Girl Guides or Girl Scouts is a movement found worldwide, still designed for girls and women only. This organisation was introduced in 1909, because girls demanded to take part in the grassroots Boy Scout Movement. In different places around the world, the movement developed in diverse ways. In some places, girls attempted to join Scouting organisations. In other places, girls' groups were started independently, some of them opening up to boys or merging with boys' organisations. In other instances, mixed groups were formed, sometimes to split. In the same way, the name Girl Guide or Girl Scout has been used by groups at different times and in different places, with some groups changing from one to another; the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts was formed in 1928 and has member organisations in 145 countries. There are now more than 10 million members worldwide. WAGGGS celebrated the centenary of the international Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting Movement over three years, from 2010 to 2012.
Lieutenant-General Robert Baden-Powell was a British soldier during the Second Anglo-Boer War in South Africa. He was the commander during the Siege of Mafeking, noted during the siege how young boys made themselves useful by carrying messages for the soldiers; when he came home, he decided to put his Scouting ideas into practice to see if they would work for young boys, took 21 boys camping on Brownsea Island, near Poole in Dorset. The camp was a success, subsequently Baden-Powell wrote the book Scouting for Boys; the book covered topics such as tracking and cooking, it outlined a Scout method for an'instruction in good citizenship'. Soon boys began to organise themselves into Patrols and Troops and calling themselves "Boy Scouts". Girls bought the book as well and formed themselves into Patrols of Girl Scouts, while some girls and boys formed mixed Patrols. In those days, for girls to camp and hike was not common, as shown by this excerpt from The Boy Scouts Headquarters Gazette of 1909: "If a girl is not allowed to run, or hurry, to swim, ride a bike, or raise her arms above her head, how can she become a Scout?"
Girl Scouts were registered at Scout Headquarters. In 1909 there was a Boy Scout rally at Crystal Palace in London. Among the thousands of Boy Scouts at the rally were several hundred Girl Scouts, including a group of girls from Peckham Rye who had no tickets, they asked Baden-Powell to let them join in. Following negative publicity in "The Spectator" magazine Baden-Powell decided that a separate single-sex organisation would be best. Baden-Powell asked Agnes Baden-Powell, to form a separate Girl Guides organisation. In 1910 The Girl Guides were formed in the United Kingdom; the first Guide Company to be registered was 1st Pinkneys Green Guides, who still exist in Pinkneys Green, Berkshire. Many, though by no means all, Girl Guide and Girl Scout groups across the globe trace their roots to this point. Baden-Powell chose the name "Guides" from a regiment in the British Indian Army, the Corps of Guides, which served on the Northwest Frontier and was noted for its skills in tracking and survival. In some countries, the girls preferred to remain or call themselves ‘Girl Scouts’.
Other influential women in the history of the movement were Juliette Gordon Low, founder of the Girl Scouts of the USA, Olga Drahonowska-Małkowska in Poland and Antoinette Butte in France. The Guide International Service was an organisation set up by the Girl Guides Association in Britain in 1942, their aim was to send teams of adult Girl Guides to Europe after World War II to aid with relief work. It is described in two books: All Things Uncertain by Phyllis Stewart Brown and Guides Can Do Anything by Nancy Eastick. A total of 198 Guiders and 60 Scouts, drawn from Britain, Canada and Kenya, served in teams; some went to relieve the Bergen-Belsen displaced persons camp. There has been much discussion about how similar Girl Guiding and Girl Scouting should be to boys' Scouting programmes. While many girls saw what the boys were doing and wanted to do it too, many girls' organisations have sought to avoid copying or mimicking the boys. Julie Bentley, appointed chief executive of the United Kingdom Girl Guides in 2012 and head of the Family Planning Association since 2007, described the Girl Guides in an interview with The Times as "the ultimate feminist organisation".
When most Scout organisations became mixed-sex, Guiding remained separate in most countries to provide a female-centred programme. For example, the UK Scout Association introduced a mixed-sex provision in 1976 with the Venture Scout programme, for all age-based sections in 1991, became co-educational in 2007; however Girl Guiding in the UK remains limited to girls. Transgender girls are admitted to units in some countries. Transgender women are allowed to become leaders in the United Kingdom Girl Guides. Things that are shared amongst all Guide Units are: The Guide Promise – Girls become Guides by making their Promise; each country has its own Promise, but all have the same three parts: duty to God or to your beliefs, duty to your country and keeping the Guide Law. Though there was a religious aspect, many countries are moving towards more non-denominational promises; the Good Turn – Each Guide tries to do a kind thing for someone else, without payment and without being asked, every day. The World Badge – This can be worn on uniform or ordinary clothes.
The three leaves of the trefoil stand for the threefold Promise. The vein in the centre is a compass needle, pointing the way and the two stars stand for t
Münsingen is a town in the district of Reutlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 23 km southeast of Reutlingen, 37 km west of Ulm; the name Münsingen is assumed to be derived of an alemannic chief called Munigis, who founded a settlement on the present-day city boundaries. In 775 Münsingen is mentioned for the first time on a deed of gift of Lorsch Abbey; the church of Münsingen is first mentioned in 804. After the rule of the Franks the village went to the county of Württemberg-Urach, which sold it in 1263 to Ulrich I. In 1339, Münsingen was granted Town privileges. Through the partition of Württemberg it came under the purview of Urach, until in 1482 the Treaty of Münsingen declared the re-unification of the County of Württemberg. On October 23, 1654 it became an administrative center of regional importance. From 1938 to 1973 Münsingen was capital of the district of Münsingen. In 1895, the German Empire began the construction of a proving ground; this became the Duke-Albrecht-Barracks.
It was closed on March 31, 2004. The ground was transformed into a settlement. A church building in Münsingen was first mentioned in 804; the Reformation was introduced in 1537 to Münsingen as well as to the surrounding villages of Apfelstetten, Auingen, Böttingen, Dottingen, Hundersingen and Trailfingen and the Lutheran Church Order, as everywhere in the Duchy of Württemberg, was introduced in 1559. The villages of Bichishausen and Bremelau, now administratively part of Münsingen, used to be part of the Principality of Fürstenberg and Further Austria and are therefore predimoninatly Roman Catholic; the village of Magolsheim was on the border between Württemberg and Further Austria and has two churches, one Protestant and one Catholic. Münsingen was seat of the Church District of Münsingen of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg until 1 December 2013 when the neighboring district of Bad Urach was merged with Münsingen to form the Church District Bad Urach-Münsingen. Represented in Münsingen are the Apostolic Church, the Baptists, the United Methodist Church and the Biblical faith community Münsingen.
Al large Jewish community used to exist in the village of Buttenhausen. The Jews of Buttenhausen were integrated into the communal life; this became apparent when during the November 1938 pogrom, the SA squad first had to arrest the mayor of Buttenhausen, who had stubbornly resisted the desecration of the synagogue. Only the synagogue was burnt down; the remaining Jewish families became victims of the Shoah. At the former site of the synagogue a memorial stone commemorates this event. Additionally, in 1961 a memorial was erected in the centre of Buttenhausen with the names of 45 murdered Jewish inhabitants; the Jewish cemetery, in use from 1787 to 1943 received a memorial stone. In Münsingen there is a mosque; the congregation consists of ca. 70 members. Bichishausen Lauter valley Dürrenstetten was in 1822 united with Gundelfingen; as part of the municipal reform in Baden-Württemberg the following independent municipalities were amalgamated with Münsingen: July 1, 1971: Auingen, Böttingen and Dottingen January 1, 1974: Apfelstetten and Gundelfingen April 1, 1974: Bremelau and Trailfingen January 1, 1975: Bichishausen, Buttenhausen Hundersingen and Rietheim View on Münsingen Half-timber house, City of Münsingen The council in Münsingen has after the last election 24 members.
The local elections in Baden-Württemberg 2014 on May 25, 2014 resulted in the following official results. The turnout was 50.2%. The council consists of the mayor as chairman; the mayor is entitled to vote in the municipal council. The Mayor is elected for a term of eight years; the term of office of Mike Muenzing ends on 27 November 2021. Around 1510: Jakob Ilsenbrand Ludwig Neuffer 1587: Hans Hawysen - N. N. - 1900-1922: August Wörner 1922-1945: Otto Werner 1945-1949: Eugen Hahn 1949-1971: Erwin Volz 1971-1981: Heinz Kälberer 1981-1997: Rolf Keller since 1997: Mike Münzing SPD The blazon coat of arms reads: "In silver a reclining four-ended black deer rod." Münsingen is twinned with the following cities: and maintains friendly relations with: Münsingen is located on the Swabian Poet Route, which passes by many sights. The musical culture Münsingen is borne by the local music clubs. With the trombone choirs in Münsingen, Hundersingen-Buttenhausen and Dottingen, the Stadtkapelle Münsingen and the music clubs Böttingen and Rietheim many clubs are active in the field of Brass Band.
There are several church choirs, as well as the secular singer Communities "Liederkranz Münsingen" Männergesangsverein Apfelstetten, Sängerbund Buttenhausen, Liederkranz Dottingen, Liedertafel Hundersingen, men's glee club Trailfingen and the chorus of EJW district Münsingen. Featured buildings in Münsingen are the historic Old Town Hall from 1550, its successor, the New Town Hall in timbered house style, built in 1935-1937; the "old stock" as a historical site with more than 140 buildings for up to 5200 soldiers. Worth seeing are the market fountain and the Martin Church, completed in 1495 by Peter of Koblenz. In Buttenhausen district Castle Buttenhausen and a Jewish Cemetery. In addition, several ruins exist for example the Castle Hohenhundersingen. In the peripheral area of the former military training area Münsingen are four Towers of Swabian Albverein, which are all accessible; the 42 m high'Hursch Tower"is about 1.5 km southwest of Römerstein-Zainingen and was erected in 1981. The 20 m
In Scouting, a jamboree is a large gathering of Scouts who rally at a national or international level. The 1st World Scout Jamboree was held in 1920, was hosted by the United Kingdom. Since there have been twenty three World Scout Jamborees, hosted in various countries every four years; the 24th World Jamboree is to be held in North America in 2019. The average Scout Life of a boy is a comparatively short one, it is good for each generation of Scouts to see at least one big rally, since it enables the boy to realize his membership of a great brotherhood, at the same time brings him into personal acquaintance with brother Scouts of other districts and other countries. There are national and continental jamborees held around the world with varying frequency. Many of these events will attract Scouts from overseas. With the birth of the Jamboree concept, other large gatherings are organized by national Scout organizations, geared towards a particular group of Scouts. Examples of these large gatherings include: Moot - a camp or a gathering of Rovers Venture - a gathering of young people in the Venture section Indaba - a camp or a gathering of Adult Scout leaders Agoonoree - a camp of Scouts with special needs COMDECA - acronym for Community Development Camp, a large gathering of young people, implementing community development projects The origin of the word "Jamboree" is not well understood.
This is reflected in many dictionary entries. For example, according to the Canadian Oxford Dictionary, the etymology is "19th century, origin unknown"; the Oxford English Dictionary identifies it as coming from American slang, identifying a use in the New York Herald in 1868 and in Irish writings in the 19th century. Within a half century, the meaning outside the Scouting program was becoming lost. For example, Robert Graves in The Crowning Privilege: The Clark Lectures, 1954–1955 suggests Baden-Powell might have known the word through his regiment's Irish links rather than from the US slang. Poet Robert W. Service used the term well before the first Scouting jamboree, it appears in the poem "Athabaska Dick" in his Rhymes of a Rolling Stone, published in 1912. By the word was becoming to mean a rowdy, boisterous gathering. Baden-Powell was once asked why he chose "jamboree", he replied, "What else would you call it?" His response made sense if the word had had a specific meaning other than a boisterous gathering.
It is popularly believed within the Scout Movement that the word was coined by Baden-Powell but it was never formally documented by either. The word "Jamboree" today has several claimed possible origins, ranging from Hindi to Swahili to Native American dialects, which further confuses the meaning used by Baden-Powell; the most logical use is that the name "Jamboree" is derived from the Swahili for hello, Jambo!, as a result of the considerable amount of time he spent in the South African region in the 1880s again in the late 1890s. The word Jamboree is used as a borrowed foreign word, with the ending - ree; the word Jamboree is a transitive verb with a direct action of the primary word Jambo. For example, an attendee of a Jambo is a Jamboree; the word "Jamboree" is used by the Scouting program before the first Boy Scout Jamboree in 1920. The word has come to mean "a lavish or boisterous celebration or party" outside of the Scouting program. Baden-Powell deliberately chose the name "Jamboree" where attendees were warmly welcomed attending this first Boy Scout rally or meeting with the word "Jambo!"
Many, at this first "Jamboree" or "Scout gathering" did not capture the spirit of this then-new concept or greeting. At the first "World Jamboree" at Olympia in 1920, Lord Baden-Powell said "People give different meanings for this word, but from this year on, jamboree will take a specific meaning, it will be associated to the largest gathering of youth that took place."Olave, Lady Baden-Powell, coined the term jamborese to refer to the lingua franca used between Scouts of different languages and cultural habits, that develops when diverse Scouts meet, that fosters friendship and understanding between Scouts of the world. Sometimes the word jamborette is used to denote smaller, either international, gatherings. A used word "Camporee" in the Scouting program is reflective of the older English style of use. "Camporee" today reflects a local or regional gathering of Scouting units for a period of camping and common activities. Similar to a camporee, a jamboree occurs less and draws units from the entire nation or world.
World Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from all over the world under the World Organization of the Scout Movement. Attendance is 30-40,000. World Scout Jamboree on the Air - an amateur radio event linking Scouts across the world World Scout Jamboree on the Internet Jamboree on the Trail is an international day of hiking Africa Scout Jamboree Arab Scout Jamboree Asia-Pacific Scout Jamboree Caribbean Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from the Caribbean Central European Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from Central Europe European Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from all over Europe Interamerican Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from the Interamerican Scout Region Essex International Jamboree, a gathering of 7,000-9,000 Scouts and Guides from all over the world, held since 1927 World Federation of Independent Scouts World Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts of the World Federation of Independent Scouts Jamboree 2008, a celebration of the 1908 Humshaugh camp Homenetmen General Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts of the Homenetmen National Scout jamboree, Boy Scouts of America Canadian Scout Jamboree, a gathering of Scouts from Canada Australian Scout Jamboree, a gatheri
Rheinsberg is a town and a municipality in the Ostprignitz-Ruppin district, in Brandenburg, Germany. It is situated on approx. 20 km north-east of Neuruppin and 75 km north-west of Berlin. Frederick the Great, while still Crown Prince and moved into a restored chateau in Rheinsberg shortly after his 1733 marriage to Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Bevern. Here he experienced his "Rheinsberg Period", an era marked by regular correspondence with Voltaire, boisterous celebration in the company of minor philosophers and musicians, the writing of several works of political theory, including the Anti-Machiavel. In 1870, the painter Eduard Gaertner and his family decided to leave the hectic atmosphere of Berlin and settle in Flecken Zechlin, a suburb of Rheinsberg - where he lived until his death in 1877. Großer Prebelowsee Großer Zechliner See Schwarzer See Tietzowsee Zootzensee Huber Heights Gad Granach, German writer Erhard Egidi, German cantor and organist Lothar Baumgarten, German artist Official website
East Germany the German Democratic Republic, was a country that existed from 1949 to 1990, when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War. It described itself as a socialist "workers' and peasants' state", the territory was administered and occupied by Soviet forces at the end of World War II — the Soviet Occupation Zone of the Potsdam Agreement, bounded on the east by the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet zone did not include it. The German Democratic Republic was established in the Soviet zone, while the Federal Republic was established in the three western zones. East Germany was a satellite state of the Soviet Union. Soviet occupation authorities began transferring administrative responsibility to German communist leaders in 1948, the GDR began to function as a state on 7 October 1949. However, Soviet forces remained in the country throughout the Cold War; until 1989, the GDR was governed by the Socialist Unity Party, though other parties nominally participated in its alliance organisation, the National Front of Democratic Germany.
The SED made the teaching of Marxism -- the Russian language compulsory in schools. The economy was centrally planned and state-owned. Prices of housing, basic goods and services were set by central government planners rather than rising and falling through supply and demand. Although the GDR had to pay substantial war reparations to the USSR, it became the most successful economy in the Eastern Bloc. Emigration to the West was a significant problem – as many of the emigrants were well-educated young people, it further weakened the state economically; the government fortified its western borders and, in 1961, built the Berlin Wall. Many people attempting to flee were killed by border guards or booby traps, such as landmines. Several others were imprisoned for many years. In 1989, numerous social and political forces in the GDR and abroad led to the fall of the Berlin Wall and the establishment of a government committed to liberalisation; the following year, open elections were held, international negotiations led to the signing of the Final Settlement treaty on the status and borders of Germany.
The GDR dissolved itself, Germany was reunified on 3 October 1990, becoming a sovereign state again. Several of the GDR's leaders, notably its last communist leader Egon Krenz, were prosecuted in reunified Germany for crimes committed during the Cold War. Geographically, the German Democratic Republic bordered the Baltic Sea to the north. Internally, the GDR bordered the Soviet sector of Allied-occupied Berlin, known as East Berlin, administered as the state's de facto capital, it bordered the three sectors occupied by the United States, United Kingdom and France known collectively as West Berlin. The three sectors occupied by the Western nations were sealed off from the rest of the GDR by the Berlin Wall from its construction in 1961 until it was brought down in 1989; the official name was Deutsche Demokratische Republik abbreviated to DDR. Both terms were used in East Germany, with increasing usage of the abbreviated form since East Germany considered West Germans and West Berliners to be foreigners following the promulgation of its second constitution in 1968.
West Germans, the western media and statesmen avoided the official name and its abbreviation, instead using terms like Ostzone, Sowjetische Besatzungszone, sogenannte DDR. The centre of political power in East Berlin was referred to as Pankow. Over time, the abbreviation DDR was increasingly used colloquially by West Germans and West German media; the term Westdeutschland, when used by West Germans, was always a reference to the geographic region of Western Germany and not to the area within the boundaries of the Federal Republic of Germany. However, this use was not always consistent. Before World War II, Ostdeutschland was used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe, as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt. Explaining the internal impact of the DDR regime from the perspective of German history in the long term, historian Gerhard A. Ritter has argued that the East German state was defined by two dominant forces – Soviet Communism on the one hand, German traditions filtered through the interwar experiences of German Communists on the other.
It always was constrained by the powerful example of the prosperous West, to which East Germans compared their nation. The changes wrought by the Communists were most apparent in ending capitalism and transforming industry and agriculture, in the militarization of society, in the political thrust of the educational system and the media. On the other hand, there was little change made in the independent domains of the sciences, the engineering professions, the Protestant churches, in many bourgeois lifestyles. Social policy, says Ritter, became a critical legitimization tool in the last decades and mixed socialist and traditional elements about equally. At the Yalta Conference during World War II, the Allies (the U. S. the UK and
Brandenburg is a state of Germany. Brandenburg is located in the northeast of Germany covering an area of 29,478 square kilometres and has a population of 2.5 million residents, the fifth-largest German state by area and tenth-most populous. Potsdam is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Brandenburg an der Havel and Frankfurt. Brandenburg surrounds the national capital and city-state of Berlin, which together form the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, the third-largest metropolitan area in Germany. Brandenburg borders the states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony, the country of Poland. Brandenburg originated in the Northern March in the 900s AD from areas conquered from the Wends, became the Margraviate of Brandenburg, a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire, with Albert the Bear as prince-elector. In the 17th century Brandenburg came under the rule of the House of Hohenzollern, the rulers of Prussia, who established Brandenburg-Prussia to become the core of the Kingdom of Prussia.
Brandenburg became the Province of Brandenburg in 1815, a province within the kingdom and within the Free State of Prussia. Brandenburg was established as a state in 1945 after World War II by the Soviet army administration in Allied-occupied Germany, became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947. Brandenburg was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Potsdam, Frankfurt and Schwerin, but was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states. In late medieval and early modern times, Brandenburg was one of seven electoral states of the Holy Roman Empire, along with Prussia, formed the original core of the German Empire, the first unified German state. Governed by the Hohenzollern dynasty from 1415, it contained the future German capital Berlin. After 1618 the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were combined to form Brandenburg-Prussia, ruled by the same branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
In 1701 the state was elevated as the Kingdom of Prussia. Franconian Nuremberg and Ansbach, Swabian Hohenzollern, the eastern European connections of Berlin, the status of Brandenburg's ruler as prince-elector together were instrumental in the rise of that state. Brandenburg is situated in territory known in antiquity as Magna Germania, which reached to the Vistula river. By the 7th century, Slavic peoples are believed to have settled in the Brandenburg area; the Slavs expanded from the east driven from their homelands in present-day Ukraine and Belarus by the invasions of the Huns and Avars. They relied on river transport; the two principal Slavic groups in the present-day area of Brandenburg were the Hevelli in the west and the Sprevane in the east. Beginning in the early 10th century, Henry the Fowler and his successors conquered territory up to the Oder River. Slavic settlements such as Brenna and Chośebuz came under imperial control through the installation of margraves, their main function was to protect the eastern marches.
In 948 Emperor Otto I established margraves to exert imperial control over the pagan Slavs west of the Oder River. Otto founded the Bishoprics of Havelberg; the Northern March was founded as a northeastern border territory of the Holy Roman Empire. However, a great uprising of Wends drove imperial forces from the territory of present-day Brandenburg in 983; the region returned to the control of Slavic leaders. During the 12th century, the German kings and emperors re-established control over the mixed Slav-inhabited lands of present-day Brandenburg, although some Slavs like the Sorbs in Lusatia adapted to Germanization while retaining their distinctiveness; the Roman Catholic Church brought bishoprics which, with their walled towns, afforded protection from attacks for the townspeople. With the monks and bishops, the history of the town of Brandenburg an der Havel, the first center of the state of Brandenburg, began. In 1134, in the wake of a German crusade against the Wends, the German magnate, Albert the Bear, was granted the Northern March by the Emperor Lothar III.
He formally inherited the town of Brandenburg and the lands of the Hevelli from their last Wendish ruler, Pribislav, in 1150. After crushing a force of Sprevane who occupied the town of Brandenburg in the 1150s, Albert proclaimed himself ruler of the new Margraviate of Brandenburg. Albert, his descendants the Ascanians made considerable progress in conquering, colonizing and cultivating lands as far east as the Oder. Within this region and German residents intermarried. During the 13th century, the Ascanians began acquiring territory east of the Oder known as the Neumark. In 1320, the Brandenburg Ascanian line came to an end, from 1323 up until 1415 Brandenburg was under the control of the Wittelsbachs of Bavaria, followed by the Luxembourg Dynasties. Under the Luxembourgs, the Margrave of Brandenburg gained the status of a prince-elector of the Holy Roman Empire. In the period 1373-1415, Brandenburg was a part of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown. In 1415, the Electorate of Brandenburg was granted by Emperor Sigismund to the House of Hohenzollern, which would rule until the end of World War I.
The Hohenzollerns established their capital in Berlin, by the economic center of Brandenburg. Brandenburg converted to Protestantism in 1539 in the wake of the Protestant Reformation, did quite we
Wolfsburg is the fifth largest city in the German state of Lower Saxony. Located on the River Aller, it lies 230 km west of Berlin. In 2013, Wolfsburg ranked as the richest city in Germany with a GDP per capita of $128,000 due to its thriving auto industry. Wolfsburg is famous as the location of Volkswagen AG's headquarters and the world's biggest car plant; the Autostadt is a visitor attraction next to the Volkswagen factory that features the company's model range: Audi, Bugatti, Lamborghini, MAN, Porsche, Scania, SEAT, Škoda Auto, TRATON AG, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles. Wolfsburg is one of the few German cities built during the first half of the 20th century. From its foundation on 1 July 1938 as a home for workers producing the "KdF-Wagen" until 25 May 1945, the city was called "Stadt des KdF-Wagens bei Fallersleben". In 1972, the population first exceeded 100,000. Wolfsburg is located at the Southern edge of the ancient river valley of the Aller at the Mittellandkanal, it is bordered by the districts of Helmstedt.
The total annual precipitation is about 532 mm, quite low as it belongs to the lowest tenth of the measured data in Germany. Only 7% of all observation stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst record lower data; the driest month is October, most precipitation is measured in June where observation stations measure 1.9 times more precipitation than in October. Precipitation hardly diversifies and is distributed all over the year. Only 17% of observation stations measure lower annual deviation; the castle "Wolfsburg" was first mentioned in 1302 in a document as the domicile of the noble lineage of Bartensleben. A keep next to the Aller, it was protected by a moat some centuries later. In 1372, the first documentary reference to the Burg Neuhaus near Wolfsburg appeared. After the extinction of the Bartensleben line in 1742, the property and its Schloss Wolfsburg passed on to the Earls of the Schulenburg; the communal manor was an important employer for the nearby settlements Heßlingen. Some of today's urban districts, including Heßlingen, belonged to the Duke of Magdeburg during the 18th century.
In 1932, these districts were detached from the Prussian province Saxony and integrated in the administrative district of Lüneburg belonging to Hannover. Other urban districts, like Vorsfelde and the villages transferred to Wolfsburg from the county of Helmstedt, belonged to the Duke of Braunschweig for centuries. Fallersleben and other villages belonged to the Electorate of Braunschweig - Lüneburg or the Kingdom of Hanover. Wolfsburg was founded on 1 July 1938 as the Stadt des KdF-Wagens bei Fallersleben, a planned town centred around the village of Fallersleben, built to house workers of the Volkswagen factories erected to assemble the Volkswagen Beetle. During World War II military cars and other military equipment were built there by forced workers and POWs.. In 1942, German authorities established the Arbeitsdorf concentration camp in the city for a few months. At the urging of the British occupying power, the city was renamed as Wolfsburg on 25 May 1945, after the eponymous castle located there.
In 1951, Wolfsburg was separated from the District of Gifhorn, became an urban district. In 1955 the one-millionth VW Beetle was manufactured in Wolfsburg. Postwar Beetle production ended in Wolfsburg in 1974, though German Beetle production continued in Emden until 1978; the factories in Wolfsburg remain a key part of Volkswagen's production capacity. During the German economic miracle Wolfsburg experienced a large influx of immigrant workers from Italy. In 1958 the city hall was built. In 1960 the Volkswagenwerk GmbH was changed into an AG. In the course of a land reform in Lower Saxony in 1972, 20 localities were added to the city through the "Wolfsburg-Act". Wolfsburg gained the status of major city with nearly 131,000 inhabitants; the city's area grew from 35 to nearly 204 square kilometers. In 1973, the city's population peaked at 131,971. In 1982 the A39, a side road of the A2, was built as a direct freeway to Wolfsburg. In 1988, the city became a university town with the establishment of the University of Applied Science Braunschweig/Wolfenbüttel.
Today its name is Ostfalia University of Applied Science. As a launch promotion for the 5th generation of the Volkswagen Golf the city of Wolfsburg welcomed visitors on the internet, on the official stationery, on every city limit sign with the name "Golfsburg" from 25 August to 10 October 2003; this campaign gained the nationwide attention of press, TV broadcasting. In the summer of 2009, Wolfsburg gained nationwide attention when their football team, VfL Wolfsburg, won the German football league. A party was held in the city centre with about 100,000 people, was a first in the history of the city; the centre of Wolfsburg is unique in Germany. Instead of a medieval town center, Wolfsburg features a new and modern attraction called the Autostadt; the old part of the town Alt Wolfsburg shows some manor buildings in traditional framework style. Atop a hill by the River Aller is the Wolfsburg Castle; the Autostadt is an open-air museum-theme park dedicated to automobiles owned and operated by Volkswagen.
In the center of the park are the pavilions featuring Volkswagen's major brands: Volkswagen and Audi to the north, further south are SEAT, Škoda Auto, Bentley and the Premium Clubhouse. Right next t