St Albans is a city in Hertfordshire and the major urban area in the City and District of St Albans. It lies east of Hemel Hempstead and west of Hatfield, about 20 miles north-northwest of central London, 8 miles southwest of Welwyn Garden City and 11 miles south-southeast of Luton. St Albans was the first major town on the old Roman road of Watling Street for travellers heading north, it became the Roman city of Verulamium, it is a historic market town and is now a dormitory town within the London commuter belt and the Greater London Built-up Area. St Albans takes its name from Alban; the most elaborate version of his story, Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People, relates that he lived in Verulamium, sometime during the 3rd or 4th century, when Christians were suffering persecution. Alban met a Christian priest fleeing from his persecutors and sheltered him in his house, where he became so impressed with the priest's piety that he converted to Christianity; when the authorities searched Alban's house, he put on the priest's cloak and presented himself in place of his guest.
He was sentenced to endure the punishments that were to be inflicted upon the priest, unless he renounced Christianity. Alban was taken for execution. In legends, his head rolled downhill after execution and a well sprang up where it stopped. There was an Iron Age settlement known as Verulamium, Verlamion, or Verlamio, near the site of the present city, the centre of Tasciovanus' power and a major centre of the Catuvellauni from about 20 BC until shortly after the Roman invasion of AD 43; the name "Verulamium" is Celtic, meaning "settlement over or by the marsh". The town was on Prae Hill, 2 km to the west of modern St Albans, now covered by the village of St Michael's, Verulamium Park and the Gorhambury Estate, it is believed. Cunobelinus may have constructed Beech Bottom Dyke, a defensive earthwork near the settlement whose significance is uncertain; the Roman city of Verulamium, the second-largest town in Roman Britain after Londinium, developed from the Celtic settlement and was granted the rank of municipium around AD 50, meaning that its citizens had what were known as "Latin Rights", a lesser citizenship status than a colonia possessed.
It grew to a significant town, as such received the attentions of Boudica of the Iceni in 61, when Verulamium was sacked and burnt on her orders: archaeologists have recorded a black ash layer, thus confirming the Roman written record. It grew steadily. Verulamium contained a forum, basilica and a theatre, much of which were damaged during two fires, one in 155 and the other in around 250; these were continued in use in the 4th century. The theatre was disused by the end of the 4th. One of the few extant Roman inscriptions in Britain is found on the remnants of the forum; the town was rebuilt in stone rather than timber at least twice over the next 150 years. Occupation by the Romans ended between 400 and 450; the body of St Alban was buried outside the city walls in a Roman cemetery near the present cathedral. His hillside grave became a place of pilgrimage. Recent investigation has uncovered a basilica there, indicating the oldest continuous site of Christian worship in Great Britain. In 429 Germanus of Auxerre subsequently promoted the cult of St Alban.
A few traces of the Roman city remain visible, such as parts of the city walls, a hypocaust - still in situ under a mosaic floor, the theatre, on land belonging to the Earl of Verulam, as well as items in the museum. More remains under the nearby agricultural land have never been excavated and were for a while threatened by deep ploughing. After the Roman withdrawal the town became the centre of the territory or regio of the Anglo-Saxon Waeclingas tribe. St Albans Abbey and the associated Anglo-Saxon settlement were founded on the hill outside the Roman city where it was believed St Alban was buried. An archaeological excavation in 1978, directed by Martin Biddle, failed to find Roman remains on the site of the medieval chapter house; as late as the eighth century the Saxon inhabitants of St Albans nearby were aware of their ancient neighbour, which they knew alternatively as Verulamacæstir or, under what H. R. Loyn terms "their own hybrid", Vaeclingscæstir, "the fortress of the followers of Wæcla" a pocket of British-speakers remaining separate in an Saxonised area.
The medieval town grew on the hill to the east of Wæclingacaester where the Benedictine Abbey of St Albans was founded by Ulsinus in 793. There is some evidence that the original site was higher up the hill than the present building, begun in 1077. St Albans Abbey was the principal abbey medieval in England; the scribe Matthew Paris lived there and the first draft of Magna Carta was drawn up there. It became a parish church after the dissolution of the Benedictine abbey in 1539 and was made a cathedral in 1877. St Albans School was founded in AD 948. Matthew Paris was educated there and it is the only school in the English-speaking world to have educated a Pope. Now a public school it has, since 1871, occupied a site to the west of the Abbey and includes the 14th-century Abbey Gateway. One of its buildings was a link with the city's industrial past. On Abbey Mill Lane, the road between the Abbey and the school, are the palaces of the Bishops of St Albans and Hertford and Ye Olde Fighting Cocks, claimed to be the oldest pub in England.
Between 1403 and 1412 Thomas Wolvey was engaged to build a clock tower
Captain James Cook was a British explorer, navigator and captain in the Royal Navy. He made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand. Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755, he saw action in the Seven Years' War and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec, which brought him to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This acclaim came at a crucial moment in his career and the direction of British overseas exploration, led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages. In three voyages, Cook sailed thousands of miles across uncharted areas of the globe, he mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and scale not charted by Western explorers.
As he progressed in his voyages of discovery, he surveyed and named features, recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage, an ability to lead men in adverse conditions. Cook was attacked and killed in 1779 during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific while attempting to kidnap Hawaiian chief Kalaniʻōpuʻu in order to reclaim a cutter stolen from one of his ships, he left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which influenced his successors well into the 20th century, numerous memorials worldwide have been dedicated to him. James Cook was born on 7 November 1728 in the village of Marton in Yorkshire and baptised on 14 November in the parish church of St Cuthbert, where his name can be seen in the church register, he was the second of eight children of James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam in Roxburghshire, his locally born wife, Grace Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees.
In 1736, his family moved to Airey Holme farm at Great Ayton, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, paid for him to attend the local school. In 1741, after five years' schooling, he began work for his father, promoted to farm manager. Despite not being formally educated he became capable in mathematics and charting by the time of his Endeavour voyage. For leisure, he would climb Roseberry Topping, enjoying the opportunity for solitude. Cooks' Cottage, his parents' last home, which he is to have visited, is now in Melbourne, having been moved from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934. In 1745, when he was 16, Cook moved 20 miles to the fishing village of Staithes, to be apprenticed as a shop boy to grocer and haberdasher William Sanderson. Historians have speculated that this is where Cook first felt the lure of the sea while gazing out of the shop window. After 18 months, not proving suited for shop work, Cook travelled to the nearby port town of Whitby to be introduced to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.
The Walkers, who were Quakers, were prominent local ship-owners in the coal trade. Their house is now the Captain Cook Memorial Museum. Cook was taken on as a merchant navy apprentice in their small fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast, his first assignment was aboard the collier Freelove, he spent several years on this and various other coasters, sailing between the Tyne and London. As part of his apprenticeship, Cook applied himself to the study of algebra, trigonometry and astronomy—all skills he would need one day to command his own ship, his three-year apprenticeship completed, Cook began working on trading ships in the Baltic Sea. After passing his examinations in 1752, he soon progressed through the merchant navy ranks, starting with his promotion in that year to mate aboard the collier brig Friendship. In 1755, within a month of being offered command of this vessel, he volunteered for service in the Royal Navy, when Britain was re-arming for what was to become the Seven Years' War.
Despite the need to start back at the bottom of the naval hierarchy, Cook realised his career would advance more in military service and entered the Navy at Wapping on 17 June 1755. Cook married Elizabeth Batts, the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper of the Bell Inn in Wapping and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St Margaret's Church, Essex; the couple had six children: James, Elizabeth, Joseph and Hugh. When not at sea, Cook lived in the East End of London, he attended St Paul's Church, where his son James was baptised. Cook has no direct descendants—all of his children died before having children of their own. Cook's first posting was with HMS Eagle, serving as able seaman and master's mate under Captain Joseph Hamar for his first year aboard, Captain Hugh Palliser thereafter. In October and November 1755, he took part in Eagle's capture of one French warship and the sinking of another, following which he was promoted to boatswain in addition to his other duties, his first temporary command was in March 1756 when he was master of Cruizer, a small cutter attached to Eagle while on patrol.
In June 1757 Cook formally passed his master's examinations at Trinity House, qualifying him to navigate and handle a ship of the King's fleet. He joined the frigate
Morley, West Yorkshire
Morley is a market town and civil parish within the City of Leeds metropolitan borough, in West Yorkshire, England. It lies 5 miles south-west of Leeds city centre, built on seven hills: Scatcherd Hill, Dawson Hill, Daisy Hill, Chapel Hill, Hunger Hill, Troy Hill and Banks Hill. In 2011, the town and civil parish had populations of 27,738 respectively; the town is split between the Morley North and Morley South wards of Leeds City Council, both making up the western half of the Morley and Outwood parliamentary constituency. Morley is first mentioned in the Domesday Book in 1086 as Morelege and Moreleia. Morley means "open ground by a moor", from Old English mōr "moor, pasture" + lēah "open ground, clearing", it gave its name to Morelei Wapentac, a wapentake which met at Tingley. The town was famous for its textile industry, notably the cloth, worn by both sides in the American Civil War. Morley was the centre of one of two divisions of the wapentake of Agbrigg and Morley. Morley became a Municipal Borough in 1889 and under the Local Government Act 1972, was incorporated into the City of Leeds Metropolitan District.
Morley is represented on Leeds City Council by three wards each with three councillors. At the 2010 general election and Outwood was won by Ed Balls of the Labour Party, MP for Normanton since 2005, served as Labour's Shadow Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2011 until 2015. Balls narrowly lost the seat at the 2015 general election to Conservative Andrea Jenkyns. A town council was established in 2000, though it does not cover Drighlington, Gildersome and East and West Ardsley - areas part of the municipal borough. Following a review of parliamentary representation in West Yorkshire, the Morley and Rothwell parliamentary constituency was abolished at the 2010 election and replaced by the Morley and Outwood constituency; the town's coat of arms featured the symbolic principal industries of the municipal borough: textile manufacturing, coal mining and quarrying. Morley Town Hall is sometimes used for music recordings. Television programmes and Emmerdale have used its disused magistrates court and a cobblestoned street to one side.
It hosts concerts by local schools and performances by the Morley Amateur Operatic Society, whose pantomimes have taken place at the Alexandra Hall for many years. Morley annually holds one of the largest St George's Day parades in the country and has been named "the most patriotic town in England". Morley Market has been a feature; the market building has a large trading hall split up into units housing, fashion shops and a café. Supermarkets in Morley include Morrisons, Home Bargains and B & M in the town centre and there is a 24-hour ASDA superstore. Scatcherd Park in the centre of Morley, by the Morley Leisure Centre, has a large playing field, a skate park, children's park, bowling green and memorial gardens. Events are held on the adjoining field in the summer months. On 21 February 2010, a statue of Ernie Wise was erected outside Morley Post Office to divided opinion and unveiled by his widow, Doreen. Wise had performed in the old nearby cinema, just around from the Post Office, of, no longer in use and now derelict.
On 25 June 2012, the Olympic Torch paused at the Morley Academy on its tour of Britain ahead of the London Olympic Games 2012. Morley railway station is half a mile from the town centre on the Huddersfield Line. There is a service seven days a week to and from Leeds, but on Sundays, the service is less frequent. Buses go to Leeds, Bradford and other West Yorkshire towns from bus stops near the Town Hall; the M621 motorway runs to the west of the M62 motorway to the south. Junctions 27 and 28 of the M62 are closest to Morley. There are numerous primary schools in Morley including Morley Newlands Academy, Churwell Primary, Seven Hills Primary School, Morley Victoria Primary School, Asquith Primary, Fountain Primary and St Francis Catholic Primary School, it has an independent preparatory school. Three secondary schools serve pupils from Morley: The Morley Academy, Bruntcliffe Academy and Woodkirk High School. Morley R. F. C. was founded in 1878. When the Northern Union clubs broke away from the RFU to form the rugby league, the Morley representatives missed the train to Huddersfield due to being in the pub.
The club's heyday was in the 1970s. In April 2005 the club won the Powergen Intermediate Cup at Twickenham. Morley CC cricket club plays in the Bradford League, Morley Town AFC and Morley Amateur FC are the towns football club and Morley Borough play rugby league. Morley Leisure Centre is newly built after undergoing a £33 million joint project with Armley Leisure Centre completed 22 June 2010 boasting a main 25-metre swimming pool, 10-metre learner pool, 150-station Bodyline gym, numerous sports halls, a dance studio and a cafe. Independent Wrestling company Dynamic Pro Wrestling is based in Morley and put on monthly shows in Morley and around West Yorkshire. Morley was the home of seven times World Cycling Champion Beryl Burton. Scatcherd Park Bowling club compete in 9 leagues Morley is a setting for David Peace's Red Riding Quartet novel and 2009 television series which explore West Yorkshire police corruption during the 1970s, 1980s. Emmerdale use Morley for filming court and wedding scenes in the town hall
Daniel Carlsson Solander or Daniel Charles Solander was a Swedish naturalist and an apostle of Carl Linnaeus. Solander was the first university-educated scientist to set foot on Australian soil. Solander was born in Piteå, Sweden, to Rev. Carl Solander a Lutheran principal, Magdalena née Bostadia. Solander enrolled at Uppsala University in July 1750 and studied languages, the humanities and law; the professor of botany was the celebrated Carl Linnaeus, soon impressed by young Solander's ability and accordingly persuaded his father to let him study natural history. Solander traveled to England in June 1760 to promote the new Linnean system of classification. In February 1763, he began cataloguing the natural history collections of the British Museum, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June the following year. In 1768, Solander gained leave of absence from the British Museum and with his assistant Herman Spöring accompanied Joseph Banks on James Cook's first voyage to the Pacific Ocean aboard the Endeavour.
They were the botanists who inspired the name Botanist Bay for the first landing place of Cook's expedition in Australia. Solander helped make and describe an important collection of Australian plants while the Endeavour was beached at the site of present-day Cooktown for nearly seven weeks, after being damaged on the Great Barrier Reef; these collections formed the basis of Banks' Florilegium. Solander wrote a manuscript describing all the species collected from New Zealand during the six months the 1768 expedition spent there, it was called Primitiae Florae Novae Zelandiae, was to be illustrated with the plates prepared by Banks. It was never published, but it was available for study by anyone interested, first at Banks' London home at the Natural History section of the British Museum. Solander's return to Britain with Cook and Banks made him the first Swede to circle the globe. On their return in 1771 Solander resumed his duties at the British Museum but collaborated with Banks on the Florilegium.
In 1772 he accompanied Banks on his voyage to the Hebrides and the Orkney Islands. Between 1773 and 1782 he was Keeper of the Natural History Department of the British Museum. In 1773 he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Solander died at Banks' home in Soho Square of a stroke, aged 49, on 13 May 1782. An autopsy was performed the next day, revealed a brain haemorrhage, he is buried in the Swedish Section at Brookwood Cemetery. Solander's reputation has been profoundly influenced by his limited number of publications and his premature death. Although he had detailed descriptions prepared for most of the botanical specimens he collected on the Endeavour voyage, in deference to Joseph Banks he held off publication waiting for the completion of over 700 engravings. However, after Solander's death, now President of the Royal Society, failed to publish his projected Florilegium. Had he done so, he would have secured Solander's posthumous reputation, it has been claimed that Banks treated Solander, Jonas Dryander, as his servants rather than as botanists of equal standing to others in the botanical establishment.
However, Banks had a strong emotional bond with Solander, met his expenses and supported his relatives in Sweden. In 1784, when he wrote to Johan Alströmer of Solander's death, Banks declared:'This too early loss of a friend, whom I during my more mature years have loved and whom I will always miss, makes me wish to draw a veil over his death, as soon as I have ceased to speak of it. I can never think of it without feeling a mortal pain.' Solander remained an employee of the British Museum for the last decade of his life but was paid by Banks to assist him with his collections. Banks' relationship with Robert Brown was more formal. Solander invented the book-form box known as the Solander box, still used in libraries and archives as the most suitable way of storing prints, herbarium materials and some manuscripts. Solander Gardens in the east end of London is named after him, as are the Solander Islands off New Zealand's South Island and Cape Solander in the Kamay Botany Bay National Park. Solander Island, off the NW coast of Vancouver Island, Canada.
One of the many plants named in his honour is Fuscospora solandri. Solander was associated with Banks in Illustrations of the Botany of Captain Cook's Voyage Round the World, his The Natural History of Many Curious and Uncommon Zoophytes, Collected by the late John Ellis, was published posthumously. The'Daniel Solander Library' in Sydney's Royal Botanic Garden, established in 1852, is the oldest botanical research library in Australia. In Solander's birth town Piteå the Solander Science Park houses a number of cleantech companies and research organizations. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Duyker, Edward Nature's Argonaut: Daniel Solander 1733-1782: Naturalist and Voyager with Cook and Banks. Melbourne University Press. ISBN 0-522-84753-6 Marshall, John Braybrooke. "Daniel Carl Solander, Friend and Assistant to Sir Joseph Banks." Archives of Natural History 11.3: 451-456. Duyker, Edward & Tingbrand, Per Daniel Solander: Collected Correspondence 1753—1782, Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, pp. 466, ISBN 0-522-84636-X Scandinavian University Press, Oslo, 1995, pp. 466, ISBN 82-00-22454-6 Serle, Percival.
"Solander, Daniel Charles". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. "Solander, Daniel Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Biography on the website of his home town Piteå - in Swedish
Horticulture has been defined as the culture of plants for food and beauty. A more precise definition can be given as "The cultivation and sale of fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, flowers as well as many additional services", it includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management and garden design and maintenance, arboriculture. In contrast to agriculture, horticulture does not include large-scale crop production or animal husbandry. Horticulturists apply their knowledge and technologies used to grow intensively produced plants for human food and non-food uses and for personal or social needs, their work involves plant propagation and cultivation with the aim of improving plant growth, quality, nutritional value, resistance to insects and environmental stresses. They work as gardeners, therapists and technical advisors in the food and non-food sectors of horticulture. Horticulture refers to the growing of plants in a field or garden; the word horticulture is modeled after agriculture, comes from the Latin hortus "garden" and cultūra "cultivation", from cultus, the perfect passive participle of the verb colō "I cultivate".
Hortus is cognate with the native English word yard and the borrowed word garden. The major areas of Horticulture include: Arboriculture is the study of, the selection, plant and removal of, individual trees, shrubs and other perennial woody plants. Turf management includes all aspects of the production and maintenance of turf grass for sports, leisure use or amenity use. Floriculture includes the marketing of floral crops. Study of flower cultivation. Landscape horticulture includes the production and maintenance of landscape plants. Olericulture includes the marketing of vegetables. Pomology includes the marketing of pome fruits. Viticulture includes the marketing of grapes. Oenology includes all aspects of winemaking. Postharvest physiology involves maintaining the quality of and preventing the spoilage of plants and animals. Horticulture has a long history; the study and science of horticulture dates all the way back to the times of Cyrus the Great of ancient Persia, has been going on since, with present-day horticulturists such as Freeman S. Howlett and Luther Burbank.
The practice of horticulture can be retraced for many thousands of years. The cultivation of taro and yam in Papua New Guinea dates back to at least 6950–6440 cal BP; the origins of horticulture lie in the transition of human communities from nomadic hunter-gatherers to sedentary or semi-sedentary horticultural communities, cultivating a variety of crops on a small scale around their dwellings or in specialized plots visited during migrations from one area to the next. In the Pre-Columbian Amazon Rainforest, natives are believed to have used biochar to enhance soil productivity by smoldering plant waste. European settlers called it Terra Preta de Indio. In forest areas such horticulture is carried out in swiddens. A characteristic of horticultural communities is that useful trees are to be found planted around communities or specially retained from the natural ecosystem. Horticulture differs from agriculture in two ways. First, it encompasses a smaller scale of cultivation, using small plots of mixed crops rather than large fields of single crops.
Secondly, horticultural cultivations include a wide variety of crops including fruit trees with ground crops. Agricultural cultivations however as a rule focus on one primary crop. In pre-contact North America the semi-sedentary horticultural communities of the Eastern Woodlands contrasted markedly with the mobile hunter-gatherer communities of the Plains people. In Central America, Maya horticulture involved augmentation of the forest with useful trees such as papaya, cacao and sapodilla. In the cornfields, multiple crops were grown such as beans, squash and chilli peppers, in some cultures tended or by women. Since 1804 The Royal Horticultural Society, a UK charity, leads on the encouragement and improvement of the science and practice of horticulture in all its branches and shares this knowledge through its community and learning programmes, world class gardens and shows; the oldest Horticultural society in the world, founded in 1768, is the Ancient Society of York Florists. They still have four shows a year in York, UK.
The professional body representing horticulturists in Great Britain and Ireland is the Institute of Horticulture. The IOH has an international branch for members outside of these islands; the International Society for Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science. The American Society of Horticultural Science promotes and encourages research and education in all branches of horticultural science in the Americas; the Australian Society of Horticultural Science was established in 1990 as a professional society for the promotion and enhancement of Australian horticultural science and industry. The National Junior Horticultural Association was established in 1934 and was the first organisation in the world dedicated to youth and horticulture. NJHA programs are designed to help young people obtain a basic understanding of, develop skills in, the ever-expanding art and science of horticulture; the New Zealand Horticulture Institute. The Global Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHo
Dendrobium bigibbum known as the Cooktown orchid or mauve butterfly orchid, is an epiphytic or lithophytic orchid in the family Orchidaceae. It has cylindrical pseudobulbs, each with between three and five green or purplish leaves and arching flowering stems with up to twenty lilac-purple flowers, it occurs in tropical North Queensland and New Guinea. There are four varieties of this orchid, each of, considered a separate species. Dendrobium bigibbum is an epiphytic or lithophytic orchid with green or purplish pseudobulbs 200–1,200 mm long and 15–20 mm wide with purplish edges; each pseudobulb has between five egg-shaped leaves 100 -- 150 mm long and 30 -- 35 mm wide. The arching flowering stems are 200–400 mm long with between two and twenty lilac-purple bluish or pinkish flowers; the flowers are the size depending on the variety. The sepals are oblong to 20 -- 30 mm long and 9 -- 11 mm wide; the dorsal sepal is upright or turned back and the lateral sepals spread apart from each other. The petals are broadly egg-shaped, 25 -- 30 mm wide.
The labellum is 20–26 mm long, 20–28 mm wide and has three lobes. The side lobes are upright and the middle lobe has four or five ridges along its midline and a hairy patch in the middle. Flowering occurs from February to July. Dendrobium bigibbum was first formally described in 1852 by John Lindley and the description was published in Paxton's Flower Garden; the specific epithet is derived from the Latin prefix bi- meaning "two" and gibbum meaning "humped". Four varieties of this species are recognised by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Dendrobium bigibbum var. bigibbum, the mauve butterfly orchid, that has a white spot in the centre of the labellum and occurs at low altitudes on Cape York Peninsula, some Torres Strait Islands and southern New Guinea. Adams a lithophyte with a narrow distribution at an elevation of 250 m in the wet tropics. Adams that has variably coloured flowers and only grows on Larat Island in the Tanimbar group; the Cooktown orchid, that has the largest flowers in the group but which lack the white spot in the centre of the labellum and occurs between Cooktown and Mount Molloy.
The taxonomy of this species and of its varieties is confused with respect to the scientific name of the Cooktown orchid. On 19 November 1959, the Cooktown Orchid was proclaimed as the floral emblem of Queensland. In 2015 Peter Adams reduced Fitzgerald's D. phalaenopsis to a synonym of D. bigibbum var. superbum and this has been accepted by WCSP. Adams reduced David Jones's Vappodes lithocola to a synonym of D. bigibbum var. compactum, D. phalaenopsis var. compactum to D. bigibbum var. compactum and D. striaenopsis to D. bigibbum var. schroederianum. The Queensland government, in preparation for its 1959 Centenary, sought advice as to what native species would be a good floral emblem; the government was looking for an grown species found only in Queensland, decorative and close to the State colour, maroon. The Cooktown orchid, which meets these criteria, was one of the four initial suggestions, the others being the red silky oak, the umbrella tree (Brassaia actinophylla, the wheel-of-fire; the Courier-Mail, a Brisbane newspaper, sought additional suggestions from its readers, compiled a list of 13 possibilities.
In a public poll, the Cooktown orchid came in first place, the red silky oak in second, poinsettia the floral emblem of the capital city Brisbane, came in third. In 1968 the Cooktown orchid was featured on an Australian postage stamp; this orchid species grows on trees and rocks in rainforest, coastal scrub,near rivers, in swamps and open forest in tropical Queensland, southern New Guinea and a single island in Indonesia. Dendrobium bigibbum is listed as "vulnerable" under the Australian Government Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999; the main threats to the species are "settlement and visitor pressures inappropriate fire regimes and illegal collection. It is illegal to collect the Cooktown orchid from its natural environment without a licence. Commercially cultivated plants like a dry, sunny position with a minimum of watering and a temperature that does not fall below 13 °C. Specimens need a bush-house in cooler climates
Guugu Yimithirr people
The Guugu Yimithirr known as Kokoimudji, are an Australian Aboriginal tribe of Far North Queensland, many of whom today live at Hopevale, the administrative centre of Hopevale Shire. At the 2011 census, Hopevale had a population of 1,005 people, it is about 46 km from Cooktown by road. It is the name of their language, they were both a coastal and inland people, the former clans referring to themselves as a "saltwater people". Guugu Yimidhirr, meaning'language/speaking'this way', was one of the earliest Australian languages to be recorded, since Sydney Parkinson took down a list of 200 words during Captain Cook's stop-over in the area in 1770; the major dialects are dhalun-dhirr, spoken on the coastal areas, waguurr-ga, the inland vernacular. It is still spoken by 200 people, was listed by Peter Austin as one of the languages at immediate risk of extinction. Guugu Yimithirr had several dialects: dhalan-dhirr; because they intermarried with tribes speaking other tongues, it was not unusual for Guugu Yimithirr people to be familiar with several languages.
The traditional territory of the Guugu Yimithirr speakers extended from the Endeavour River outlet inland, ranged as far north as the mouth of the Starcke river, or, according to Norman Tindale, to the southern vicinity of Cape Flattery. Westwards it reached the source of the Jack River and south to Battle Camp, north-west of Cooktown. Tindale assigned them, in an overall domain extent of some 600 square miles. Dialects of the same language were spoken north of Cape Bedford and the McIvor River, inland as far as the source of the Jack River. Captain Cook left a few pigs on the land, they bred to become a major local source of food. Guugu Yimithirr practice certain forms of social avoidance; the language itself has a form of avoidance language in which, speaking in the presence of certain family members, one must adopt a different vocabulary from that employed. In everyday conversation'the man is going' is bama dhaday. In the presence of certain kin, this must be altered to yambaal bali. Speaking was forbidden in the presence of one's mother-in-law, one being obliged to sit, with bowed head, silently.
The system of spatial coordination inscribed in the language is different from that in Western languages, where the reference system is relative with respect to the subject. In Guugu Yimidhirr, as in Kayardild space is rendered in absolute terms, like the cardinal points, south, west, independent of whether something is in front of, behind, to the left or right of a person; the language thus provides them with a mental map, allowing quite a precise dead-reckoning of all points around them wherever they are. For example, if your Guugu Yimidhirr guest, on leaving your house, had to inform you he or she had left her tobacco behind, they would be required to state grammatically in their native language something like: I left it on the southern table in the western side of your house. Lt. James Cook anchored at the mouth of the Endeavour River at the site of modern Cooktown, on 11 June 1770 after their ship, the HM Bark Endeavour was damaged on a reef, stayed in the area for seven weeks while repair work was done on the hull.
Though the modern population was displaced and pushed 30 miles northwards, this was the traditional land of the Guugu Yimithirr. The expedition's members found them to be quite friendly, though they kept their distance. After a month, the Europeans were approached by five men, an amicable relationship was established, as they were shown the Endeavour; the day after, things deteriorated when, while visiting the Endeavour they found a catch of local turtles, expected a share of the harvest, which Cook strained to feed his own, declined to do. He offered them bread. Different concepts of hospitality and the rules of sharing clashed. Soon after, the natives set fire to grass in the bay, in retaliation, some received injuries from shot. One of the members of the crew, the skilled botanist and drawer Sydney Parkinson set down in his journal a sketch of the local people, he described them as diminutive and small boned, their skin painted with red and white ochre, with wood-sooty skin and given to shaving their hair off.
They practiced nose piercing. Women wore, they used wood from the ficus riduola as a rasp to sharpen their spears, which were tipped with bone. Their languages was quite mellifluous, with clear enunciation; the tribes of the area around Cooktown were decimated, the Guugu Yimithirr being'substantially erxterminated', by a variety of factors. In 1885 a curfew was imposed on them. In the same year, while delayed on his journey to Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, the Lutheran missionary Johann Flierl founded the Elim Aboriginal Mission some 230 miles to the north of Cooktown, at Cape Bedford, the following year the governance of the mission was assumed by the G. H. Schwartz, who renamed it Hope Vale, he stayed on with his converted congregation right through to the Second World War, when the population was relocated inland from Rockhampton. Schwartz, there since the age of 19 and who had forgotten to take naturalization, had mastered the language which contributed to the retention