Fuller Theological Seminary
Fuller Theological Seminary is a multidenominational Christian evangelical seminary in Pasadena, with regional campuses in the western United States. The seminary has 2,897 students from 110 denominations. Fuller Theological Seminary was founded in 1947 by Charles E. Fuller, a radio evangelist known for his Old Fashioned Revival Hour show, Harold Ockenga, the pastor of Park Street Church in Boston; the seminary's founders sought to reform fundamentalism's separatist and sometimes anti-intellectual stance during the 1920s-1940s. Fuller envisaged that the seminary would become "a Caltech of the evangelical world."The earliest faculty held theologically and conservative views, though professors with differing perspectives arrived in the 1960s and 1970s. There were tensions in the late 1950s and early 1960s as some faculty members became uncomfortable with staff and students who did not agree with Biblical inerrancy; this led to the people associated with the seminary playing a role in the rise of neo-evangelicalism.
Richard Mouw served as president of Fuller from 1993 to 2013. In 2006, a Los Angeles Times article labeled him as "one of the nation's leading evangelicals". In July 2013, Mark Labberton took over as the new president of Fuller. Labberton had served Fuller as Director of the Lloyd John Ogilvie Institute of Preaching since 2009, retains his position as Lloyd John Ogilvie Associate Professor of Preaching alongside the presidency. Mouw remains at Fuller as Professor of Public Life. Fuller is accredited by the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada and the Western Association of Schools and Colleges. Fuller's student body of 2,897 includes students from 90 countries and 110 denominational backgrounds; the seminary is at the center of debate among religious and secular intellectuals on issues ranging from politics and culture. Fuller instructors have proposed an alternative perspective on the conservative/liberal debate: "We need to be the voice of a third way that flows out of biblical values, instead of buying into the political ideology of either the right or the left."
Fuller Theological Seminary is organized into schools of theology and intercultural studies. The seminary emphasizes integration of the three schools and many students take courses in more than one school; the seminary offers 18 degree programs, including 11 advanced degrees. The School of Theology is the oldest school at Fuller and blends academic theology and practical ministry training. Many graduates from the School of Theology serve in roles as pastors, teachers, or lay ministers at churches of every denomination—throughout the U. S. and the world. The School of Theology offers the following degrees: Master of Divinity, Master of Arts in Theology, MA in Theology and Ministry, Doctor of Ministry, Doctor of Philosophy in Theology, Master of Theology; the MA, ThM, DMin degrees are offered in the Korean language, the MDiv and MA in Theology and Ministry can be earned in Spanish. Fuller's School of Psychology opened in 1965 and is the first seminary-based psychology program to receive accreditation from the American Psychological Association.
The School of Psychology consists of two different departments: Clinical Psychology and Marriage and Family. Research in the School of Psychology takes place within the context of Travis Research Institute, named after the school's founding Dean, Lee Edward Travis. Distinctive centers have been established for biopsychosocial research; the School of Psychology offers the following degrees: MA in Family Studies, MS in Marital and Family Therapy, Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology, Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology, Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology. The School of Intercultural Studies was founded as the School of World Mission in 1965; the school equips students to serve in organizations with a cross-cultural focus. More than 3,500 alumni/ae are now serving in over 150 countries in a wide range of cross-cultural contexts and areas of work including missions and nonprofit organizations, church planting and pastoral ministry and international development; the School of Intercultural Studies offers the following degrees: MA in Intercultural Studies, MA in Global Leadership, ThM in Missiology, Doctor of Ministry in Global Ministries, Doctor of Missiology, PhD in Intercultural Studies.
In addition to its main campus in Pasadena, Fuller Theological Seminary offers classes at eight regional campuses located in the western United States: Fuller Northwest, Fuller Bay Area, Fuller Sacramento, Fuller Orange County, Fuller Arizona, Fuller Colorado, Fuller Texas. The seminary offers a number of distance learning courses, either online or in hybrid formats. Five of the master's degrees can be earned in flexible programs without relocating to one of the campuses: the Master of Divinity, MA in Intercultural Studies, MA in Theology and Ministry, MA in Global Leadership. Fuller is closing Fuller Bay Area, Fuller Orange County, it is reducing degree programs offered in Fuller Colorado and Fuller Arizona. These closures and reductions will take place before the 2019-20 academic year. In May 2009, Fuller opened its 47,000-square-foot David Allan Hubbard Library that incor
Guatemala the Republic of Guatemala, is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west and the Caribbean to the northeast, Honduras to the east, El Salvador to the southeast and the Pacific Ocean to the south. With an estimated population of around 16.6 million, it is the most populated country in Central America. Guatemala is a representative democracy; the territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Maya civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved by 1841. From the mid to late 19th century, Guatemala experienced civil strife. Beginning in the early 20th century, it was ruled by a series of dictators backed by the United Fruit Company and the United States government. In 1944, authoritarian leader Jorge Ubico was overthrown by a pro-democratic military coup, initiating a decade-long revolution that led to sweeping social and economic reforms.
A U. S.-backed military coup in 1954 installed a dictatorship. From 1960 to 1996, Guatemala endured a bloody civil war fought between the US-backed government and leftist rebels, including genocidal massacres of the Maya population perpetrated by the military. Since a United Nations-negotiated peace accord, Guatemala has witnessed both economic growth and successful democratic elections, though it continues to struggle with high rates of poverty, drug trade, instability; as of 2014, Guatemala ranks 31st of 33 Latin American and Caribbean countries in terms of the Human Development Index. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems includes a large number of endemic species and contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot; the name "Guatemala" comes from the Nahuatl word Cuauhtēmallān, or "place of many trees", a derivative of the K'iche' Mayan word for "many trees" or more for the Cuate/Cuatli tree Eysenhardtia. This was the name the Tlaxcaltecan soldiers who accompanied Pedro de Alvarado during the Spanish Conquest gave to this territory.
The first evidence of human habitation in Guatemala dates back to 12,000 BC. Evidence, such as obsidian arrowheads found in various parts of the country, suggests a human presence as early as 18,000 BC. There is archaeological proof. Pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate that maize cultivation had developed by 3500 BC. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in the Quiché region in the Highlands, Sipacate and Escuintla on the central Pacific coast. Archaeologists divide the pre-Columbian history of Mesoamerica into the Preclassic period, the Classic period, the Postclassic period; until the Preclassic was regarded as a formative period, with small villages of farmers who lived in huts, few permanent buildings. However, this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC; the Classic period of Mesoamerican civilization corresponds to the height of the Maya civilization, is represented by countless sites throughout Guatemala, although the largest concentration is in Petén.
This period is characterized by urbanisation, the emergence of independent city-states, contact with other Mesoamerican cultures. This lasted until 900 AD, when the Classic Maya civilization collapsed; the Maya abandoned many of the cities of the central lowlands or were killed off by a drought-induced famine. The cause of the collapse is debated, but the drought theory is gaining currency, supported by evidence such as lakebeds, ancient pollen, others. A series of prolonged droughts, among other reasons such as overpopulation, in what is otherwise a seasonal desert is thought to have decimated the Maya, who relied on regular rainfall; the Post-Classic period is represented by regional kingdoms, such as the Itza, Kowoj and Kejache in Petén, the Mam, Ki'che', Chajoma, Tz'utujil, Poqomchi', Q'eqchi' and Ch'orti' in the highlands. Their cities preserved many aspects of Maya culture; the Maya civilization shares many features with other Mesoamerican civilizations due to the high degree of interaction and cultural diffusion that characterized the region.
Advances such as writing and the calendar did not originate with the Maya. Maya influence can be detected from Honduras, Northern El Salvador to as far north as central Mexico, more than 1,000 km from the Maya area. Many outside influences are found in Maya art and architecture, which are thought to be the result of trade and cultural exchange rather than direct external conquest. After they arrived in the New World, the Spanish started several expeditions to Guatemala, beginning in 1519. Before long, Spanish contact resulted in an epidemic. Hernán Cortés, who had led the Spanish conquest of Mexico, granted a permit to Captains Gonzalo de Alvarado and his brother, Pedro de Alvarado, to conquer this land. Alvarado at first allied himself with the Kaqchikel nation to fight against their traditional rivals the K'iche' nation
Gospel meant the Christian message itself, but in the 2nd century it came to be used for the books in which the message was set out. The four canonical gospels — Matthew, Mark and John — were written between AD 66 and 110, building on older sources and traditions, each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of Jesus and his divine role. All four are anonymous, it is certain that none were written by an eyewitness, they are the main source of information on the life of Jesus as searched for in the quest for the historical Jesus. Modern scholars are cautious of relying on them unquestioningly, but critical study attempts to distinguish the original ideas of Jesus from those of the authors. Many non-canonical gospels were written, all than the four, all, like them, advocating the particular theological views of their authors; the Gospel of Mark dates from c. AD 66–70, Matthew and Luke around AD 85–90, John AD 90–110. Despite the traditional ascriptions all four are anonymous, none were written by eyewitnesses.
Like the rest of the New Testament, they were written in Greek. In the immediate aftermath of Jesus' death his followers expected him to return at any moment within their own lifetimes, in consequence there was little motivation to write anything down for future generations, but as eyewitnesses began to die, as the missionary needs of the church grew, there was an increasing demand and need for written versions of the founder's life and teachings; the stages of this process can be summarised as follows: Oral traditions — stories and sayings passed on as separate self-contained units, not in any order. Gospels formed by combining written collections and still-current oral tradition. Mark, the first gospel to be written, uses a variety of sources, including conflict stories, apocalyptic discourse, collections of sayings, although not the sayings gospel known as the Gospel of Thomas and not the Q source used by Matthew and Luke; the authors of Matthew and Luke, acting independently, used Mark for their narrative of Jesus's career, supplementing it with the collection of sayings called the Q document and additional material unique to each called the M source and the L source.
Mark and Luke are called the synoptic gospels because of the close similarities between them in terms of content and language. The authors and editors of John may have known the synoptics, but did not use them in the way that Matthew and Luke used Mark. There is a near-consensus that this gospel had its origins as a "signs" source that circulated within the Johannine community expanded with a Passion narrative and a series of discourses. All four use the Jewish scriptures, by quoting or referencing passages, or by interpreting texts, or by alluding to or echoing biblical themes; such use can be extensive: Mark's description of the Parousia is made up entirely of quotations from scripture. Matthew is full of quotations and allusions, although John uses scripture in a far less explicit manner, its influence is still pervasive, their source was the Greek version of the scriptures, called the Septuagint – they do not seem familiar with the original Hebrew. The four gospels share a story in which the earthly career of Jesus culminates in his death and resurrection, an event of crucial redemptive significance, but are inconsistent in detail.
John and the three synoptics in particular present different pictures of Jesus' career. John has no baptism, no temptation, no transfiguration, lacks the Lord's Supper and stories of Jesus' ancestry and childhood. Jesus's career in the synoptics takes up a single year while in John it takes three, with the cleansing of the Temple at the beginning of his ministry while in the synoptics it happens at the end, in the synoptics the Last Supper takes place as a Passover meal, while in John it happens on the day before Passover; each gospel has its own distinctive understanding of his divine role. Mark never calls Jesus "God" or claims that Jesus existed prior to his earthly life, never mentions a virgin birth, makes no attempt to trace Jesus' ancestry back to King David or Adam. Crucially, Mark had no post-resurrection appearances of Jesus, although Mark 16:7, in which the young man discovered in the tomb instructs the women to tell "the disciples and Peter" that Jesus will see them again in Galilee, hints that the author may have known of the tradition.
Matthew reinterprets Mark, stressing Jesus' teachings as much as his acts and making subtle changes to the narrative in order to stress his divine nature – Mark's "young man" who appears at Jesus' tomb, for example, becomes a radiant angel in Matthew. The miracle stories in Mark confirm Jesus' status as an emissary of God, but in Matthew they demonstrate his divinity. Luke, while following Mark's plot more faithfully than does Matthew, has expanded on the source, corrected Mark's grammar and syntax, eliminated some passages notably most of chapters 6 and 7, which he felt reflected poorly on the disciples and painted Jesus too much like a magician. John, t
Point Loma Nazarene University
Point Loma Nazarene University is a Christian liberal arts college. Its main campus is located on the Point Loma oceanfront in San Diego, United States, it was founded in 1902 as a Bible college by the Church of the Nazarene. The college was founded by several female laypersons in the Church of the Nazarene with the assistance of Phineas F. Bresee, co-founder of the Nazarene Church in Los Angeles; the "initiators," in the words of historian Timothy L. Smith, convinced "a reluctant Bresee to support the venture."The institution envisioned was "a simple Bible college" to train ministerial and lay leadership for the newly established Nazarene denomination. The women went ahead with their plan, with money raised from their husbands, Pacific Bible College opened in 1902 under Principal Mary Hill. In 1906, Bresee's interest in the college was piqued with a large donation from Jackson Deets. Bresee now saw the possibility for a real liberal arts college in the newly renamed Deets Pacific Bible College.
Bresee and Deets were soon planning Nazarene University together: academy, liberal arts college, bible school. It became one of the first three "official" educational institutions affiliated with the Church of the Nazarene in 1908, was named Deets Pacific Bible College in 1909. In 1910, it was renamed Nazarene University and, against the wishes of Jackson Deets and the advice of Nazarene General Superintendent John W. Goodwin, the college moved to the Hugus Ranch property in Pasadena, California, it was renamed again to Pasadena University following a theological dispute and near bankruptcy in 1917. In 1924, the name was changed again, this time to Pasadena College; the school received accreditation from the Western Association of Schools and Colleges in 1949. The college preparatory program was ended in the 1950s. In 1973, the college was relocated to the former California Western University campus on Point Loma in San Diego, after a rejected plan to move the school to Santa Ana; the Pasadena campus was purchased by the U.
S. Center for World Mission. After the move to San Diego, the college existed for ten years as "Point Loma College: An Institution of the Church of the Nazarene" until the name was changed to Point Loma Nazarene College in 1983. In 1998, the name was changed again. PLNU has different locations besides the main campus in Point Loma, with graduate programs at regional centers in Bakersfield, Mission Valley San Diego. Once owned by the Theosophical Society, the Point Loma site has a lengthy pre-PLNU history. Before it served as the Point Loma Nazarene University campus, the area was the location of a Theosophical commune run by Katherine Tingley, it became known as "Lomaland". By 1900, the campus was dominated by the imposing Academy Building and the adjoining Temple of Peace of the Theosophical Society. Both buildings were constructed in the Theosophical vernacular that included the flattened arch motif and whimsical references to antiquity; the buildings were topped by amethyst domes, which could be seen offshore.
The entrance to the Academy Building was dominated by two massive carved doors that symbolized the Theosophical Principles of "spiritual enlightenment" and "human potential." The sculptor, Reginald Machell, was educated in England, but moved to Lomaland in 1896. The interior furnishings he carved for the Academy Building were influenced by the Symbolist style popular in Europe at that time. Machell supervised the woodworking school at Point Loma. Lomaland had public buildings for several private homes; the home of Albert Spalding, the sporting goods tycoon, was built in 1901. The building combines late-Victorian wooden architecture with historical motifs such as the modified Corinthian column and flattened arches; the amethyst dome was restored by a team of scholars led by Dr. Dwayne Little of the PLNC department of History and Political Science in 1983; the first Greek theater in North America was built on this site in 1901. It was used for sporting theatrical performances; the tessellated pavement and stoa were added in 1909.
The theatre was the site of a number of productions of Shakespearean dramas. Cabrillo Hall, which served as the International Center Headquarters, the Brotherhood Headquarters, "Wachere Crest" building, was completed in 1909, it served as office space for the Theosophical Society and as a residence for Katherine Tingley after 1909. It was located on the west side of Pepper Tree lane; the hall is the location for the Communication Studies Department. Lomaland dissolved in the aftermath of World War I and was used for bootlegging during the Prohibition period; the tunnel systems and site were taken over by Fort Rosecrans before World War II. It served as an observation point and several barracks were installed on the site, which constitute some of the campus dormitories for PLNU. In 1952, California Western University relocated to Point Loma. In 1968, California Western changed its name to United States International University and moved to Scripps Ranch, while the California Western School of Law retained its old name and relocated from its Point Loma location to downtown in 1973.
Pasadena College moved from Pasadena to Point Loma to replace it. PLNU is one of the eight U. S. liberal arts colleges and universities affiliated with the Church of the Nazarene. Although its name might suggest that it is the college for the "Point Loma" region, no such region exists.
Televangelism is the use of media radio and television, to communicate Christianity. Televangelists are Christian ministers, whether official or self-proclaimed, who devote a large portion of their ministry to television broadcasting; some televangelists are regular pastors or ministers in their own places of worship, but the majority of their followers come from their TV and radio audiences. Others do not have a conventional congregation as such and work through television; the term is used derisively by critics as an insinuation of aggrandizement by such ministers. Televangelism began as a uniquely American phenomenon, resulting from a deregulated media where access to television networks and cable TV is open to anyone who can afford it, combined with a large Christian population, able to provide the necessary funding, it became popular among Evangelical Protestant audiences, whether independent or organized around Christian denominations. However, the increasing globalisation of broadcasting has enabled some American televangelists to reach a wider audience through international broadcast networks, including some that are Christian in nature, such as Trinity Broadcasting Network and The God Channel.
Domestically produced televangelism is present in some other nations such as Brazil. Some countries have a more regulated media with either general restrictions on access or specific rules regarding religious broadcasting. In such countries, religious programming is produced by TV companies rather than private interest groups; the word televangelism is a portmanteau of television and evangelism and it was coined in 1958 as the title of a television miniseries by the Southern Baptist Convention. Jeffrey K. Hadden and Charles E. Swann have been credited with popularising the word in their 1981 survey Prime Time Preachers: The Rising Power of Televangelism. However, the term televangelist was employed by Time magazine in 1952, when telegenic Roman Catholic Bishop Fulton Sheen was referred to as the "first televangelist". An association of American Evangelical Protestant religious broadcasters, the National Religious Broadcasters, was founded in 1944. Christianity has always emphasized preaching the gospel to the whole world, taking as inspiration the Great Commission.
This was achieved by sending missionaries, beginning with the Dispersion of the Apostles, after the invention of the printing press, included the distribution of Bibles and religious tracts. Some Christians realized that the rapid uptake of radio beginning in the 1920s provided a powerful new tool for this task, they were amongst the first producers of radio programming. Radio broadcasts were seen as a complementary activity to traditional missionaries, enabling vast numbers to be reached at low cost, but enabling Christianity to be preached in countries where this was illegal and missionaries were banned; the aim of Christian radio was to both convert people to Christianity and to provide teaching and support to believers. These activities continue today in the developing world. Shortwave radio stations with a Christian format broadcast worldwide, such as HCJB in Quito, Family Radio's WYFR, the Bible Broadcasting Network, among others. In the U. S. the Great Depression of the 1930s saw a resurgence of revival-tent preaching in the Midwest and South, as itinerant traveling preachers drove from town to town, living off donations.
Several preachers began radio shows as a result of their popularity. One of the first ministers to use radio extensively was S. Parkes Cadman, beginning in 1923. By 1928, Cadman had a weekly Sunday afternoon radio broadcast on the NBC radio network, his powerful oratory reaching a nationwide audience of five million persons. Aimee Semple McPherson was another pioneering tent-revivalist who soon turned to radio to reach a larger audience. Radio gave her nationwide notoriety in the 1920s and 1930s and she built one of the earliest Pentecostal megachurches. In the 1930s, a famous radio evangelist of the period was Roman Catholic priest Father Charles Coughlin, whose anti-Communist and antisemitic radio programs reached millions of listeners. Other early Christian radio programs broadcast nationwide in the U. S. beginning in the 1920s–1930s include: Bob Jones, Sr. Ralph W. Sockman, G. E. Lowman and the Spoken Word, The Lutheran Hour, Charles E. Fuller. Time magazine reported in 1946 that Rev. Ralph Sockman's National Radio Pulpit on NBC received 4,000 letters weekly and Roman Catholic archbishop Fulton J. Sheen received between 3,000–6,000 letters weekly.
The total radio audience for radio ministers in the U. S. that year was estimated to be 10 million listeners. Although television began in the 1930s, it was not used for religious purposes until the early 1950s. Jack Wyrtzen and Percy Crawford switched to TV broadcasting in the Spring of 1949. Another television preacher of note was Fulton J. Sheen, who switched to television in 1951 after two decades of popular radio broadcasts and whom Time called "the first'televangelist'". Sheen would win numerous Emmy Awards for his program that ran from the early 1950s, until the late 1960s. After years of radio broadcasting in 1952 Rex Humbard became the first to have a weekly church service broadcast on television. By 1980 the Rex Humbard programs spanned the globe across 695 stations in 91 languages and to date the largest coverage of any evangelistic pro
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity to new converts. Missions involve sending individuals and groups, called missionaries, across boundaries, most geographical boundaries, for the purpose of proselytism; this involves evangelism, humanitarian work among the poor and disadvantaged. There are a few different kinds of mission trips: short-term, long-term and ones meant for helping people in need; some might choose to dedicate their whole lives to missions as well. Missionaries have the authority to preach the Christian faith, provide humanitarian aid. Christian doctrines permit the provision of aid without requiring religious conversion; the earliest Christian mission the Great Commission and Dispersion of the Apostles, was active within Second Temple Judaism. Whether a Jewish proselytism existed or not that would have served as a model for the early Christians is unclear, see Circumcision controversy in early Christianity#Jewish background for details. Soon, the expansion of the Christian mission beyond Judaism to those who were not Jewish became a contested issue, notably at the Council of Jerusalem.
The Apostle Paul was an early proponent of this expansion, contextualized the Christian message for the Greek and Roman cultures, allowing it to reach beyond its Hebrew and Jewish roots. From Late Antiquity onward, much missionary activity was carried out by members of religious orders. Monasteries followed disciplines and supported missions and practical research, all of which were perceived as works to reduce human misery and suffering and glorify the Christian God. For example, Nestorian communities evangelized parts of Central Asia, as well as Tibet and India. Cistercians evangelized much of Northern Europe, as well as developing most of European agriculture's classic techniques. St Patrick evangelized many in Ireland. St David was active in Wales. During the Middle Ages, Ramon Llull advanced the concept of preaching to Muslims and converting them to Christianity by means of non-violent argument. A vision for large-scale mission to Muslims would die with him, not to be revived until the 19th Century.
Additional events can be found at the timeline of Christian missions. During the Middle Ages Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In the seventh century Gregory the Great sent missionaries, including Augustine of Canterbury, into England; the Hiberno-Scottish mission began in 563. In the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, Franciscans such as William of Rubruck, John of Montecorvino, Giovanni ed' Magnolia were sent as missionaries to the Near and Far East, their travels took them as far as China in an attempt to convert the advancing Mongols the Great Khans of the Mongol Empire. One of the main goals of the Christopher Columbus expedition financed by Queen Isabella of Spain was to spread Christianity. During the Age of Discovery and Portugal established many missions in their American and Asian colonies; the most active orders were the Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans.
The Portuguese sent missions into Africa. These are some of the most well-known missions in history. While some of these missions were associated with imperialism and oppression, others were peaceful and focused on integration rather than cultural imperialism. In both Portugal and Spain, religion was an integral part of the state and evangelization was seen as having both secular and spiritual benefits. Wherever these powers attempted to expand their territories or influence, missionaries would soon follow. By the Treaty of Tordesillas, the two powers divided the world between them into exclusive spheres of influence and colonization; the proselytization of Asia became linked to Portuguese colonial policy. Portuguese trade with Asia proved profitable from 1499 onwards, as Jesuits arrived in India around 1540, the colonial government in Goa supported the mission with incentives for baptized Christians; the Church sent Jesuits to China and to other countries in Asia. The Reformation unfolded in Europe in the early 16th century.
For over a hundred years, occupied by their struggle with the Catholic Church, the early Protestant churches as a body were not focused on missions to "heathen" lands. Instead, the focus was more on Christian lands in the hope to spread the Protestant faith, identifying the papacy with the Antichrist. In the centuries that followed, Protestant churches began sending out missionaries in increasing numbers, spreading the proclamation of the Christian message to unreached people. In North America, missionaries to the Native Americans included Jonathan Edwards, the well-known preacher of the Great Awakening, who in his years retired from the public life of his early career, he became a missionary to the Housatonic Native Americans and a staunch advocate for them against cultural imperialism. As European culture has been established in the midst of indigenous peoples, the cultural distance between Christians of differing cultures has been difficult to overcome. One early solution was the creation of segregated "praying towns" of Christian natives.
This pattern of grudging acceptance of converts played out again in Hawaii when missionari
The Mam are an indigenous people in the western highlands of Guatemala and in south-western Mexico who speak the Mam language. Most Mam live in Guatemala, in the departments of Huehuetenango, San Marcos, Quetzaltenango; the Mam people in Mexico live principally in the soconusco region of Chiapas. In pre-Columbian times the Mam were part of the Maya civilization. Many Mam live around the nearby modern city of Huehuetenango; the city of Quetzaltenango or Xela was Mam. Many more Mam live in small hamlets in the mountains of northern Guatemala, keeping many of their native traditions. Many Mam are bilingual and speak both Spanish as well as the Mam language, part of the Maya language family, the latter as their first language. Mam Kayb'il B'alam Tecun Uman Takalik Abaj A traditional Mayan horse race for the Todos Santos Mam Holiday Two Crosses of Todos Santos An anthropological study of the village focusing on religious ritual