In typography, a counter is the area of a letter, or enclosed by a letter form or a symbol. The stroke that creates such a space is known as a "bowl". Letters containing closed counters include A, B, D, O, P, Q, R, a, b, d, e, g, o, p, q. Letters containing open counters include i, s etc.. The digits 0, 4, 6, 8, 9 possess a counter. An aperture is the outside of the letter; the lowercase'g' has two typographic variants: the single-story" has one closed counter and one open counter. The digit 4 has two typographic variants: the closed-top variant" has a closed counter, an open-top" has an open counter. Different typeface styles have different tendencies to use more closed apertures; this design decision is important for sans-serif typefaces, which can have wide strokes making the apertures narrow indeed. Fonts designed for legibility have open apertures, keeping the strokes separated from one another to reduce ambiguity; this may be important in situations such as signs to be viewed at a distance, materials intended to be viewed by people with vision problems, or small print on poor-quality paper.
Fonts with open apertures include Lucida Grande, Trebuchet MS, Corbel and Droid Sans, all designed for use on low-resolution displays, Frutiger, FF Meta and others designed for print use. This design trend has become common with the spread of humanist sans-serif designs since the 1980s and the 1990s and the use of computers requiring new fonts which are legible on-screen. Realist or neo-grotesque sans-serif fonts like Helvetica use closed apertures, folding up stroke ends to make them closer together; this gives these designs a distinctive, compact appearance, but may make similar letterforms hard to distinguish. Closed letterforms on condensed realist designs such as Impact and Haettenschweiler make characters such as 8 and 9 indistinguishable at small print sizes. Designer Nick Shinn has suggested that the cause of this design trend, similar to the Didone serif typefaces of the nineteenth century, may have been the desire to distribute the pressure of the printing press on the type, reducing wear.
Figure space Thin space Paren space Counterpunch
In typography, the x-height, or corpus size, is the distance between the baseline and the mean line of lower-case letters in a typeface. This is the height of the letter x in the font, as well as the v, w, z. One of the most important dimensions of a font, x-height is used to define how high lower-case letters are compared to upper-case letters. Display typefaces intended to be used at large sizes, such as on signs and posters, vary in x-height. Many have high x-heights to be read from a distance. This, though, is not universally the case: some display typefaces such as Cochin and Koch-Antiqua intended for publicity uses have low x-heights, to give them a more elegant, delicate appearance, a mannerism, common in the early twentieth century. Many sans-serif designs that are intended for display text have high x-heights, such as Helvetica or, more Impact. Medium x-heights are found on fonts intended for body text, allowing more balance and contrast between upper- and lower-case letters and a brighter page.
They increase again for optical sizes of font designed for small print, such as captions, so that they can be read printed small. High x-heights on display typefaces were common in designs in the 1960s and 70s, when International Typeface Corporation released popular variations of older designs with boosted x-heights. More some typefaces such as Mrs Eaves and Brandon Grotesque have been issued with distinctively low x-heights to try to create a more elegant appearance. While computers allow fonts to be printed at any size, professional font designers such as Adobe issue fonts in a range of optical sizes optimized to be printed at different sizes; as an example of this, Mrs Eaves exists in two versions: an original style intended to give an elegant, bright appearance, a less distinctive'XL' design intended for body text. Some research has suggested that while higher x-heights may help with reading smaller text, a high x-height may be counterproductive because it becomes harder to identify the shape of a word if every letter is nearly the same height.
For the same reason, some sign manuals discourage all-capitals text. In computing one use of x-height is as a unit of measurement in web pages. In CSS and LaTeX the x-height is called an ex; the use of ex in dimensioning objects, however, is less stable than use of the em across browsers. Internet Explorer, for example, dimensions ex at one half of em, whereas Mozilla Firefox dimensions ex closer to the actual x-height of the font, rounded relative to the font's current pixel height. Thus, the exact ratio of ex to em can vary by font size within a browser if the determined values are rounded to the nearest whole unit. For example, a browser calculating an x-height of 45% on a font 10 pixels tall may round ex to either 4 pixels or 5 pixels or leave it at 4.5 pixels. Lowercase letters whose height is greater than the x-height either have descenders which extend below the baseline, such as y, g, q, p, or have ascenders which extend above the x-height, such as l, k, b, d; the ratio of the x-height to the body height is one of the major characteristics that defines the appearance of a typeface.
The height of the capital letters is referred to as Cap height. X-height is most important in regular designs, such as most sans-serif designs. Em En Small caps Typographic unit Definition of x-height at typophile.com In the search of ideal line-height
The Latin or Roman alphabet is the writing system used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. Due to its use in writing Germanic and other languages first in Europe and in other parts of the world, due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread, it is used in China and has been adopted by Baltic and some Slavic states. The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, itself descended from the Phoenician abjad, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics; the Etruscans, who ruled early Rome, adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet, modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet, in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin alphabet. During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used for writing Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin script spread beyond Europe, coming into use for writing indigenous American, Austronesian and African languages.
More linguists have tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. The term Latin alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin, or other alphabets based on the Latin script, the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet; these Latin-script alphabets may discard letters, like the Rotokas alphabet, or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet. English is the only major modern European language requiring no diacritics for native words, it is believed that the Romans adopted the Cumae alphabet, a variant of the Greek alphabet, in the 7th century BC from Cumae, a Greek colony in Southern Italy.
The Ancient Greek alphabet was in turn based upon the Phoenician abjad. From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived and the Romans adopted 21 of the original 27 Etruscan letters: Latin included 21 different characters; the letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters.
Thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed. In general the Romans did not use the traditional names as in Greek: the names of the plosives were formed by adding /eː/ to their sound and the names of the continuants consisted either of the bare sound, or the sound preceded by /e/; the letter ⟨Y⟩ when introduced was called "hy" /hyː/ as in Greek, the name upsilon not being in use yet, but this was changed to "i Graeca" as Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing its foreign sound /y/ from /i/. ⟨ Z ⟩ was given zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin pronunciation. Diacritics were not used, but they did occur sometimes, the most common being the apex used to mark long vowels, which had sometimes been written doubled. However, in place of taking an apex, the letter i was written taller: ⟨á é ꟾ ó v́⟩.
For example, what is today transcribed Lūciī a fīliī was written ⟨lv́ciꟾ·a·fꟾliꟾ⟩ in the inscription depicted. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, used as a word divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Old Roman cursive script called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, emperors issuing commands. A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing, it was most c
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Steven Anthony Ballmer is an American businessman and investor, the chief executive officer of Microsoft from January 13, 2000 to February 4, 2014, is the current owner of the Los Angeles Clippers of the National Basketball Association. As of October 2018, his personal wealth is estimated at US$42.4 billion, ranking him the 18th richest person in the world. Ballmer was hired by Bill Gates at Microsoft in 1980 after dropping out of Stanford University, he became President in 1998, replaced Gates as CEO in 2000. On February 4, 2014, Ballmer was succeeded by Satya Nadella. On May 29, 2014, Ballmer placed a bid of $2 billion to purchase the NBA's Los Angeles Clippers after NBA commissioner Adam Silver forced Donald Sterling to sell the team, he became the Clippers owner on August 12, 2014. His time as Microsoft CEO was mixed, with the company tripling sales and doubling of profits, but losing its market dominance and missing out on 21st-century technology trends. Ballmer was born in Detroit, his father was a Swiss immigrant, his mother was Belarusian Jewish.
Through his mother, Ballmer is a second cousin of comedian Gilda Radner. Ballmer grew up in the affluent community of Michigan. Ballmer lived in Brussels from 1964 to 1967, where he attended the International School of Brussels. In 1973, he attended college engineering classes at Lawrence Technological University, he graduated valedictorian from Detroit Country Day School, a private college preparatory school in Beverly Hills, with a score of 800 on the mathematical section of the SAT and was a National Merit Scholar. He now sits on the school's board of directors. In 1977, he graduated magna cum laude from Harvard University with a B. A. in applied mathematics and economics. At college, Ballmer was a manager for the Harvard Crimson football team and a member of the Fox Club, worked on The Harvard Crimson newspaper as well as the Harvard Advocate, lived down the hall from fellow sophomore Bill Gates, he scored in the William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition, an exam sponsored by the Mathematical Association of America, scoring higher than Bill Gates.
He worked as an assistant product manager at Procter & Gamble for two years, where he shared an office with Jeffrey R. Immelt, who became CEO of General Electric. In 1980, he dropped out of the Stanford Graduate School of Business to join Microsoft. Steve Ballmer joined Microsoft on June 11, 1980, became Microsoft's 30th employee, the first business manager hired by Gates. Ballmer was offered a salary of $50,000 as well as a percentage of ownership of the company; when Microsoft was incorporated in 1981, Ballmer owned 8% of the company. In 2003, Ballmer sold 39.3 million Microsoft shares equating to $955 million, thereby reducing his ownership to 4%. The same year, he replaced. In the 20 years following his hire, Ballmer headed several Microsoft divisions, including operations, operating systems development, sales and support. From February 1992 onwards, he was Executive Vice President and Support. Ballmer led Microsoft's development of the. NET Framework. Ballmer was promoted to President of Microsoft, a title that he held from July 1998 to February 2001, making him the de facto number two in the company to the chairman and CEO, Bill Gates.
On January 13, 2000, Ballmer was named the chief executive officer. As CEO, Ballmer handled company finances and daily operations, but Gates remained chairman of the board and still retained control of the "technological vision" as chief software architect. Gates relinquished day-to-day activities when he stepped down as chief software architect in 2006, while staying on as chairman, that gave Ballmer the autonomy needed to make major management changes at Microsoft; when Ballmer took over as CEO, the company was fighting an antitrust lawsuit brought on by the U. S. government and 20 states, plus class-action lawsuits and complaints from rival companies. While it was said that Gates would have continued fighting the suit, Ballmer made it his priority to settle these saying: "Being the object of a lawsuit or a complaint from your government is a awkward, uncomfortable position to be in, it just has all downside. People assume if the government brought a complaint that there's a problem, your ability to say we're a good, moral place is tough.
It's tough though you feel that way about yourselves."Upon becoming CEO, Ballmer required detailed business justification in order to approve of new products, rather than allowing hundreds of products that sounded interesting or trendy. In 2005, he recruited B. Kevin Turner from Wal-Mart, the President and CEO of Sam's Club, to become Microsoft's Chief Operating Officer. Turner was hired at Microsoft to lead the company's sales and services group and to instill more process and discipline in the company's operations and salesforce. Since Bill Gates' retirement, Ballmer oversaw a "dramatic shift away from the company's PC-first heritage", replacing most major division heads in order to break down the "talent-hoarding fiefdoms", Businessweek said that the company "arguably now has the best product lineup in its history". Ballmer was instrumental in driving Microsoft's connected computing strategy, with acquisitions such as Skype. Under Ballmer's tenure as
Helvetica or Neue Haas Grotesk is a used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with input from Eduard Hoffmann. Helvetica is a neo-grotesque or realist design, one influenced by the famous 19th century typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk and other German and Swiss designs, its use became a hallmark of the International Typographic Style that emerged from the work of Swiss designers in the 1950s and 60s, becoming one of the most popular typefaces of the 20th century. Over the years, a wide range of variants have been released in different weights and sizes, as well as matching designs for a range of non-Latin alphabets. Notable features of Helvetica as designed include a high x-height, the termination of strokes on horizontal or vertical lines and an unusually tight spacing between letters, which combine to give it a dense, compact appearance. Developed by the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei of Münchenstein, its release was planned to match a trend: a resurgence of interest in turn-of-the-century "grotesque" sans-serifs among European graphic designers, that saw the release of Univers by Adrian Frutiger the same year.
Hoffmann was the president of the Haas Type Foundry, while Miedinger was a freelance graphic designer who had worked as a Haas salesman and designer. Miedinger and Hoffmann set out to create a neutral typeface that had great clarity, no intrinsic meaning in its form, could be used on a wide variety of signage. Named Neue Haas Grotesk, it was licensed by Linotype and renamed Helvetica in 1960, being similar to the Latin adjective for Switzerland, Helvetia. A feature-length film directed by Gary Hustwit was released in 2007 to coincide with the 50th anniversary of the typeface's introduction in 1957; the main influence on Helvetica was the popular Akzidenz-Grotesk from Berthold. Its'R' with a curved tail resembles Schelter-Grotesk, another turn-of-the-century sans-serif sold by Haas. Wolfgang Homola comments that in Helvetica "the weight of the stems of the capitals and the lower case is better balanced" than in its influences. Attracting considerable attention on its release as Neue Haas Grotesk and Linotype adopted Neue Haas Grotesk for release in hot metal composition, the standard typesetting method at the time for body text, on the international market.
In 1960, its name was changed by Haas' German parent company Stempel to Helvetica in order to make it more marketable internationally. Intending to match the success of Univers, Arthur Ritzel of Stempel redesigned Neue Haas Grotesk into a larger family; the design was popular: Paul Shaw suggests that Helvetica "began to muscle out" Akzidenz-Grotesk in New York City from around summer 1965, when Amsterdam Continental, which imported European typefaces, stopped pushing Akzidenz-Grotesk in its marketing and began to focus on Helvetica instead. It was made available for phototypesetting systems, as well as in other formats such as Letraset dry transfers and plastic letters, many phototypesetting imitations and knock-offs were created by competing phototypesetting companies. In the late 1970s and 1980s, Linotype licensed Helvetica to Xerox and Apple, guaranteeing its importance in digital printing by making it one of the core fonts of the PostScript page description language; this has led to a version being included on Macintosh computers and a metrically-compatible clone, Arial, on Windows computers.
The rights to Helvetica are now held by Monotype Imaging. Tall x-height, which makes it easier to read at distance quite tight spacing between letters An oblique rather than italic style, a common feature of all grotesque and neo-grotesque typefaces. Wide capitals of rather uniform width, particular obvious in the wide'E' and'F' square-looking's'. Bracketed top flag of'1'. Rounded off square tail of'R'. Concave curved stem of'7' two-storied'a', a standard neo-grotesque feature, single-storey'g' Like many neo-grotesque designs, Helvetica has narrow apertures, which limit its legibility onscreen and at small print sizes, it has no visible difference between upper-case'i' and lower-case'L', although the number 1 is quite identifiable with its flag at top left. Its tight, display-oriented spacing may pose problems for legibility. In situations where this matters, other designs intended for legibility at small sizes above all, such as Verdana, Meta or Trebuchet or a monospace font such as Courier, which makes all letters quite wide, may be more appropriate.
Helvetica is among the most used sans-serif typefaces. Versions exist for Latin, Hebrew, Japanese, Hindi, Urdu and Vietnamese alphabets. Chinese faces have been developed to complement Helvetica. Helvetica is a popular choice for commercial wordmarks, including those for 3M, Adult Swim, American Apparel, BASF, Blaupunkt, BMW, Diaspora, ECM, General Motors, J. C. Penney, Kawasaki, Kroger, Motorola, Nestlé, Oath Inc. Panasonic, Philippine Airlines, Seiko Epson, Target, Tupperware and Verizon. Apple used Helvetica as the system typeface of iOS until 2015. Helvetica has been used by the U. S. government. Helvetica is u
Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington. It develops, licenses and sells computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, related services, its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers; as of 2016, it is the world's largest software maker by revenue, one of the world's most valuable companies. The word "Microsoft" is a portmanteau of "microcomputer" and "software". Microsoft is ranked No. 30 in the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen on April 4, 1975, to develop and sell BASIC interpreters for the Altair 8800, it rose to dominate the personal computer operating system market with MS-DOS in the mid-1980s, followed by Microsoft Windows.
The company's 1986 initial public offering, subsequent rise in its share price, created three billionaires and an estimated 12,000 millionaires among Microsoft employees. Since the 1990s, it has diversified from the operating system market and has made a number of corporate acquisitions, their largest being the acquisition of LinkedIn for $26.2 billion in December 2016, followed by their acquisition of Skype Technologies for $8.5 billion in May 2011. As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC-compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android; the company produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops and servers, including Internet search, the digital services market, mixed reality, cloud computing and software development. Steve Ballmer replaced Gates as CEO in 2000, envisioned a "devices and services" strategy; this began with the acquisition of Danger Inc. in 2008, entering the personal computer production market for the first time in June 2012 with the launch of the Microsoft Surface line of tablet computers.
Since Satya Nadella took over as CEO in 2014, the company has scaled back on hardware and has instead focused on cloud computing, a move that helped the company's shares reach its highest value since December 1999. In 2018, Microsoft surpassed Apple as the most valuable publicly traded company in the world after being dethroned by the tech giant in 2010. Childhood friends Bill Gates and Paul Allen sought to make a business utilizing their shared skills in computer programming. In 1972 they founded their first company, named Traf-O-Data, which sold a rudimentary computer to track and analyze automobile traffic data. While Gates enrolled at Harvard, Allen pursued a degree in computer science at Washington State University, though he dropped out of school to work at Honeywell; the January 1975 issue of Popular Electronics featured Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems's Altair 8800 microcomputer, which inspired Allen to suggest that they could program a BASIC interpreter for the device. After a call from Gates claiming to have a working interpreter, MITS requested a demonstration.
Since they didn't yet have one, Allen worked on a simulator for the Altair while Gates developed the interpreter. Although they developed the interpreter on a simulator and not the actual device, it worked flawlessly when they demonstrated the interpreter to MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico. MITS agreed to distribute it, marketing it as Altair BASIC. Gates and Allen established Microsoft on April 4, 1975, with Gates as the CEO; the original name of "Micro-Soft" was suggested by Allen. In August 1977 the company formed an agreement with ASCII Magazine in Japan, resulting in its first international office, "ASCII Microsoft". Microsoft moved to a new home in Bellevue, Washington in January 1979. Microsoft entered the operating system business in 1980 with its own version of Unix, called Xenix. However, it was MS-DOS. After negotiations with Digital Research failed, IBM awarded a contract to Microsoft in November 1980 to provide a version of the CP/M OS, set to be used in the upcoming IBM Personal Computer.
For this deal, Microsoft purchased a CP/M clone called 86-DOS from Seattle Computer Products, which it branded as MS-DOS, though IBM rebranded it to PC DOS. Following the release of the IBM PC in August 1981, Microsoft retained ownership of MS-DOS. Since IBM had copyrighted the IBM PC BIOS, other companies had to reverse engineer it in order for non-IBM hardware to run as IBM PC compatibles, but no such restriction applied to the operating systems. Due to various factors, such as MS-DOS's available software selection, Microsoft became the leading PC operating systems vendor; the company expanded into new markets with the release of the Microsoft Mouse in 1983, as well as with a publishing division named Microsoft Press. Paul Allen resigned from Microsoft in 1983 after developing Hodgkin's disease. Allen claimed that Gates wanted to dilute his share in the company when he was diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease because he didn't think he was working hard enough. After leaving Microsoft, Allen lost billions of dollars on ill-conceived or mistimed technology investments.
He invested in low-tech sectors, sports teams, commercial real estate. Despite having begun jointly developing a new operating system, OS/2, with IBM in