click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Verbeia

In ancient Celtic polytheism, Verbeia was a goddess worshipped in Roman Britain. She is known from a single altar-stone dedicated to her at Ilkley, she is considered to have been a deification of the River Wharfe. An image of a woman may represent the goddess: she is depicted with an overlarge head and schematic features; the stone bearing the image thought to represent Verbeia now stands inside the Manor House Museum in Ilkley. The Manor House and neighbouring All Saints church are situated on the site of the Roman fort, claimed to be named'Verbeia', it was the Second Cohort of Lingones troops stationed here during the second century AD who inscribed the above-mentioned altar-stone. Anne Ross compares this image with one of a goddess found in Mavilly-Mandelot, portrayed with a similar pleated garment, holding two snakes in one hand, on an altar associated with aquatic cults. Ross fails to mention that this region of France is where the Lingones, a Gaulish tribe from which the Roman troops were recruited, originated.

It seems possible. Some sources state, that the Ilkley troops were recruited from the Lingones in northeast Italy; the Swastika Stone is a petroglyph on the northern edge of Ilkley Moor, overlooking the Wharfe valley, unique in British rock art. It is otherwise distinct from the cup-and-ring art found across the moor, it is identical in form to certain of the Camunian rose motifs found in Val Camonica, northern Italy. It seems possible that the Lingones troops who worshipped Verbeia may have encountered the Camunian rose on migrating across the Alps, adopted the symbol, carving it on Ilkley Moor while stationed there. Ross associates Verbeia with the goddesses Brigid and Brigantia. Given that Brigid's cross is a prevalent swastika-like image in Ireland, there may be further links here between Verbeia, imported Gaulish cults, the swastika image. Proto-Celtic is reconstructed as having *werbā-'blister' in its lexicon and the name may be a suffixed form of this lexeme meaning “blistered one.” On the other hand, the root of the name may represent a Celtic reflex of the Proto-Indo-European root *wer-bhe- ‘bend, turn,’ cognate with Modern English warp, followed by the durative suffix *-j- and the feminine suffix *-ā- and so might have meant “she, bending and turning.”

Another possibility is that the name is a compound of Romano-British reflexes of the Proto-Celtic elements **Uφer-bej-ā- “the upper striker.” Manor House Museum, Yorkshire, England. Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend, Miranda J. Green and Hudson Ltd, 1997 Research on Verbeia

John Masson Gulland

John Masson Gulland was a Scottish chemist and biochemist. His main work was on nucleic acids and aporphine alkaloids, his work at University College Nottingham on electrometric titration was important in leading to the discovery of the DNA double helix by James Watson and Francis Crick, he was described as "a great nucleic acid chemist." He established the Lace Research Council. Gulland was born at 6 Alva Street in Edinburgh's west end, the only son of Helen Orme Masson and Dr George Lovell Gulland, his maternal grandfather was David Masson and his maternal uncle was David Orme Masson. His paternal uncle was John William Gulland MP, his father became Professor of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh. He attended Edinburgh Academy 1906 to 1917 and was conscripted into the army in the First World War, he served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. He saw little if any enemy action. After the war he graduated with a BSc from the University of Edinburgh in 1921, he won a Carnegie Research Scholarship and undertook further studies at the University of St Andrews and the University of Manchester.

He worked in both places with Professor Robert Robinson with whom he would later work at the Dyson Perrins Laboratory at the University of Oxford from where he graduated MA. He became a demonstrator in chemistry in the University of Oxford in 1924, in 1926 was appointed as a Lecturer based at Balliol College. In 1927 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, his proposers were Sir James Walker, George Barger, Alexander Lauder, Ralph Allan Sampson. In 1931 he moved to the University of London as a Reader in Biochemistry acting as Senior Biochemist to the Lister Institute. In 1936 he moved to University College Nottingham as Professor of Chemistry. In the Second World War he worked for the Ministry of Home Security as Gas Advisor 1939 to 1943 and the Ministry of Supply 1943 to 1945, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of London in 1945. In 1947 he became Research Director for the Institute of Brewing, his career was cut short when he was killed in the Goswick rail crash near Berwick-on-Tweed, aged 49.

He is buried in the Grange Cemetery in south Edinburgh with his parents and uncle, John William Gulland. Gulland played a pivotal role in some of the research which led to the decoding of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953; the Nottingham team, which included his colleagues Denis Jordan, Cedric Threlfall, Michael Creeth, produced three papers in 1947: one led to high quality DNA samples, the next measured the viscosity of DNA and the third proved the all-important hydrogen bond structures within it. Five years Watson dismissed the Nottingham team’s work incorrectly, it took a year for him to realise his mistake; however "...a rereading of J. M. Gulland's and D. O. Jordan's papers...made me realize the strength of their conclusion that a large fraction, if not all, of the bases formed hydrogen bonds to other bases." Once Watson had recognised the key role of the hydrogen bonds the decoding of DNA seems to have come within about a week or ten days. The Nottingham team’s work was acknowledged in the first papers concerning the decoding of DNA by Rosalind Franklin and Raymond Gosling who reported that “Gulland and his collaborators … showed that … CO and NH2 groups of the bases are inaccessible … whereas the phosphate groups are accessible.”

Following these early citations rather less attention was given to the significance of the work of Gulland and his colleagues. By the time of the DNA decoding in 1953 events had moved on with the break-up of the Nottingham team: Gulland had moved on to become Research Director at the Institute of Brewing shortly before his untimely death in 1947, whilst Jordan and Creeth were both working outside the UK; however commemorations in 2010 and 2017 at the University of Nottingham posthumously acknowledged all their contributions, as did The Annotated and Illustrated Double Helix. There has been some speculative debate as to whether, if these events had turned out differently, the Nottingham team might have gone on to make the DNA decoding discovery themselves. In 1924 he married daughter of Sir James A. Russell, she was a fellow chemistry student. They had two daughters, his sister Flora Gulland married her cousin Irvine Masson

Associação Desportiva Perilima

Associação Desportiva Perilima is a soccer club from Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil. The club was founded on September 8, 1992; the club owner is Pedro Ribeiro Lima nicknamed'Seu Pedro'. Lima, born in 1948, is the oldest professional soccer player in the world, the oldest player to score a goal in professional soccer worldwide in 2007 against Campinense from the penalty spot. On September 1992, Pedro Ribeiro Lima founded a club named after his initials PEdro RIbeiro LIMA; the club was founded in a factory owned by him. Six years after, in 1998 the club entered in its first professional championship, at the time, the team was formed by the factory workers.'Seu Pedro' was both coach and player, they finished as runners-up and were promoted to Paraíba State Championship First Division. Campeonato Paraibano Second Division: runner-up in 5 times

Racewalking

Racewalking, or race walking, is a long-distance discipline within the sport of athletics. Although it is a foot race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times; this is assessed by race judges. Held on either roads or on running tracks, common distances range from 3,000 metres up to 100 kilometres. There are two racewalking distances contested at the Summer Olympics: the 20 kilometres race walk and 50 kilometres race walk. Both are held as road events; the biennial World Athletics Championships features these three events, in addition to a 50 km walk for women. The IAAF World Race Walking Cup, first held in 1961, is a stand-alone global competition for the discipline and it has 10 kilometres race walks for junior athletes, in addition to the Olympic-standard events; the IAAF World Indoor Championships featured 5000 m and 3000 m race walk variations, but these were discontinued after 1993. Top level athletics championships and games feature 20 km racewalking events.

The sport emerged from a British culture of long-distance competitive walking known as pedestrianism, which began to develop the ruleset, the basis of the modern discipline around the mid-19th century. Since the mid-20th century onwards and Chinese athletes have been among the most successful on the global stage, with Europe and parts of Latin America producing most of the remaining top level walkers. Compared to other forms of foot racing, stride length is reduced. There are only two rules; the first dictates that the athlete's back toe cannot leave the ground until the heel of the front foot has touched. Violation of this rule is known as loss of contact; the second rule requires that the supporting leg must straighten from the point of contact with the ground and remain straightened until the body passes directly over it. These rules are judged by the unaided human eye. Athletes lose contact for a few milliseconds per stride, which can be caught on film, but such a short flight phase is said to be undetectable to the human eye.

Athletes stay low to the ground by keeping their arms pumping low, close to their hips. If one sees a racewalker's shoulders rising, it may be a sign that the athlete is losing contact with the ground. What appears to be an exaggerated swivel to the hip is, in fact, a full rotation of the pelvis. Athletes aim to move the pelvis forward and to minimize sideways motion in order to achieve maximum forward propulsion. Speed is achieved by stepping with the aim of rapid turnover; this minimizes the risk of the feet leaving the ground. Strides are short and quick, with pushoff coming forward from the ball of the foot, again to minimize the risk of losing contact with the ground. World-class racewalkers can average under five minutes per kilometre in a 20-km racewalk. Races have been walked at distances as short as 3 kilometres —at the 1920 Summer Olympics—and as long as 100 km; the men's world record for the 50-mile race walk is held by Israeli Shaul Ladany, whose time of 7:23:50 in 1972 beat the world record that had stood since 1935.

The modern Olympic events are the 20 km race walk and 50 km race walk. One example of a longer racewalking competition is the annual Paris-Colmar, 450 to 500 km. Indoor races are 5000 m. There are judges on the course to monitor form. Three judges submitting "red cards" for violations results in disqualification. There is a scoreboard placed on the course. If the third violation is received, the chief judge removes the competitor from the course by showing a red paddle. For monitoring reasons, races are held on a looped course or on a track so judges get to see competitors several times during a race. A judge could "caution" a competitor that he or she is in danger of losing form by showing a paddle that indicates either losing contact or bent knees. No judge may submit more than one card for each walker and the chief judge may not submit any cards. Disqualifications are routine at the elite level, such as the famous case of Jane Saville, disqualified within sight of a gold medal in front of her home crowd in the 2000 Summer Olympics, or Yet Lyu, disqualified 20 meters before the finish line at the 2017 World Championships in Athletics.

Racewalking developed as one of the original track and field events of the first meeting of the English Amateur Athletics Association in 1880. The first racewalking codes came from an attempt to regulate rules for popular 19th century long distance competitive walking events, called pedestrianism. Pedestrianism had developed, like footraces and horse racing, as a popular working class British and American pastime, a venue for wagering. Walkers organised the first English amateur walking championship in 1866, won by John Chambers, judged by the "fair heel and toe" rule; this rather vague code was the basis for the rules codified at the first Championships Meeting in 1880 of the Amateur Athletics Association in England, the birth of modern athletics. With football and other sports codified in the 19th century, the transition from professional pedestrianism to amateur racewalking was, while late, part of a process of regularisation occurring in most modern sports at this time. Racewalking is an Olympic athletics event with distances of 20 kilometres for both men and women and 50 kilometres for men only.

Racewalking first appeared in the mode

Carnage (DJ)

Diamanté Anthony Blackmon, better known by his stage names Carnage and El Diablo, is a Guatemalan-American record producer and DJ. Carnage is known for his live performances at major music festivals such as Tomorrowland and Ultra Music Festival and his hit singles "Bricks" with Migos and "I Like Tuh" with ILoveMakonnen. Diamanté Anthony Blackmon was born on January 1991, in Guatemala City, Guatemala; the "Letting People Go" music video retraces his families journey from Nicaragua, through Guatemala, across the southern US border as illegal immigrants. He grew up in Frederick, United States, he attended Walkersville High School in Maryland. When he was 16 years old, he started playing in small clubs in his hometown of Frederick. While he struggled to gain support from most schoolmates during his time at Walkersville HS, a few recognized his potential and wished him the best; those students fondly remember his original tagline - "Carnage in Da Building", with them still shouting it out when entering house parties.

Carnage has established himself in the EDM genre by pioneering the trap genre, having massive collaborations with DJs such as Steve Aoki and Borgore and features from Lil Pump, Mac Miller and many more. In October 2015, Carnage released his debut album Papi Gordo, which ranked at number 184 on the Billboard 200, it includes 15 songs such as "Touch", "Bricks", "November Skies". In April 2018, Carnage released his second album Battered Bloody, it includes 13 songs such as "Learn How to Watch", "Plur Genocide" and "Waterworld". The track ‘I Shyne’ with Lil Pump reached number 49 on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop while other tracks featured MadeinTYO, Takeoff and Yung Pinch. 2009Flowin 2012Marilyn Turn Up Bang! EP Teke Teke Loaded 2013Incredible Signal Michael Jordan Mara Bang! 2014Krakatoa Bricks The Underground Let The Freak Out 2015WDYW Toca I Like Tuh November Skies Warrior 2016Rari Bimma Mase In'97 PSY Or DIE 2017Homie Time For The Techno Chupacabra Xan Man 2018Learn How to Watch I Shyne PLUR Genocide Motorola El Diablo 2019Letting People Go Wait For Me Blitzkrieg Slot Machine Holy Moly Nah Nah 2018"Mop" 2012Hardwell - Spaceman 2013Martin Solveig and The Cataracs featuring Kyle - Hey Now Borgore - Legend 2014Dimitri Vegas & Like Mike and Moguai - Mammoth 2015Avicii - Waiting For Love

Clitellata

The Clitellata are a class of annelid worms, characterized by having a clitellum - the'collar' that forms a reproductive cocoon during part of their life cycles. The clitellates comprise around 8,000 species. Unlike the class of Polychaeta, they do not have parapodia and their heads are less developed. Clitellate annelids are segmented worms characterised by the clitellum or girdle, located near the head end of mature individuals; the mouth is overhung by the prostomium. The brain is not located in one of the body segments; the clitellum is formed by a modification of several segments, either includes the female gonopores or is located just behind them. During copulation, this glandular tissue secretes mucus that keeps the paired individuals together while they exchange sperm. Afterwards it secretes material that forms a cocoon that encircles the animal's body and encloses the eggs and sperm; the animal works this cocoon forward and over its head end, whereupon the ends of the cocoon become sealed, with fertilisation and development taking place inside.

Earthworms and their kin, in the subclass Oligochaeta, lack eyes but have photoreceptor cells in the skin in the dorsal portion of the anterior end. They lack parapodia and appendages on the prostomium, the body and the periproct; the gonads are located in a few segments near the clitellum, with the testes being anterior to the ovaries. There are four bundles of one to twenty-five chaetae on each segment. Leeches and their relatives, in the subclass Hirudinea have flattened bodies tapered at both ends, they have a fixed number of segments, 33, but the segmentation is not visible externally because the cuticle is marked with annulations. Leeches do not bear chaetae; the front few segments or head have been modified into a sucker that surrounds the mouth. These segments bear several ocelli on the upper side; the clitellum is only noticeable during breeding periods. The hindermost segments form another, disc-shaped sucker located on the underside of the body; the anus is on the dorsal surface just in front of the posterior sucker.

The body wall includes strong transverse and diagonal muscles which give the animal great flexibility and extensibility. Clitellates live in freshwater or in the ocean; the subclass Branchiobdellae includes tiny species which crawl over the surface of freshwater crustaceans crayfish. The leeches in subclass Hirudinea are aquatic, a few living in the sea but inhabiting freshwater locations the sediments on the bottom of lakes and sluggish streams, they thrive in polluted waters and places with high quantities of decaying organic matter and may be numerous. They are more abundant in temperate waters in the northern hemisphere than elsewhere; the subclass Oligochaeta, which includes the earthworms as the largest members of the group live on land, burrowing in damp soil. Smaller freshwater species live among aquatic vegetation; the marine species are tiny and live in the interstices between sand grains, from the intertidal zone to the deep sea. All clitellata are hermaphrodites. During copulation, the clitellum produces a mucus.

During reproduction, the clitellum secretes a proteinaceous sheath which hardens. The worm creeps out backward from the coat and deposits either fertilized zygotes or both ovae and sperm into the coat, packed into a cocoon; the zygotes develop directly in the cocoon without passing through a larval stage This mechanism is considered to be apomorphic. According to modern phylogenetic analyses, the Clitellata are considered to be a monophyletic clade embedded deep in the polychaetes; the group was classified into the subclasses Oligochaeta and the Hirudinea. The oligochaetes contained the tubificids (Naididae and Lumbriculidae - the tube worms and the earthworms; the Hirudinea contained the branchiobdellids. Modern analysis has revealed Branchiobdella and Hirudinea are two sister groups to the lumbriculids and they are daughter groups to the tree of oligochaetes. Branchiobdella - in Hirudinea Hirudinea Oligochaeta The Acanthobdellidea, a sister group to Hirudinea, are sometimes moved out of the Hirudinea as a distinct subclass, too.

Overall, clitellate phylogeny is not well resolved. Namely, the Acanthobdellidea and Hirudinea are monophyletic, but are embedded among the Oligochaeta, which are an evolutionary grade of lineages that are outwardly similar, but not close relatives. In particular, the leeches and earthworms appear to be close relatives. Two approaches are possible: abolish Oligochaeta as traditionally delimited in favor of a number of smaller monophyletic lineages treat Oligochaeta and Clitellata as synonymous while splitting up the traditional "oligochaetes" into monophyletic lineages. Erséus, Christer. Zootaxa 1744: 66–68. PDF fulltext Reichardt, Anna Katharina: Systematische Zoologie. Brief description A Series of Searchable Texts on Earthworm Biodiversity and Systematics from Various Regions of the World