Ventura the City of San Buenaventura, is the county seat of Ventura County, United States. The coastal site, set against undeveloped hills and flanked by two free-flowing rivers, has been inhabited for thousands of years. European explorers encountered a Chumash village, referred to as Shisholop, here while traveling along the Pacific coast, they witnessed the ocean navigation skill of the native people and their use of the abundant local resources from sea and land. The eponymous Mission San Buenaventura was founded nearby in 1782 where it benefitted from the water of the Ventura River; the town grew around the mission compound and incorporated in 1866. The development of nearby oil fields in the 1920s and the age of automobile travel created a major real estate boom during which many designated landmark buildings were constructed; the mission and these buildings are at the center of a downtown that has become a cultural and residential district and visitor destination. Ventura lies between Los Angeles and Santa Barbara along U.
S. Route 101, one of the original U. S. Routes; the highway is now known as the Ventura Freeway, but the original route through the town along Main Street has been designated El Camino Real, the historic pathway connecting the California missions. During the post–World War II economic expansion, the community grew easterly, building detached single-family homes over the rich agricultural land created by the Santa Clara River at the edge of the Oxnard Plain; the population was 106,433 at the 2010 census, up from 100,916 at the 2000 census with the median age being 39. Ventura is part of the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Archaeological discoveries in the area suggest that humans have populated the region for at least 10,000-12,000 years. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash people have deep roots in central and southern coastal regions of California, has revealed artifacts from their culture. Shisholop Village, designated Historic Point of Interest #18 by the city at the foot of nearby Figueroa Street, was the site of a Chumash village.
The Ventura band, in residence at the time of the arrival of the Spanish, had contact with the Limu band on Santa Cruz Island, who traveled in seagoing Tomols, plank-built boats, bringing shell bead money and chert in trade. In 1769, the Spanish Portolà expedition, first recorded European visitors to inland areas of California, came down the Santa Clara River Valley from the previous night's encampment near today's Saticoy and camped near the outlet of the Ventura River on August 14. Fray Juan Crespi, a Franciscan missionary traveling with the expedition, noted that "we saw a regular town, the most populous and best laid-out of all that we had seen on the journey up to the present time." Archaeological records found that the Chumash village they encountered was settled sometime around 1000 A. D. Junípero Serra, first leader of the Franciscans in California, founded Mission San Buenaventura in 1782 as his ninth and last mission establish near the Chumash village as part of Spain's colonization of Alta California.
The mission was named for St. Bonaventure, a Thirteenth Century Franciscan saint and a Doctor of the Church. San Miguel Chapel was the first outpost and center of operations while the first Mission San Buenaventura was being constructed; the first mission burned in 1801 and a replacement building of brick and stone was completed in 1809. The bell tower and facade of the new mission was destroyed by an 1812 earthquake; the Mission was functions as a parish church. Historic tours of downtown include the mission compound; the Mexican secularization act of 1833 was passed twelve years after Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821. Mission land was given away in large grants called ranchos. Rancho Ex-Mission San Buenaventura was a 48,823-acre grant. Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado granted Rancho San Miguel to Felipe Lorenzana and Raymundo Olivas whose Olivas Adobe on the banks of the Santa Clara River was the most magnificent hacienda south of Monterey. Fernando Tico received a Mexican land grant for Ojai and a lot near the river in downtown Ventura.
California became a territory of the United States in 1848 and the 31st state in the Union in 1850. After the American Civil War, settlers came to the area, buying land from the Mexicans, or as squatters. Vast holdings were acquired by Easterners, including railroad magnate Thomas A. Scott, he was impressed by one of the young employees, Thomas R. Bard, in charge of train supplies to Union troops, Bard was sent west to handle Scott's property. Not accessible, Ventura was not a target of immigrants, remained quiet and rural. For most of the century following the incorporation of Ventura in 1866, it remained isolated from the rest of the state. Ventura had a flourishing Chinese settlement in the early 1880s; the largest concentration of activity, known as China Alley, was just across Main Street from the Mission San Buenaventura. China Alley was parallel with Main Street and extended easterly off Figueroa Street between Main and Santa Clara streets; the city council has designated the China Alley Historic Area a Point of Interest in the downtown business district.
Ventura Pier was the longest wooden Pier in California. In 1914 a ship severed the pier, it was rebuilt to a length of 1,700 feet by 1917. An active wharf for 64 years, it was reinforced with steel pilings after 420 feet of the pier was destroyed by a storm in 1995; the Union Oil Company was organized with Bard as president in 1890, had offices in Santa Paula. The large Ventura Oil Field was first drilled in 1919 and at its peak produced 90,000 barrels per day (14,000
Ventura High School
Ventura High School is a secondary school located in Ventura, California. The school is a California Distinguished School, it is part of the Ventura Unified School District. In 2012, French and Italian language teacher at VHS, Sebastien De Clerck was honored as a California Teacher of Year for 2013. Chris Beal, CIF Champion wrestler. "Chuck" Imbrecht, member of California State Assembly, 36th district Ventura High's music department has an Instrumental Jazz Ensemble, a Vocal Jazz Ensemble, a Wind Ensemble, a Symphonic Band, a String Orchestra, a Global String Ensemble and a pep-band, open to all music students and plays at sporting events. The Vocal Jazz Ensemble was added in the 2018-2019 year, consists of members of the Instrumental Jazz Ensemble and vocalists from all around the school. Both the Wind Ensemble and String Orchestra have earned distinction nationwide at invitational music festivals Boston, New York and most in 2015 at the NAI Invitational Festival in Chicago, Illinois in which both groups won first place gold superior in their divisions and String Orchestra won the entire competition.
The Global String Ensemble is both the intermediate level orchestra which performs basic high school string ensemble repertoire as well as traditional Mariachi ensemble repertoire. The department has an Honors String Quartet chosen every year that has earned distinction nationwide at District and State Festivals. Most in the 2014-2015 school year, the school reestablished a Ventura Unified School District Youth Symphony. David Hess is the athletic director; the school has 21 varsity teams. Its primary rival is Buena High School in eastern Ventura; the stadium above the campus is named for alum Mike Larrabee. The football field is named for alum Eric "E-Rock" Turner; the gymnasium is named for former coach Bob Tuttle. School Website Journalism and Yearbook Information Cougars' Home Field
Elizabeth Bard Memorial Hospital
Elizabeth Bard Memorial Hospital, now known as The Elizabeth Bard Memorial Building, is a historic building in downtown Ventura, California. Built in 1901, it is a Mission Revival structure featuring covered terraces and a covered porch with a three-story bell tower at the southeast corner; the building was listed as Ventura Historic Landmark No. 19 in 1976 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1977. After being operated as a hospital for nearly 30 years, the building was sold to the County of Ventura in 1932, it was used by the County as a detention facility. In 1982, after being sold to a private investment group, the building was extensively renovated; the building was expanded at the rear of the property, but the historic front and side facades were preserved. In 1900, Dr. Cephas L. Bard, with backing from his brother Thomas R. Bard, purchased for $3,000 a quarter of a block at the corner of Fir and Poli streets in Ventura; the land was acquired for the purpose of building a large hospital in memory of their mother, Elizabeth Bard.
Cephas Bard had been practicing medicine in Ventura since 1868 and was the first president of the Ventura County Medical Association and a past president of the California State Medical Society. Thomas Bard was one of the founders of Unocal Corporation who served as a U. S. Senator from 1900 to 1905. Construction of the hospital continued throughout 1901. Dr. Bard traveled to the east in June 1901 to acquire equipment for the hospital; the hospital opened in January 1902. Dr. Bard became ill in February 1902 and died at the new hospital in April 1902 at age 56. Following the death of Cephas Bard, members of the Bard family continued to operate the hospital for more than 20 years. In 1923, the building was donated to the Big Sisters League. For eight years, the League continued to operate the hospital. During the latter years, the hospital was known as the Big Sisters Hospital; when the new Hospital de Buenaventura was under construction, the Big Sisters League agreed to sell the building to the City of Ventura for $60,000.
However, a city bond measure to pay for the purchase was defeated by voters. In August 1931, the County of Ventura stepped in and agreed to purchase the building for $25,000; the sale closed in March 1932. The County owned and used the building for 44 years from 1932 to 1976. In the early years after the purchase by the County, the western portion of the building became a detention facility, other parts of the building were used as office space for the county welfare department and county statistician. In years, it provided offices for the County's human relations commission, farm advisor, agricultural bureau. By 1975, the building had fallen into disrepair with peeling paint, broken windows, holes in the ceiling, some parts deemed unsafe and used only for storage. An analyst for the County of Ventura at that time stated that the building was beyond rehabilitation, too expensive to bring up to code, would be demolished, "would make a good place for some apartment." The City of Ventura designated the building as Ventura Historic Landmark No. 19 on March 8, 1976.
In September 1976, the County sold the building to Inventors Workshop International for $91,500. IWI stated that it intended to renovate the building and to use a portion of the building as an exhibit center for inventions and the remainder of the building as the company's headquarters. IWI undertook only limited renovation work; the main portion of the building was declared unsafe, IWI used only a rear annex of the building to conduct its operations. At IWI's request, the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in November 1977. In late 1981, IWI sold the building for $500,000 to an investment group in Woodland Hills. In 1982, the new ownership group extensively renovated the building at a cost of $1.3 million. Architect David Osborne finalized the plans for the work; the renovation included the following elements: An addition variously stated to be 2,800, 5,000, or 7,000 square feet, extending the second floor north to Buena Vista Street. Enclosure of the bell tower at the building's southeast corner.
The renovated building was opened for leasing in February 1983. City of Ventura Historic Landmarks and Districts National Register of Historic Places listings in Ventura County, California Reportedly haunted locations in California
Feraud General Merchandise Store
Feraud General Merchandise Store known as 1903 Building, was built in 1903 in Ventura, California. Jules Feraud opened the Feraud Bakery and Grocery Store and the bakery stayed in the family until 1944; the brick building is a rare intact example of turn-of-the-century commercial architecture during Second Land Boom after the tracks of the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in Ventura. The City Council of Ventura designated the building Historic Landmark Number 35 by resolution on July 17, 1978; the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The building was occupied by a general merchandise store and bakery operated by Jules Feraud, an immigrant from France. Feraud moved to Ventura in 1875, became a partner in the Ventura Bakery on Main Street, bought out his partner. By 1890, Feraud had moved his bakery, which by also included a grocery store and saloon, to a wood-frame structure on the southwest corner of Main Street and Ventura Avenue. In 1903, Feraud built a new and larger brick structure on the site.
In the new building, Feraud operated a grocery, bakery and hay warehouse. In years, Feraud was assisted in operating the business by his sons, Frank, Charles and Anthony. Jules retired in 1927 and died in 1929 at age 78. Frank Feraud continued operating the store until at least 1941. From the mid-1940s until 1970, the building was operated as an automotive center; the primary address is 2 W. Main Street where a bar operates. 12 W. Main Street became a barbershop in the mid 1940s where Phillip E. Marquez "Phil the Barber" operated for 63 years. Phil the Barber retired in 2010 at the age of 96 and died on February 15, 2011, his family was among the original settlers of what was known as "Tortilla Flats" and he was considered a local icon cutting hair for generations of Venturans on the West Side. The Mayor Of Ventura declared June 5, 2011 "Phil Marquez Day" The Store operates as Artisan Soap and Bath store, but has photos of Phil donated by the Marquez Family on Display. There are two addresses, 25 and 35 south Ventura Avenue, along the side of the building.
The building now houses Lounge. The Mission San Buenaventura is about two blocks east of the building as the early commercial district was centered around the mission including the extant Arcade Building, 38-50 west Main Street, just west of the Feraud building; these buildings are just outside the Mission Historic District that lies on the other side of Ventura Avenue to the east. City of Ventura Historic Landmarks and Districts National Register of Historic Places listings in Ventura County, California City of Ventura. "City Landmarks, Points of Interest, Historic Districts". Historic Preservation in Ventura webpage
Emmanuel Franz House
The Emmanuel Franz House is an Italianate style Victorian historical residence located within downtown Ventura, in coastal Ventura County, California. The wood and brick Franz House was built from 1879 to 1891; the house has widow's watch. The City Council of Ventura designated this building Historic Landmark Number 21 by resolution on March 29, 1976; the house was listed in 1982 on the National Register of Historic Places. City of Ventura Historic Landmarks and Districts National Register of Historic Places listings in Ventura County, California City of Ventura. "City Landmarks, Points of Interest, Historic Districts". Historic Preservation in Ventura webpage. City of Ventura. "City Map". National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary: "Early History of the California Coast"
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center is a non-profit, tertiary 958-bed hospital and multi-specialty academic health science center located in the Beverly Grove neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. Part of the Cedars-Sinai Health System, the hospital employs a staff of over 2,000 physicians and 10,000 employees. A team of 2,000 volunteers and more than 40 community groups support. Cedars-Sinai focuses on biomedical research and technologically advanced medical education—based on an interdisciplinary collaboration between physicians and clinical researchers; the facility has research centers covering cardiovascular, gene therapy, neuroscience, surgery, organ transplantation, stem cells, biomedical imaging and cancer—with more than 800 research projects underway. Certified as a level I trauma center for adults and pediatrics, Cedars-Sinai trauma-related services range from prevention to rehabilitation and are provided in concert with the hospital's Department of Surgery. Cedars-Sinai is affiliated with the California Heart Center, University of Southern California and David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles.
As of 2017, U. S. News & World Report ranked Cedars-Sinai #4 in the western United States, with number one being the UCSF Medical Center. Cedars-Sinai earned national rankings in 12 adult specialties including #5 for gastroenterology, #9 in cardiology and heart surgery, #9 in orthopedics, #10 in urology, #12 in gynecology, #14 in diabetes and endocrinology, #14 in neurology and neurosurgery. Located in the Harvey Morse Auditorium, Cedars-Sinai's patient care is depicted in the Jewish Contributions to Medicine mural; the heart transplantation program at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center has experienced unprecedented growth since 2010. Statistically, Cedars-Sinai performs more annual heart transplants than any other medical center in the world, having performed 95 heart transplants in 2012 and 87 in 2011. Founded and financed by businessman Kaspare Cohn, Cedars-Sinai was established as the Kaspare Cohn Hospital in 1902. At the time, Cohn donated a two-story Victorian home at 1441 Carroll Avenue in the Angeleno Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles to the Hebrew Benevolent Society to create the hospital as a memorial to his brother Samuel.
The hospital had just 12 beds when it opened on September 21, 1902, its services were free. From 1906 to 1910, Dr. Sarah Vasen, the first female doctor in Los Angeles, acted as superintendent. In 1910, the hospital relocated and expanded to Stephenson Avenue, where it had 50 beds and a backhouse containing a 10-cot tubercular ward, it transformed from a charity-based hospital to a general hospital and began to charge patients. The hospital relocated again in 1930 to 4833 Fountain Avenue, where it was renamed Cedars of Lebanon after the religiously significant Lebanon Cedars, which were used to build King Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem in the Bible. Cedars of Lebanon could accommodate 279 patients. In 1918, the Bikur Cholim Society opened a second Jewish hospital, the Bikur Cholim Hospice, when the Great Influenza Pandemic hit America. In 1921, the hospice relocated to an eight-bed facility in Boyle Heights and was renamed Bikur Cholim Hospital. In 1923 the Bikur Cholim Hospital became Mount Sinai Home for the Incurables.
On November 7, 1926, a newly named Mount Sinai Hospital moved to a 50-bed facility on Bonnie Beach Place. In 1950, Emma and Hyman Levine donated their property adjacent to Beverly Hills, by 1955 the construction completed and Mount Sinai Hospital opened at 8700 Beverly Boulevard. Cedars of Lebanon and Mount Sinai Hospitals merged in 1961 to form Cedars-Sinai Medical Center. Donations from the Max Factor Family Foundation allowed the construction of the current main hospital building, which broke ground on November 5, 1972, opened on April 3, 1976. In 1994, the Cedars-Sinai Health System was established, comprising the Cedars-Sinai Medical Care Foundation, the Burns and Allen Research Institute and Cedars-Sinai Medical Center; the Burns and Allen Research Institute, named for George Burns and his wife, Gracie Allen, is located inside the Barbara and Marvin Davis Research Building. Opened in 1996, it houses biomedical research aimed at discovering genetic and immunological factors that trigger disease.
In 1994, the original building was demolished. In 2006, Cedars-Sinai added the Saperstein Critical Care Tower with 150 ICU beds. In 2008, Cedars-Sinai served 54,947 inpatients and 350,405 outpatients, there were 77,964 visits to the emergency room. Cedars-Sinai received high rankings in 11 of the 16 specialties, ranking in the top 10 for digestive disorders and in the top 25 for five other specialties as listed below. In 2013, Cedars-Sinai opened its 800,000-square-foot Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion, which consists of eight stories of program space located over a six-story parking structure, on the eastern edge of its campus at the corner of San Vicente Boulevard and Gracie Allen Drive. Designed by architectural firm HOK, the Pavilion brings patient care and translational research together in one site; the Advanced Health Sciences Pavilion houses the Cedars-Sinai's neurosciences programs, the Cedars-Sinai Heart Institute and Regenerative Medicine Institute laboratories, as well as outpatient surgery suites, an imaging area and an education center.
In 2018, famous Marvel-creator Stan Lee dies at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the nationwide U. S. News Best Hospitals 2013–14 report: Cedars-Sinai ranked as follows in the 2009 Los Angeles area residents' "Most Preferred Hospital for All Health Needs" ranking: In 2013, Cedars-Sinai Hospital was ranked