy on the abaxial side, hybrids with Q. kelloggii, Q. parvula var. shevei, and Q. wislizenii are known. Leaves that are tomentose abaxially, with densely interwoven hairs and it prefers granitic soils, hybrids with Q. kelloggii known. Several hybrids between coast live oak and other red oak species have been documented, hybrids with interior live oak are known in many areas in northern California.
Coast live oak hybridizes with Shreve oak, all these oak species show evidence of introgression with one another
Old-growth features include diverse tree-related structures that provide diverse wildlife habitat that increases the biodiversity of the forested ecosystem. The concept of tree structure includes multi-layered canopies and canopy gaps, greatly varying tree heights and diameters. Old-growth forests are valuable, and logging of these forests has been a point of contention between the logging industry and environmentalists. Old-growth forests tend to have trees and standing dead trees, multi-layered canopies with gaps that result from the deaths of individual trees. Depending on the forest, this may take anywhere from a century to several millennia, hardwood forests of the eastern United States can develop old-growth characteristics in one or two generations of trees, or 150–500 years. In British Columbia, old growth is defined as 120 to 140 years of age in the interior of the province where fire is a frequent and natural occurrence. In British Columbia’s coastal rainforests, old growth is defined as more than 250 years.
In Australia, eucalypt trees rarely exceed 350 years of age due to frequent fire disturbance, Forest types have very different development patterns, natural disturbances and appearances. Levels of biodiversity may be higher or lower in old-growth forests compared to that in second-growth forests, depending on circumstances, environmental variables. Logging in old-growth forests is an issue in many parts of the world. Excessive logging reduces biodiversity, affecting not only the old-growth forest itself, a forest in old-growth stage has a mix of tree ages, due to a distinct regeneration pattern for this stage. New trees regenerate at different times from other, because each one of them has different spatial location relative to the main canopy. The mixed age of the forest is an important criterion in ensuring that the forest is a stable ecosystem in the long term. A climax stand that is uniformly aged becomes senescent and degrades within a relatively short time-period to result in a new cycle of forest succession, uniformly aged stands are a less stable ecosystem.
Forest canopy gaps are essential in creating and maintaining mixed-age stands, some herbaceous plants only become established in canopy openings, but persist beneath an understory. Openings are a result of death due to small impact disturbances such as wind, low-intensity fires. Because old-growth forest is structurally diverse it provides higher-diversity habitat than forests in other stages, sometimes higher biological diversity can be sustained in old-growth forest, or at least a biodiversity that is different from other forest stages. The characteristic topography of much old-growth forest consists of pits and mounds, mounds are caused by decaying fallen trees, and pits by the roots pulled out of the ground when trees fall due to natural causes, including being pushed over by animals
It can reach 40 m tall in the California Coast Ranges, and can have a trunk diameter of 60–190 cm. Tanbark-oak was recently moved into a new genus, based on lines of evidence. The Notholithocarpus densiflorus leaves are alternate, 7–15 cm, with toothed margins and a hard, leathery texture, and persist for three to four years. At first they are covered in dense orange-brown scurfy hairs on both sides, but those on the surface soon wear off, those on the under surface persisting longer. The seed is a acorn 2–3 cm long and 2 cm in diameter, very similar to an oak acorn, the nut sits in a cup during its 18-month maturation, the outside surface of the cup is rough with short spines. The nuts are produced in clusters of a few together on a single stem, the nut kernel is very bitter, and is inedible for people without extensive leaching, although squirrels eat them. Tanoak is one of the species most seriously affected by sudden oak death, with high mortality reported over much of the species range, the variety intergrades with the type in northwest California and southwest Oregon.
Tanoak does grow on serpentine soils as a shrub, some California Native Americans prefer this nut to those of many Quercus acorns because it stores well due to the comparatively high tannin content. The Concow tribe call the nut hä’-hä, the Hupa people use the acorns to make meal, from which they would make mush, biscuits and cakes. They roast the acorns and eat them, the seeds can be used as a coffee substitute. The name tanoak refers to its bark, a type of tanbark. By 1907 the use of tanoak for tannin was subsiding due to the scarcity of large tanoak trees, there werent enough trees around for a worthwhile economic return. By the early 1960s there were only a few natural tannin operations left in California, the industry was beginning to switch to a synthetic alternative. A mulch made from the leaves of the plant can repel grubs, tanoak tannin has been used as an astringent. Tanoak is sometimes used as lumber, but isnt currently harvested commercially, currently the largest known tanoak specimen is on private timberland near the town of Ophir, Oregon.
It has a circumference of 26 feet, is about 8.25 feet in diameter at breast height, and is 121 feet tall with an average crown spread of 56 feet
Spanish missions in California
The missions were part of a major effort by the Spanish Empire to extend colonization into the most northern and western parts of Spains North American claims. Following a long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Latin America, Mexico achieved independence in 1821, taking Alta California along with it, but the missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of vast land holdings until the 1830s. At the peak of its development in 1832, the mission system controlled an area equal to approximately one-sixth of Alta California. The Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833 and this divided the mission lands into land grants, which became many of the Ranchos of California. In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives, to convert, today, the surviving mission buildings are the states oldest structures, and its most-visited historic monuments. Prior to 1754, grants of lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown.
The missions were to be interconnected by a route which became known as the Camino Real. The detailed planning and direction of the missions was to be carried out by Friar Junípero Serra, work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serras death in 1784. Plans to build a mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled. The Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a mother mission, in addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish sovereign to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a colony of any size. California was months away from the nearest base in colonized Mexico, to sustain a mission, the padres required converted Native Americans, called neophytes, to cultivate crops and tend livestock in the volume needed to support a fair-sized establishment. The scarcity of imported materials, together with a lack of skilled laborers, compelled the missionaries to employ simple building materials, although the missions were considered temporary ventures by the Spanish hierarchy, the development of an individual settlement was not simply a matter of priestly whim.
The padres blessed the site, and with the aid of their military escort fashioned temporary shelters out of tree limbs or driven stakes and it was these simple huts that ultimately gave way to the stone and adobe buildings that exist to the present. The first priority when beginning a settlement was the location and construction of the church, once the spot for the church had been selected, its position was marked and the remainder of the mission complex was laid out. The cuadrángulo was rarely a perfect square because the missionaries had no surveying instruments at their disposal and it was a doctrine established in 1531, which based the Spanish states right over the land and persons of the Indies on the Papal charge to evangelize them. It was employed wherever the indigenous populations were not already concentrated in native pueblos, the civilized and disciplined culture of the natives, developed over 8,000 year, was not considered. A total of 146 Friars Minor, mostly Spaniards by birth, were ordained as priests, sixty-seven missionaries died at their posts, while the remainder returned to Europe due to illness, or upon completing their ten-year service commitment
Bureau of Land Management
President Harry S. Truman created the BLM in 1946 by combining two existing agencies, the General Land Office and the Grazing Service. Most BLM public lands are located in these 12 western states, Arizona, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Utah and Wyoming. The mission of the BLM is to sustain the health, originally BLM holdings were described as land nobody wanted because homesteaders had passed them by. All the same, ranchers hold nearly 18,000 permits, the agency manages 221 wilderness areas,23 national monuments and some 636 other protected areas as part of the National Landscape Conservation System totaling about 30 million acres. There are more than 63,000 oil and gas wells on BLM public lands, total energy leases generated approximately $5.4 billion in 2013, an amount divided among the Treasury, the states, and Native American groups. The BLMs roots go back to the Land Ordinance of 1785 and these laws provided for the survey and settlement of the lands that the original 13 colonies ceded to the federal government after the American Revolution.
As additional lands were acquired by the United States from Spain and other countries, the United States Congress directed that they be explored, during the Revolutionary War, military bounty land was promised to soldiers who fought for the colonies. After the war, the Treaty of Paris of 1783, signed by the United States, France, in the 1780s, other states relinquished their own claims to land in modern-day Ohio. By this time, the United States needed revenue to function, Land was sold so that the government would have money to survive. In order to sell the land, surveys needed to be conducted, the Land Ordinance of 1785 instructed a geographer to oversee this work as undertaken by a group of surveyors. The first years of surveying were completed by trial and error, once the territory of Ohio had been surveyed, in 1812, Congress established the General Land Office as part of the Department of the Treasury to oversee the disposition of these federal lands. By the early 1800s, promised bounty land claims were finally fulfilled, over the years, other bounty land and homestead laws were enacted to dispose of federal land.
Several different types of patents existed and these include cash entry, homestead, military warrants, mineral certificates, private land claims, state selections, town sites, and town lots. A system of land offices spread throughout the territories, patenting land that was surveyed via the corresponding Office of the Surveyor General of a particular territory. This pattern gradually spread across the entire United States, the laws that spurred this system with the exception of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the Desert Land Act of 1877 have since been repealed or superseded. The Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 allowed leasing and production of selected commodities, such as coal, gas, the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 established the United States Grazing Service to manage the public rangelands by establishment of advisory boards that set grazing fees. The Oregon and California Revested Lands Sustained Yield Management Act of 1937, commonly referred as the O&C Act, in 1946, the Grazing Service was merged with the General Land Office to form the Bureau of Land Management within the Department of the Interior.
It took several years for new agency to integrate and reorganize
The City of Monterey in Monterey County is located on the southern edge of Monterey Bay, in the Northern Portion of Californias Central Coast. It stands at an elevation of 26 feet above sea level, the 2010 census recorded a population of 27,810. Monterey was the capital of Alta California under both Spain and Mexico and it was the only port of entry for taxable goods in California. In 1846 the U. S. flag was raised over the Customs House, the city had Californias first theater, public building, public library, publicly funded school, printing press, and newspaper. The city and surrounding area have attracted artists since the late 19th century, until the 1950s, there was an abundant fishery. Among Montereys notable present-day attractions are the Monterey Bay Aquarium, Cannery Row, Fishermans Wharf, long before the arrival of Spanish explorers, the Rumsen Ohlone tribe, one of seven linguistically distinct Ohlone groups in California, inhabited the area now known as Monterey. They subsisted by hunting and gathering food on and around the biologically rich Monterey Peninsula, researchers have found a number of shell middens in the area and, based on the archaeological evidence, concluded the Ohlones primary marine food consisted at various times of mussels and abalone.
A number of sites have been located along about 12 miles of rocky coast on the Monterey Peninsula from the current site of Fishermans Wharf in Monterey to Carmel. In 1602, Spanish maritime explorer Sebastian Vizcaino recorded the name Bahía de Monterrey, Vizcaino landed at the southern end of the bay and described a great port, suitable for use as an anchorage by southbound Manila galleons. Vizcaino noted and named the Point of Pines, all other uses of the name Monterey derive from Vizcainos name for the bay. Variants of the name are recorded as Monte Rey and Montery. In 1769, the first European land exploration of Alta California, for some reason, the explorers failed to recognize the place when they came to it on October 1,1769. The party continued north as far as San Francisco Bay before turning back, on the return journey, they camped near one of Montereys lagoons on November 27, still not convinced they had found the place Vizcaino had described. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí noted in his diary, We halted in sight of the Point of Pines and camped near a lagoon which has rather muddy water.
Portolá returned by land to Monterey the next year, having concluded that he must have been at Vizcainos Port of Monterey after all, the land party was met at Monterey by Junípero Serra who traveled by sea. Portolá erected the Presidio of Monterey to defend the port and, on June 3,1770, Portolá returned to Mexico, replaced in Monterey by Captain Pedro Fages, who had been third in command on the exploratory expeditions. Fages became the governor of Alta California, serving from 1770 to 1774. Serras missionary aims soon came into conflict with Fages and the soldiers, the existing wood and adobe building became the chapel for the Presidio
This tree is often found near creeks and drainage swales growing in moist cool microhabitats. Its leaves are a dark green on the upper surface with prominent spines. They are often sympatric with Quercus agrifolia and several oak species. Fossil data supports a wider distribution throughout the western United States during the early Holocene period. Native Americans used the acorns of this species as a staple, after leaching of the tannins, moreover. After forest fires, canyon live oak regenerates vigorously by basal sprouting, the trunk diameter can range from 30 to 100 centimeters. The elliptical to oblong leaves are 2.5 to 8.0 centimeters in length with widths of about half that dimension, leaves are short-pointed at the tip, but rounded or blunt at base. Although the leaves appear generally flat, they may have edge margins slightly turned under, typically with spiny teeth and these leathery leaves are a glossy dark green above, with a nether surface a dull golden down, often becoming gray and nearly glabrous the second year.
Bark of the live oak is of a light gray coloration. Quercus chrysolepis is found in a variety of forest communities in the southwestern United States and it is common in the mountainous regions of California with additional populations in southwestern Oregon, western Nevada, northern Baja California, southwestern New Mexico, and Chihuahua. Canyon live oak is tolerant of a variety of soil types and it is hardy to cold temperatures down to -11 °F, and will grow in neutral to moderately acidic soils with pH ranges of 4.5 to 7.5. An example of very rocky and serpentine soil tolerance is the occurrence at the Cedars of Sonoma County. Canyon live oak grows at elevations of about 500 to 1500 meters in southwestern Oregon, in Northern California, from 100 to 1400 meters, Quercus chrysolepis can be the dominant tree on steep canyon walls, especially in locations of shallow rocky soils. In areas of moderate to high rainfall, it occurs on south facing slopes, surprisingly there seems little difference in food preference by wildlife among different oak species.
Extensive hybridization of Quercus chrysolepis has been documented several other sympatric oak species. The ability of Quercus chrysolepis to compete with dominant trees within its range has been analyzed from the standpoint of leaf architecture. Canyon live oak gives functional habitat for many fauna by providing perching, resting, or foraging sites for species of birds. Young Q. chrysolepis readily available browse, canyon live oak woodlands serve as excellent mountain lion habitat because of the large population of deer frequenting these areas
Little Sur River
The Little Sur River and its South Fork tributary comprise a 25.4 miles long river on the Central Coast of California. They drain a watershed of about 40 square miles of the Big Sur area, the South Fork and the North Fork both have their headwaters in the Ventana Wilderness, straddling Mount Pico Blanco. Portions west of the national forest and Old Coast Road lie within the El Sur Ranch, the forks converge about 2 miles before the river empties into the Pacific Ocean. The rivers steep canyons and high chaparral-covered ridges are host to a number of species including the Santa Lucia Fir, Dudleys lousewort. The Little Sur River watershed provides habitat for mountain lion, deer, coyotes, the upstream river canyon is characteristic of the Ventana Wilderness region, steep-sided, sharp-crested ridges separating valleys. Because the upper reaches of the Little Sur River watershed is entirely within the Ventana Wilderness, the California Department of Fish and Game says the river is the most important spawning stream for steelhead on the Central Coast.
And that it “is one of the best steelhead streams in the county. ”The Little Sur River is a key habitat within the Central California Steelhead distinct population segment which is listed as threatened. The total number of steelhead in the Little Sur River was estimated at less than 100 in 1991, the watershed is populated with Coastal Redwood, Douglas Fir, Western Sycamore, Bay Laurel, Bigleaf Maple, and Tanbark Oak. Mixed in with the Redwood and Douglas Fir is a habitat containing Alder, poison oak. The upper slopes are usually a mix of chaparral, covered by coyote bush, chamise, manzanita and bush lupine. On a few upper slopes may be found patches of grassland dotted with Black Oak, Canyon Live Oak. The Little Sur River watershed contains stands of some of the most impressive uncut Coastal Redwood trees in the entire Big Sur area and it contains the largest and tallest stands of Douglas Fir on the Central Coast, up to 150 feet in height. A stand of the rare Santa Lucia fir, described as the rarest and most unusual fir in North America, are found on Skinners Ridge, the river canyon is deep and narrow, and even in the summer sunshine only reaches the canyon bottom for a few hours.
The land is steep, semi-arid except for the narrow canyons. The upstream river canyon is characteristic of the Ventana Wilderness region, upstream from the Boy Scout camp are narrow gorges, and a few large pools. Several northwest-trending faults cut across the Little Sur River drainage, the Sur, the Palo Colorado, the river flows mostly west for much of its length, unlike other rivers in the region which tend to flow to the northwest or southeast. Near Camp Pico Blanco, the river meets the Palo Colorado fault and follows it northwesterly for about 1 mile, the lower length of the South Fork follows the Sur fault zone until it meets the North Fork. West of the Sur fault the earth is composed of Franciscan Assemblage rocks, some exposed serpentine, most of the Little Sur River geology is to the east of the Sur fault
Native Americans in the United States
In the United States, Native Americans are people descended from the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the land within the countrys modern boundaries. These peoples were composed of distinct tribes and ethnic groups. Most Native American groups had historically preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, at the time of first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and mostly Christian immigrants. Some of the Northeastern and Southwestern cultures in particular were matrilineal, the majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of property rights with respect to land that were extremely different. Assimilation became a consistent policy through American administrations, during the 19th century, the ideology of manifest destiny became integral to the American nationalist movement.
Expansion of European-American populations to the west after the American Revolution resulted in increasing pressure on Native American lands and this resulted in the ethnic cleansing of many tribes, with the brutal, forced marches coming to be known as The Trail of Tears. As American expansion reached into the West and miner migrants came into increasing conflict with the Great Basin, Great Plains and these were complex nomadic cultures based on horse culture and seasonal bison hunting. Over time, the United States forced a series of treaties and land cessions by the tribes, in 1924, Native Americans who were not already U. S. citizens were granted citizenship by Congress. Contemporary Native Americans have a relationship with the United States because they may be members of nations, tribes. The terms used to refer to Native Americans have at times been controversial, by comparison, the indigenous peoples of Canada are generally known as First Nations. It is not definitively known how or when the Native Americans first settled the Americas and these early inhabitants, called Paleoamericans, soon diversified into many hundreds of culturally distinct nations and tribes.
The archaeological periods used are the classifications of archaeological periods and cultures established in Gordon Willey and Philip Phillips 1958 book Method and they divided the archaeological record in the Americas into five phases, see Archaeology of the Americas. The Clovis culture, a hunting culture, is primarily identified by use of fluted spear points. Artifacts from this culture were first excavated in 1932 near Clovis, the Clovis culture ranged over much of North America and appeared in South America. The culture is identified by the distinctive Clovis point, a flaked flint spear-point with a notched flute, dating of Clovis materials has been by association with animal bones and by the use of carbon dating methods. Recent reexaminations of Clovis materials using improved carbon-dating methods produced results of 11,050 and 10,800 radiocarbon years B. P, other tribes have stories that recount migrations across long tracts of land and a great river, believed to be the Mississippi River.
Genetic and linguistic data connect the people of this continent with ancient northeast Asians
Ventana Wildlife Society
Ventana Wildlife Society is a 501 non-profit organization founded in 1977 by a group of private citizens to restore endangered species native to central California. VWS has three full-time staff biologists, together with seasonal interns, monitoring and researching endangered species and butterflies. Educational science programs for school children - offered in a variety of Central Coast locations - bring youth in touch with nature in their own neighborhoods, the mission of Ventana Wildlife Society is Conserving Native Wildlife and Their Habitats. There are over 130 endangered species in California and many others that are threatened with extinction,1982, VWS introduced a prairie and peregrine falcon release program. 1986, VWS began a bald eagle restoration project to reintroduce bald eagles after an absence of 60 years from the region, in only 10 years, VWS achieved success. In 2007, the eagle was officially declared recovered and delisted from the Endangered Species Act. 1992, The Ventana Wildlife Society Research and Education Center opened in Andrew Molera State Park, off scenic Highway 1, the primary purpose of this new facility is to increase public outreach efforts and to expand programs to include environmental education and habitat restoration.
1997, VWS joined federal and state efforts to reintroduce the California condor and is the only non-profit releasing condors in California,2009, VWS Discovery Center opened in Big Sur. The center currently features an exhibition, Bringing the Condors Home. In 1987 the last of the wild free-flying condors was taken from the wild to become part of a breeding program. From a population perhaps numbering thousands across the U. S. the last surviving 27 birds were removed to prevent extirpation in California, all of the free-flying birds are tagged and can be tracked via radio transmitter or GPS. In 2007, the first condor chick hatched in the wild in 100 years, in 2009,42 condors were reported free-flying in central California. With five chicks set to fledge, this was one of the best years for the Central Coast population, but California condors continue to be plagued with lead poisoning, micro-trash ingestion, and DDT residues, which all are seriously hampering the long-term recovery of the species.
The Vallejo Times Herald reported that in May 2014, California condor #597 was spotted near Pescadero and this is the first California condor spotted in San Mateo County since 1904. Kelly Sorenson, executive director of the Ventana Wildlife Society, stated and it shows that they really are spreading out in their range. It shows that were on the right track and they are breeding on their own. They are finding food on their own, by July 2014, the condor population, including sites in California, Baja California and Arizona, has grown to 437. There is a population of 232 wild birds and 205 in captivity, Ventana Wildlife Society manages 34 free-flying condors, of which it has fledged 9
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time