Venus of Monruz
The Venus of Monruz is a Venus figurine of the late Upper Paleolithic, or the beginning Epipaleolithic, dating to the end of the Magdalenian, some 11,000 years ago. It is a black jet pendant in the shape of a stylized human body, measuring 18 mm in height, it was discovered in 1991, at the construction of the N5 highway, at Monruz in the municipality of Neuchâtel, Switzerland. The Venus figurines of Petersfels from a site near Engen, bear remarkable resemblance to the Venus of Monruz; the biggest of them, called Venus from Engen may have been done by the same artist. It is made of jet, dates to the Magdalenian - to ca. 15,000 years ago. The sites of discovery of the two figurines are about 130 km apart. Art of the Upper Paleolithic List of Stone Age art Don Hitchcock: "Venuses of Neuchatel-Monruz"
Thread is a type of yarn but used for sewing. It can be made out of many different materials including cotton, linen and silk. Thread is made from a wide variety of materials. Where a thread is stronger than the material that it is being used to join, if seams are placed under strain the material may tear before the thread breaks. Garments are sewn with threads of lesser strength than the fabric so that if stressed the seam will break before the garment. Heavy goods that must withstand considerable stresses such as upholstery, car seating, tarpaulins and saddlery require strong threads. Attempting repairs with light weight thread will result in rapid failure, though again, using a thread, stronger than the material being sewn can end up causing rips in that material before the thread itself gives way. Polyester/polyester core spun thread is made by wrapping staple polyester around a continuous polyester filament during spinning and plying these yarns into a sewing thread. Core Spun Thread Yarns are measured by the density of the yarn, described by various units of textile measurement relating to a standardized length per weight.
These units do not directly correspond to thread diameter. The most common weight system specifies the length of the thread in kilometres required to weigh 1 kilogram. Therefore, a greater weight number indicates a thinner, finer thread; the American standard of thread weight was adopted from the Gunze Count standard of Japan which uses two numbers separated by a forward slash. The first number corresponds to the wt number of the thread and the second number indicates how many strands of fiber were used to compose the finished thread, it is common to wrap three strands of the same weight to make one thread, though this is not a formal requirement in the US standard. A denier weight specification states. Unlike the common thread weight system, the greater the denier number, the thicker the thread; the denier weight system, like the common weight system specifies the number of strands of the specified weight which were wrapped together to make the finished thread. Tex is the mass in grams of 1,000 meters of thread.
If 1,000 meters weighs 25 grams, it is a tex 25. Larger tex numbers are heavier threads. Tex is used more in Europe and Canada; some thread manufacturers those producing fine silk threads, apply their own scales of thread measurement using "aughts" or zeroes. Within a given manufacturer's spectrum, a higher "aught count" indicates a finer thread: this is given as a single digit followed by a forward slash and a zero— for example, 3/0 indicates a three-aught thread or a thread size "000", but this number only has significance when compared to other threads produced by the same manufacturer: one manufacturer's 4/0 will always be more fine than that same manufacturer's 2/0, but will mean nothing if compared to the 4/0 of another manufacturer; the aught scale therefore is not suitable for conversion or comparison to other more-generalized weight scales, though it is in common use. Thread weight conversion table For example: 40 weight = 225 denier = Tex 25. A common Tex number for general sewing thread is Tex 25 or Tex 30.
A heavier silk buttonhole thread suitable for bartacking, small leather items, decorative seams might be Tex 40. A strong, durable upholstery thread, Tex 75. A heavy duty topstitching thread for coats and shoes, Tex 100. A strong topstitching thread suitable for luggage and tarpaulins, Tex 265-Tex 290, but a fine serging thread, only Tex 13. For blindstitching and felling machines, an finer Tex 8. High temperature sewing threads provide resistance to extreme temperatures; some threads can be used for applications up to 800 °C. There are a variety of different sewing threads available which have different applications and benefits. Kevlar-coated stainless steel sewing threads have a high-temperature and flame-resistant steel core combined with Kevlar coating designed to facilitate easier machine sewing; the stainless steel core has a temperature resistance of up to 800 °C and the Kevlar coating is heat-resistant up to 220 °C. PTFE coated glass sewing threads have an excellent temperature resistance combined with a PTFE coating to provide easier machine sewing.
The glass core has a temperature resistance of up to 550 °C and the PTFE coating is heat-resistant up to 230 °C. Nomex sewing threads are inherently flame-retardant and heat-resistant with a tough protective coating which resists abrasion during the sewing operation, it is temperature resistant up to 370 °C. Bonded nylon sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance, rot proofing, have good tensile strength for lower temperature applications, they are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C. Bonded polyester sewing threads are tough, coated with abrasion resistance and have exceptional tensile strength for lower temperatures but heavier-duty sewing operations, they are temperature-resistant up to 120 °C. Eisengarn Hank Sewing needle Staple Stitch
Tusks are elongated, continuously growing front teeth but not always in pairs, that protrude well beyond the mouth of certain mammal species. They are most canine teeth, as with warthogs and walruses, or, in the case of elephants, elongated incisors. In most tusked species both the males and the females have tusks. Tusks are curved, though the narwhal's sole tusk is straight and has a helical structure. Continuous growth is enabled by formative tissues in the apical openings of the roots of the teeth. In earlier times elephant tusks weighing over 90 kg were not uncommon, though it is rare today to see any over 45 kg. Tusks have a variety of uses depending on the animal. Social displays of dominance among males, are common, as is their use in defense against attackers. Elephants use their tusks as boring tools. Walruses use their tusks to haul out on ice; the presence of a tusk in only the male narwhals suggests that for these whales the tusk is a secondary sex characteristic. Tusks are used by humans to produce ivory, used in artifacts and jewellery, in other items such as piano keys.
Many tusk-bearing species have been hunted commercially and several are endangered. The ivory trade has been restricted by the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. Fang, a long canine tooth Ivory trade
Venus figurines of Balzi Rossi
The Venus figurines of Balzi Rossi from the caves near Grimaldi di Ventimiglia are thirteen Paleolithic sculptures of the female body. Additionally, two small depictions of the human head were discovered at the same place; the age of these figurines cannot be determined because of missing archaeological context data. It is accepted that these figurines stem from the Gravettian, about 24,000 to 19,000 years old. Most of the sculptures are between 2.4 and 7.5 cm in height. Between 1883 to 1895 the figurines were discovered by the antique dealer Louis Alexandre Jullien at the cave complex Balzi Rossi at the Ligurian coast. Eight of these sculptures are housed in the museum Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris. Venus figurines Grimaldi man Bisson, M.. Undescribed Figurines from the Grimaldi Caves, Current Anthropology, 35, S. 458–468. Clark, P. et al.. "The Last Glacial Maximum", American Association for the Advancement of Science, 7 August 2009, 325, S. 710 – 714. Cohen, C.. La femme des origines. Images de la femme dans la préhistoire occidentale, Belin-Herscher, 2003, 191 pages.
Delporte, H.. L'image de la femme dans Paris: Ed. Picard. C. Giraudi, Margherita Mussi; the Central and Southern Apennine during OIS 3 and 2: the colonisation of a changing environment, ERAUL, 90, S. 118 – 129. Mussi, M.. Earliest Italy: an overview of the Italian Pateolithic and Mesolithic New York: Kluwer Academic, 2002. White, R. Bisson, M.. Imagerie féminine du Paléolithique: l'apport des nouvelles statuettes de Grimaldi, Gallia préhistoire. Tome 40, 1998. S. 95–132. White, R. 2002: Une nouvelle statuette phallo-féminine paléolithique:'La venus des Milandes', Paleo N° 14 Décembre 2002, S. 177 – 198. Don Hitchcock: "Figurines of Balzi Rossi, the Grimaldi Caves venuses" http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/archeo/paleofig/pal03eng.shtml
Musée de l'Homme
The Musée de l'Homme is an anthropology museum in Paris, France. It was established in 1937 by Paul Rivet for the 1937 Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne, it is the descendant of the Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro, founded in 1878. The Musée de l'Homme is a research center under the authority of various ministries, it groups several entities from the CNRS; the Musée de l'Homme is one of the seven departments of the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. The Musée de l'Homme occupies most of the Passy wing of the Palais de Chaillot in the 16th arrondissement; the vast majority of its collection was transferred to the Quai Branly museum. The Musée de l'Homme has inherited items from historical collections created as early as the 16th century, from cabinets of curiosities, the Royal Cabinet; these collections were enriched during the 19th century, they still are today. The aim is to gather in one site everything which defines the human being: man in his evolution, man in his unity and diversity, man in his cultural and social expression.
The majority of the "ethnographic exhibition" from the Musée de l'Armée of the Invalides, as it was called, is composed of dummies representing people from the colonies, along with weapons and equipment. This material was transferred to the museum in 1910 and 1917. Photos of the Moroccan population, taken by Clérambault, were displayed there. Several members of the Musée de l'Homme, such as Paul Rivet, during the German occupation in World War II, formed a resistance group; the museum is part of the Musée national d'histoire naturelle. Its original purpose was to gather in a one place all that can define humanity: its evolution, its unity and its variety, its cultural and social expression; the creation of the new Musée du quai Branly and MUCEM will be taking the Musée de l'homme's ethnographical collections, breaking with its original mission. This change has aroused many debates because the curatorial choices of the new structure will be dictated more by aesthetic criteria than scientific; the permanent exhibition of the Museum of the Man counted more than 15,000 artifacts, reflecting the artistic but technical and cultural treasures from five continents.
Quai Branly, holds only 3500 artifacts, presented without cultural contextualization, chosen for their aesthetic qualities and their "exotic" origins and not on educational value. European ethnographical collections are going to be exhibited at MUCEM, critics believe it is creating an unjustified discontinuity between human cultures; this situation led the Musée de l'Homme to a redefinition of its mission. Jean-Pierre Mohen and his team tried to arrange the mission of the Museum, without succeeding in giving it a strong enough muséological program. We shall find in the future Museum, the Human defined through his biological evolution, through its adaptation to its environment, through the elaboration of a culture which defines the highlights of humanity, it will be question of a conscience of human pressure on its environment as to face the consequences of the evolutions, in the present, for the future. There was a renovation of the museum until 17 October 2015; the total amount of money appropriated for the renovation process was 52 million Euros.
René-Yves Creston, director of the Arctic section in the 1930s Maurice Leenhardt André Leroi-Gourhan Paul Rivet Jacques Soustelle Claude Lévi-Strauss Germaine Dieterlen Jean Rouch Henri Victor Vallois Zeev Gourarier The body of Saartjie Baartman was displayed until 1974. A crystal skull is held by the museum; the skull of René Descartes, mathematician and philosopher resides in this museum. The skull of Suleiman al-Halabi, a Syrian Kurdish student who assassinated Jean-Baptiste Kléber is there. Mapa pintado en papel europeo y aforrado en el indiano, a Mesoamerican pictorial document List of museums in Paris Relocation of moai objects Museum's Official web site Bibliothèque du Musée de l'Homme
Venus of Savignano
The Venus of Savignano is a Venus figurine made from soft greenstone dating back to the Upper Paleolithic, discovered in 1925 near Savignano sul Panaro in the Province of Modena, Italy. With 22.5 cm in height, 4.8 cm in width and 5.2 cm in depth, with a weight of 586.5 g, it's one of the largest known Venuses among the about 190 dated to the Upper Paleolithic in Europe and Siberia. With a proposed dating of 25,000–20,000 years ago, it is considered one of the earliest expressions of art in Italy; the statuette was unearthed in 1925 by a farmer, Olindo Zambelli, digging outside his stable in the locality of Prà Martino, under the frazione of Mulino, itself within the comune of Savignano sul Panaro. He found the statuette under c. 1 m of Late Pleistocene fluvial deposits. Zambelli kept the "old stone" despite his wife's advice to throw it away; the new owner showed the figurine to his son Paolo Graziosi, at the time a young student of archaeology, who published a paper on it. In 1926, Giuseppe Graziosi donated the figurine to the Pigorini National Museum of Prehistory and Ethnography in Rome, which stills holds the figurine today.
A replica is housed in the Museo della Venere e dell'Elefante at Savignano sul Panaro. The elephant of the museum's title refers to the other major find near Savignano, housed there, a fossil female specimen of Mammuthus meridionalis dating to 1.5 Ma. The original figurine was temporarily loaned to Savignano from 5 April to 4 May 2014 for exhibition within the project "Savignano, Città dell'Archeologia"; the exhibition recorded 3,215 visitors, although the museum was only open in the mornings during the weekdays. The figurine is biconical. Typical of other venus figures, the feminine features are overemphasized: the thighs and hips are large while the belly and buttocks are protruding; the head is a cone, the arms are sketched, there are no hands, feet, or shoulders at all. The back is concave. In some points a few traces of red ochre paint are still visible; the figurine was cleaned after the discovery, thus all organic traces which could have been dated with conventional methods were destroyed.
For this reason, any dating was controversial since the beginning and can only be done by comparisons with other figurines. Thanks to these comparisons, it is now assumed that the Venus of Savignano belongs to the Gravettian culture and that it can be dated back to 25,000–20,000 BP, although some sources tend to lean toward an earlier dating, up to c. 28,000 BP, some sources favor a much dating. In his first study in 1925, Paolo Graziosi attributed the figurine to the Upper Paleolithic, his conclusion was in contrast with the mainstream opinion at the time, when most of the Italian academics didn't recognize an Italian Upper Paleolithic, rather opting for a direct transition between the late Mousterian and the Neolithic periods. Indeed, a group of archaeologists led by Ugo Antonielli, the Director of the Pigorini Museum, compared the figurine with others Venuses dated to the Neolithic, concluding that the Venus of Savignano must have been dated to the Neolithic too. However, a subsequent analysis by other scholars in 1935 concluded that the figurine was "surely paleolithic".
Paolo Graziosi made a stylistic comparison between the Venus of Savignano and other figurines such as the Venus of Trasimeno, the figurines from Balzi Rossi in Ventimiglia and the discovered Venus of Chiozza di Scandiano in Reggio Emilia. List of Stone Age art La Venere a Savignano. Esposizione dal 5 Aprile al 4 Maggio 2014, Museo della Venere e dell'Elefante, Savignano 2014. Margherita Mussi, "Problèmes récentes et découvertes anciennes: la statuette de Savignano", Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique de l'Ariège 51, 55–79. Margherita Mussi, "Les statuettes italiennes de pierre tendre de Savignano et Grimaldi", in: Henri Delporte, «La Dame de Brassempouy», Actes du colloque de Brassempouy, Lüttich 1995, pp. 165–185. Raymond Vaufrey, "La statuette féminine de Savignano sur le Panaro", L'Anthropologie 36, 429–435. Archeofilia ha visitato per voi… La Venere a Savignano, Archeofilia.com
Acheulean, from the French acheuléen, is an archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as Homo heidelbergensis. Acheulean tools were produced during the Lower Palaeolithic era across Africa and much of West Asia, South Asia, Europe, are found with Homo erectus remains, it is thought that Acheulean technologies first developed about 1.76 million years ago, derived from the more primitive Oldowan technology associated with Homo habilis. The Acheulean includes at least the early part of the Middle Paleolithic, its end is not well defined, depending on whether Sangoan is included, it may be taken to last until as late as 130,000 years ago. In Europe and Western Asia, early Neanderthals adopted Achaeulean technology, transitioning to Mousterian by about 160,000 years ago; the type site for the Acheulean is Saint-Acheul, a suburb of Amiens, the capital of the Somme department in Picardy, where artifacts were found in 1859.
John Frere is credited as being the first to suggest a ancient date for Acheulean hand-axes. In 1797, he sent two examples to the Royal Academy in London from Hoxne in Suffolk, he had found them in prehistoric lake deposits along with the bones of extinct animals and concluded that they were made by people "who had not the use of metals" and that they belonged to a "very ancient period indeed beyond the present world". His ideas were, ignored by his contemporaries, who subscribed to a pre-Darwinian view of human evolution. Jacques Boucher de Crèvecœur de Perthes, working between 1836 and 1846, collected further examples of hand-axes and fossilised animal bone from the gravel river terraces of the Somme near Abbeville in northern France. Again, his theories attributing great antiquity to the finds were spurned by his colleagues, until one of de Perthe's main opponents, Dr Marcel Jérôme Rigollot, began finding more tools near Saint Acheul. Following visits to both Abbeville and Saint Acheul by the geologist Joseph Prestwich, the age of the tools was accepted.
In 1872, Louis Laurent Gabriel de Mortillet described the characteristic hand-axe tools as belonging to L'Epoque de St Acheul. The industry was renamed as the Acheulean in 1925. Providing calendrical dates and ordered chronological sequences in the study of early stone tool manufacture is accomplished through one or more geological techniques, such as radiometric dating potassium-argon dating, magnetostratigraphy. From the Konso Formation of Ethiopia, Acheulean hand-axes are dated to about 1.5 million years ago using radiometric dating of deposits containing volcanic ashes. Acheulean tools in South Asia have been found to be dated as far as 1.5 million years ago. However, the earliest accepted examples of the Acheulean known come from the West Turkana region of Kenya and were first described by a French-led archaeology team; these particular Acheulean tools were dated through the method of magnetostratigraphy to about 1.76 million years ago, making them the oldest not only in Africa but the world.
The earliest user of Acheulean tools was Homo ergaster, who first appeared about 1.8 million years ago. Not all researchers use this formal name, instead prefer to call these users early Homo erectus. From geological dating of sedimentary deposits, it appears that the Acheulean originated in Africa and spread to Asian, Middle Eastern, European areas sometime between 1.5 million years ago and about 800 thousand years ago. In individual regions, this dating can be refined; however more recent research demonstrated that hand-axes from Spain were made more than 900,000 years ago. Relative dating techniques suggest that Acheulean tools followed on from earlier, cruder tool-making methods, but there is considerable chronological overlap in early prehistoric stone-working industries, with evidence in some regions that Acheulean tool-using groups were contemporary with other, less sophisticated industries such as the Clactonian and later with the more sophisticated Mousterian, as well, it is therefore important not to see the Acheulean as a neatly defined period or one that happened as part of a clear sequence but as one tool-making technique that flourished well in early prehistory.
The enormous geographic spread of Acheulean techniques makes the name unwieldy as it represents numerous regional variations on a similar theme. The term Acheulean does not represent a common culture in the modern sense, rather it is a basic method for making stone tools, shared across much of the Old World; the earliest Acheulean assemblages contain numerous Oldowan-style flakes and core forms and it is certain that the Acheulean developed from this older industry. These industries are known as the Developed Oldowan and are certainly transitional between the Oldowan and Acheulean. In the four divisions of prehistoric stone-working, Acheulean artefacts are classified as Mode 2, meaning they are more advanced than the Mode 1 tools of the Clactonian or Oldowan/Abbevillian industries but lacking the sophistication of the Mode 3 Middle Palaeolithic technology, exemplified by the Mousterian industry; the Mode 1 industries created rough flake tools by hitting a suitable stone with a hammerstone. The resulting flake that broke off would have a natural sharp edge for cutting and could afterwards be sharpened further by striking another smaller flake from the edge if necessary